# Questions tagged [real-analysis]

Real-valued functions of real variable, analytic properties of functions and sequences, limits, continuity, smoothness of these.

647
questions with no upvoted or accepted answers

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432 views

### A kaleidoscopic coloring of the plane

Problem. Is there a partition $\mathbb R^2=A\sqcup B$ of the Euclidean plane into two Lebesgue measurable sets such that for any disk $D$ of the unit radius we get $\lambda(A\cap D)=\lambda(B\cap D)=\...

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408 views

### Three real polynomials

Theorem. Let $f,g$ be two real polynomials, and suppose that their Wronskian $W(f,g)=f'g-fg'$ has only real roots. Then on any interval $I\subset\mathbf{R}$ containing no roots of $W$ every non-...

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580 views

### Number of real roots of a polynomial

Let $P\in \mathbb{R}[x]$ be a polynomial such that $(P, P') = 1$. Suppose that we want to calculate the number of real roots of $P$ in the interval $[a, b]$ (to simplify, let us assume that $P(a), P(b)...

**21**

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655 views

### Relative null-ness

Here, "measure" always means Lebesgue measure on $\mathbb{R}$. This question is partly motivated by my answer https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/1444498/is-there-a-categorizaiton-system-for-null-...

**21**

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1k views

### Almost everywhere differentiability for a class of functions on $\mathbb{R}^2$

A while ago, I came across the following problem, which I was not able to resolve one way or the other.
Let $f,g\colon\mathbb{R}^2\to\mathbb{R}$ be continuous functions such that $f(t,x)$ and $g(t,...

**20**

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486 views

### Is $\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{n!}{n^n}$ rational?

Is $\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{n!}{n^n}$ rational?
This question has been posted in MSE for two years without an answer. A094082 seems to suggest that it is not rational. Is it still an ...

**20**

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441 views

### Partitions of ${\rm Sym}(\mathbb{N})$ induced by convergent, but not absolutely convergent series

Let $(a_n) \subset \mathbb{R}$ be a sequence such that the series
$\sum_{n=1}^\infty a_n$ converges, but does not converge absolutely.
Then there is a partition of the symmetric group ${\rm Sym}(\...

**20**

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806 views

### A question about small sets of reals

In ZFC, does there exist an uncountable set of reals $A$ such that for every closed measure zero set of reals $B$, we have that $ A + B = \{a+b : a \in A, b \in B\} \neq \mathbb{R}$?
This question is ...

**19**

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680 views

### A Linear Order from AP Calculus

In teaching my calculus students about limits and function domination, we ran into the class of functions
$$\Theta=\{x^\alpha (\ln{x})^\beta\}_{(\alpha,\beta)\in\mathbb{R}^2}$$
Suppose we say that $...

**18**

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**0**answers

480 views

### A multiple integral

Let us consider the multiple integral
$$I_{n}=\int_{-\infty }^{\infty }ds_{1}\int_{-\infty}^{s_{1}}ds_{2}\cdots
\int_{-\infty }^{s_{2n-1}}ds_{2n}\;\cos {(s_{1}^{2}-s_{2}^{2})}\;\cdots
\cos {(s_{2n-1}...

**16**

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451 views

### Does every real function have this weak derivation property?

After this question : Does every real function have this weak continuity property?
Natrualy there are an other (more difficult) :
Is it true that for every real function $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}...

**13**

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299 views

### Is there a continuous map $f:\mathbb R^\omega\to\mathbb R^\omega$ with dense countable preimage $f^{-1}(\mathbb Q^\omega)$?

Let $\mathbb Q^\omega_0:=\{(x_i)_{i\in\omega}\in\mathbb Q^\omega:\exists n\in\omega\;\forall m\ge n\;\;x_m=0\}$ and observe that $\mathbb Q^\omega_0$ is a countable dense set in $\mathbb R^\omega$ (...

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226 views

### Concept associated to the Eudoxus reals

I am aware of three different constructions of the field of real numbers :
The Cauchy sequence construction : in this case, we see the field $\mathbb{Q}$ as a metric space and $\mathbb{R}$ is the ...

**12**

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257 views

### Lebesgue density 1/2 (or bounded away from 0 and 1)

From the work of Preiss, we know that in infinite-dimensional spaces, one has violations of the Lebesgue density theorem. In particular, he has constructed examples of probability spaces where a set ...

**12**

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552 views

### Classes of (non-continuous) functions with the fixed point property

Let $K$ be a convex body in $ R^d$. (Say, a ball, say a cube...) For which classes $ \cal C$ of functions, every function $ f \in {\cal C}$ which takes $K$ into itself admits a fixed point in $K$.
...

**11**

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142 views

### Maximizing an integral w.r.t. a measure on the unit sphere

I would like to know if the answer to the following question is known.
Let $d \ge 3$. What is the value of
$$
\theta(d) := \max_{\mu} \int_{S^{d-1}} \int_{S^{d-1}} \cdots \int_{S^{d-1}} |x_1 \...

**11**

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783 views

### Function of two sets intersection

Let $U$ be the set of all nonempty subsets of $[0,1]$ that are a union of finitely many closed intervals (where an "interval" that is a single point does not count as an interval). Does there exist a ...

**11**

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119 views

### Assymptotics of a Selberg type integral

Does any one know some references/ ideas on how to study the assymptotics as $N$ goes to $\infty$ of the following Selberg type integral
$$\int _{\mathbb R^N} e^{-|x|^2}\ \prod_{1\le i<j\le N} \...

**10**

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451 views

### Witt's proof of Gelfand-Mazur / Ostrowski's Theorem

Previously asked on Math Stackexchange without answers.
Background: As sort of a hobby, Ernst Witt gave extremely short proofs for famous theorems. This question is about his six-line proof of the ...

**10**

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303 views

### Integrability property of polynomials in several variables

This might be very trivial, or not.
Let $p\colon\mathbb{R}^n\to \mathbb{R}$ be a polynomial of even degree, at most $n-2$. Assume that $p(x)\leq 0$ for any $x\in\mathbb{R}^n$. Assume that there ...

**10**

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356 views

### Uniform closure of subspaces of Baire class 1

Describe a uniformly closed linear subspace $A \subset C([0,1])$ such that the space $B_1(A)$ is not uniformly complete. Here $B_1(A)$ is the set of all bounded functions $f$ which are pointwise ...

**9**

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245 views

### Concerning Luzin-(N)-property

Definition: a function $f:\mathbb{R}\to \mathbb{R}$ has Luzin-(N)-Property if $f$ maps any null set to a null set.
By https://www.encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php/Luzin-N-property, it is known that ...

**9**

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532 views

### A standard name for a function satisfying the intermediate value theorem?

Do you know any (standard) name for a function $f:\mathbb R\to\mathbb R$ having the following weak intermediate value property:
$(*)$ for any connected subset $C\subset \mathbb R$ and points $a,b\...

**9**

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552 views

### Strong convexity of the trace of the square root of a matrix function

Any clues about how to prove that the following function is strongly-concave in $x$? (We conjecture it is $2$-strongly concave but cannot prove it. We have already proved strict concavity through ...

**9**

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355 views

### If the generating function summation and zeta regularized sum of a divergent exist, do they always coincide?

One could assign a value to divergent series by means of several summation methods. One summation method we could consider is the generating function method. Let's sum, for example, the fibonacci ...

**9**

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285 views

### Does antidifferentiability of continuous functions imply Dedekind completeness?

Let $R$ be an ordered field, and let $I$ be {$x \in R: a < x < b$} for some $a < b$ in $R$. Define notions of $R$-continuity and $R$-differentiability for functions $f : I \rightarrow R$ by ...

**9**

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382 views

### Evaluating Shintani cone zeta functions

Hi everyone
I am trying the evaluate sums of the form
$$ \sum_{n_1>0,n_2>0,\ldots,n_m>0} \frac{1}{\big((a_{1,1}n_1 +\ldots +a_{1,m}n_m)^k \ldots (a_{m,1}n_1+ \ldots +a_{m,m}n_m)^k\big)}$$
...

**8**

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194 views

### Structural Stability on Compact $2$-Manifolds with Boundary

I'm studying the structural stability of vector fields and I'm interested in learning about this phenomenon on compact $2$-manifolds with boundary.
Let $M^2$ be a compact connected 2-manifold and $\...

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148 views

### Infinite series identities in search of a proof

This comes in relation to the Fishburn numbers.
I stumbled on the following relation for which I ask a proof if true.
Let $Q_i(z):=1-(1-t)^{i-1}(1-zt)$. Then
$$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{(n+1)zt}{...

**8**

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95 views

### Connected component optimization

For an open set $A\subset[0,1]^d$, denote the connected components of $A$ by $cc(A)$. Given a smooth symmetric function $f\colon[-1,1]^d\to\mathbb R$ with $f(0)>0$, I am interested in the ...

**8**

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352 views

### Heisenberg group: function without vertical derivative

Let $\mathbb H$ be Heisenberg group with vector fields
$$
X=\partial_x - \frac12y\partial_t,\quad Y=\partial_y + \frac12x\partial_t,\quad T=\partial_t
$$
and $U\subset\mathbb H$ is an open set.
I am ...

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260 views

### Is $Q_n(x)=\sigma_{n+1}(x)/\sigma_n(x)$ logarithmically convex on $\mathbf{R}$?

In 1975 J. van de Lune considered the monotony properties of the canonical Riemann Upper and Lower sums for $\int_0^1 t^xdt$, with $x>0$.
Writing $\sigma_n(x) := 1^x+2^x+\cdots+n^x$ these sums are
...

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384 views

### A discontinuous construction

Suppose we have an uncountable family of functions $f_r: [0, 1] \to R$ indexed by $r \in [0, 1]$ such that for each $r$, there exists a unique $x$ in $[0, 1]$ such that $f_{r}$ is positive on $x$ and $...

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159 views

### Constructing an infinite chain of subsets of 'hyper' algebraic numbers?

This question is cross posted from MSE.
Let $F$ be a subset of $\mathbb{R}$ and let $S_F$ denote the set of values which satisfy some generalized polynomial whose exponents and coefficients are ...

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115 views

### When is Radon-Nikodym derivative induced by a proper map of manifolds bounded?

Let $X,Y$, be compact complex manifolds, and let $f:X\to Y$ be a smooth, proper (i.e. for each $y\in Y$, $f^{-1}(y)$ is a compact set) and surjective map. Choose metrics on $X,Y$ and let $\mu_X, \mu_Y$...

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95 views

### The first homotopic Baire class

Let $X$ and $Y$ be topological spaces. A map $f:X\to Y$ belongs to the first Baire class (to the first homotopic Baire class), if there exists a continuous map $H:X\times \omega\to Y$ (a continuous ...

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164 views

### Results that are easier in a metric space

Are there any significant results in the theory of metric spaces that (are considerably more difficult to reproduce/have not been reproduced) in the theory of uniform spaces?
In particular, I'm ...

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291 views

### Counter-example to the completeness of the Wasserstein metric

$\newcommand{\P}{\mathcal{P}}$
Let $(E,d)$ be a complete metric space, let $\P(E)$ be the set of all probability measures on $(E,\mathcal{B}(E))$. Let $W_d$ be the $1$-Wasserstein (Kantorovich) ...

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157 views

### Concavity of product and ratio of sums

Apologies if this question is not appropriate for MathOverflow. I have asked at Math.StackExchange without success.
Consider the function $f:\mathbb{R}^n\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ defined as
$$
f(x)=\...

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137 views

### distance distributions on a hypersphere?

Fix a real number $0\leq t\leq 1$ and an integer $n>1$. Let
$\mathbb{S}^{n-1}\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ denote the unit hypersphere. Define
$$d_N(n;t):=\max\sum_{i<j}\Vert P_i-P_j\Vert_2^t$$
where ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Proof of Karlin-Rubin's theorem

I asked this question on Math Exchange, but as I did not receive a successful answer, maybe you could help me.
Karlin-Rubin's theorem states conditions under which we can find a uniformly most ...

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210 views

### integrality of a Riccati-type equation

The following is a problem we were unable to prove and left stated in the paper
"Arithmetical properties of a sequence arising from an arctangent sum", J. Numb. Theory 128 (2008) 1807–1846.
Define ...

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205 views

### Fixed radius mean value property implies harmonicity?

Let $f$ be a continuous real-valued function on $\mathbb{R}^n$. It is well known that the following are equivalent:
$f$ is harmonic.
$f$ satisfies the ball mean value property
$$
f(x)=\frac{1}{|B(x,r)...

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198 views

### Increasing derivatives of recursively defined polynomials

Consider recursively defined polynomials $f_0(x)=x$ and $f_{n+1}(x)=f_n(x)−f_n'(x) x (1−x)$.
These polynomials have some special properties, for example $f_n(0)=0$, $f_n(1)=1$, and all $n+1$ roots of ...

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416 views

### Proving Richardson's theorem for constants

(I asked this a little over 3 months ago on math.SE, and when I initially re-asked here, no one had responded there. $\:$ After I re-asked here, Eric Towers responded there, since I had forgotten to ...

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181 views

### Uniform approximation of separately continuous functions on zero-dimensional spaces

For topological spaces $X,Y,Z$ а function $f:X\times Y\to Z$ is called separately continuous if for any $(x,y)\in X\times Y$ the restrictions of $f$ to the sets $\{x\}\times Y$ and $X\times \{y\}$ are ...

**7**

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319 views

### About the first decimal of $\sqrt {n!}$

Do we have :
$$\sup\{\sqrt {n!} - E(\sqrt {n!}); n\in I\!\!N\}=1?$$
Where $E(\cdot)$ is the integer part function, and $n!=1\times 2...\times n$.

**7**

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99 views

### A monoid-structure on pairs of interlacing polynomials

Let us call a pair of two real polynomials $(P,Q)$ interlacing if $\deg(P)=\deg(Q)+1$, both polynomials have strictly positive leading coefficients and $P,Q$ have only real roots which interlace ...

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143 views

### On derivatives of polynomials majorized by $\max(1,|x|^d)$

In the course of generalizing the Bernstein-Markov theorem to normed space, Harris came up with the following question.
Suppose that $p$ is a real polynomial satisfying $|p(x)| \leq (1+|x|)^d$. How ...

**7**

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**0**answers

323 views

### Polynomials and divided differences

I would greatly appreciate any hint for proving the following.
Question: Let $f:[0, 1] \to {\bf R}$. Can it be proved that if $[0, 1/(N+m),\dots, (N+m)/(N+m) ; f ]=0$ for all $m=1,2, 3,\dots$, then $...