# Questions tagged [transcendental-number-theory]

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165
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### Characteristics of numbers that satisfy inequality related to diophantine approximation with perfect squares

This question has come up in my algorithms and physics research. I apologize if this is very basic, but I am new to number theory and it seems this is a number-theoretic question. What can we say ...

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### Are there any known Khinchin reals for which the asymptotics of "average" of their coefficients seems experimentally known?

We can define a Khinchin Real and recall the definition of Khinchin's Constant
A real number $r$ is a Khinchin real if given the simple continued fraction expansion of $r$ as
$$ r = a_0 + \cfrac{1}{...

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### One of the numbers $\zeta(5), \zeta(7), \zeta(9), \zeta(11)$ is irrational

I am reading an interesting paper One of the numbers ζ(5), ζ(7), ζ(9), ζ(11) is irrational by Zudilin. We fix odd numbers $q$ and $r$, $q\geq r+4$ and a tuple $\eta_0,\eta_1,...,\eta_q$ of positive ...

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### Proof $\pi$ is transcendental without symmetric function theory

This is a crosspost of my question from MSE from 3 weeks ago which was bountied but has received no response.
For an algebra assignment, I was asked to do a literature review and write up a proof of ...

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### "Visually" constructible numbers

Let $S \subseteq \mathbb{E}^2$ ($\mathbb{E}^2$ denotes the Euclidean plane), an $S$-line is a straight line passing through $2$ different points of $S$ and an $S$-circle is a circle centered at a ...

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### Is the integral of $e^{-x^2}$ from $0$ to $1$ known to be irrational?

Is it known whether $$\int_0^1 e^{-x^2} \, dx$$ is irrational? It is well-known that $\int_0^\infty e^{-x^2} \, dx=\frac{\sqrt{\pi}}{2}$ which is irrational, but what about the prior integral? Also, I ...

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### Exponential of Liouville Numbers

By Mahler classification of Transcendental real numbers (into the sets of $S$-, $T$- and $U$-numbers), we know that
Any Liouville number is a $U$-number.
$\log \alpha$ is either an $S$- or a $T$-...

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### Is $\sum_{x=1}^\infty \frac{1}{x B^x} = -\log{\frac{B-1}{B}} $ simply normal in some base $b$?

A real number is said to be simply normal in an integer base $b$ if its infinite sequence of digits is distributed uniformly.
We have the BBP-type formula (BBP
was discovered by Simon Plouffe in 1995)
...

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### Transcendental functions with two prescribed values

Let $\alpha$ and $\beta$ two algebraic numbers lying in unit ball. Let $T:=(t_k)_k$ be an increasing sequence of positive integers such that $t_{k+1}/t_k$ tends to $1$ as $k\to \infty$.
I would like ...

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### Lang's remark on Lindemann-Weierstrass theorem

On his book "Introduction to transcendental numbers", page 99-100, Lang wrote
"Finally, we note that Lindemann actually proves something slightly stronger than the algebraic ...

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### Are the numbers $\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac1{p(n)}$ and $\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac1{q(n)}$ transcendental?

For each positive integer $n$, let $p(n)$ be the number of partitions of $n$ (i.e., the number of ways to write $n$ as a sum of positive integers), and let $q(n)$ be the number of strict partitions of ...

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### Siegel's method for transcendence measure quoted by Mahler

In "Zur Approximation der Exponentialfunktion und des Logarithmus. Teil II" Malher wrote (footnote 5 page 148) that the constant appearing in Satz 4 can be improved by a method communicated ...

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### To prove irrationality, why integrate?

I have been reading David Angell's lovely book, Irrationality and Transcendence in Number Theory, which has given me some fresh insights even with some of the easier proofs. But the book reminds me of ...

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### Does $p$-adic Baker theorem holds in the given case?

Let $p$ be a prime number, $\mathbb{Q}_p$ the field of $p$-adic numbers, and $\mathbb{C}_p$ the completion of the algebraic closure of $\mathbb{Q}_p$. Let $U_p$ be the units $(1+\mathfrak{m})$ of $\...

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### Apparent singularities and non Fuchsian regular points

I am considering the following function of $z$ on the Riemann sphere:
$$
J(z) = \int_\Delta (L_0+z L_1)^a D^b d^nx
$$
where
$\Delta \in H_n\big(\Bbb{CP}^n\setminus\{L(x)=0\},S\big)$, $S$ being the ...

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### Question about repetition of numbers in the continued fraction of Euler-Mascheroni Constant

I noticed in the Continued Fraction expansion of the Euler-Mascheroni Constant that some numbers recur a lot, like the number 1 or the number 10. Is it known if there are infinitely many of the same ...

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### Transcendence measure: of $\ln(a/b)$

In the book " Number Theory IV Transcendental Numbers" written by Parsin and Shafarevich (book, page 104) it is asserted that to explicit a transcendence measure of a complex number $w$, it ...

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### Baker's theorem for integer combinations of logarithms of integers?

Baker's theorem in transcendental number theory states that
$$
\left|\beta_0 + \sum_{i=1}^n \beta_i \log \alpha_i\right| > H^{-C}
$$
where
$\beta_0, \ldots, \beta_n$ are algebraic numbers, not ...

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### Is there another controversial statement by Grothendieck apart from 57 being prime?

There is a well-known story about Grothendieck being asked to explain concretely some result involving prime numbers and of his answering "You mean an actual number? All right, take 57".
...

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### Are $\pi$ and $e^{\pi i \sqrt{d}}$ algebraically independent?

Let $-d\in\mathbb{N}$ be square-free. Nesterenko (https://doi.org/10.1070/SM1996v187n09ABEH000158) proved that $e^{\pi\sqrt{-d}}$ and $\pi$ are algebraically independent. Is it known whether $e^{\pi\...

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### What are the simplest sentences which might distinguish Zilber’s field from the complex numbers?

Zilber’s field $\mathbb{B}$ is a field of the same size as the complex numbers $\mathbb{C}$, which satisfies the same first-order sentences about $+$ and $\cdot$. If $\mathbb{B}$ also satisfies the ...

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### Proximity of zeroes of Bessel functions

I have been running into a question for which I found no reference in the litterature. I do not have a strong background in number theory ; for me this is motivated by a question in PDEs (how close ...

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### Transcendence measure

Let $a\in\mathbb C$. Suppose that for all $k\in\mathbb N$ ($k>1$), there exist $U_k>0, V_k>0$ such that for every $n\in\mathbb N$, there exists a polynomial $P_n\in\mathbb Z[X]$ with degree $...

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### Can we make a hierarchy of complex numbers by repeatedly iterating the construction that produces periods?

Given a set $S$, which is a subset of the complex numbers, we can form the smallest field which contains $S$, which we will denote by $S_F$ by taking the intersection of all complex fields which ...

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### Compilation of strategies to show that some constant is irrational

I'm looking into expanding my knowledge in ways to show that some constant is irrational. I'm gonna give some examples of irrationality proofs, and I'm interested in learning what strategies you guys ...

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### Liouville numbers with some "special" convergents

Recall that a real number $\ell$ is called a Liouville number, if there exists an infinite sequence of rational numbers $(p_n/q_n)_n$ for which
$$
0<\left|\ell-\frac{p_n}{q_n}\right|<\dfrac{1}{...

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### Is there any analogue of $\pi$ for non-Archimedean Euclidean fields?

Let us recall that a Euclidean field is an ordered field in which every positive element has a square root. Given a Euclidean field $F$, we can consider the ``Euclidean'' plane $F^2$ endowed with the ...

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### "Interlacement" of transcendental numbers

Let us consider two transcendental numbers whose decimal representation is
$$
0.a_1a_2a_3a_4...
$$
$$
0.b_1b_2b_3b_4...
$$
Is $$0.a_1b_1a_2b_2a_3b_3a_4b_4...$$ also a transcendental number?

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### Are there rational $a,b$ with $a+be=1/\ln 2$?

Are there rational $a$ and $b$ with $$a+be = \frac{1}{\ln 2}\ ?$$
I used the absence of rational solutions repeatedly in this answer.
Here is a proof using Schanuel's conjecture: $e^q$ is ...

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### Simple estimation of difference of powers of 2 and powers of 3?

1. Question
How to get from the formulas
$$ \left| \frac{\log 2}{\log 3} - \frac{p}{q} \right| < c_a\frac{1}{q^{B_a}} \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (1.1)$$
and / or
$$ \left| \frac{\log 2}{\log 3} - \frac{...

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### Generalization of the zeta values

Consider the constants $c(s_1,s_2,...)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{n^{s_n}}$ where the $s_i$'s are fixed positive integers and the number of $i$ with $s_i=1$ is finite (so that the previous sum ...

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### Markov constant of $\pi$

Given any $\epsilon > 0$, are there infinitely many $(a,b) \in \mathbb{Z}^2$ with $(a,b) = 1$ such that $$\left|\pi - \frac{a}{b}\right| < \frac{\epsilon}{b^2}?$$
According to this document, if ...

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### Given a partition of a field, construct a partition of its extension

The motivation for my question is the following algebraic consequence of the Continuum Hypothesis ($2^{\aleph_0}=\aleph_1$) by Zoli:
(T1) Assume the Continuum Hypothesis holds. Then $\mathbb{R}^{\...

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### Finite set of numbers whose powers sum up to irrational number

It is well-known that $e/\sqrt{2}$ is irrational.
Indeed, if it was rational, i.e. $p/q$ then $e^2/2 =p^2/q^2.$ Thus, $q^2e^2=2p^2,$ which would imply that $e$ is a root of $q^2x^2=2p^2.$
Now my ...

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### Transcendence of sum of reciprocals of factorials

For $A \subseteq \mathbb{N}$, define $\displaystyle x_A = \sum_{n \in A} \frac{1}{n!}$. It is easy to see that for every infinite $A$, $x_A$ is irrational.
Question: Is there an infinite $A \subseteq \...

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### Hensel's proof that $e$ is transcendental

When he introduced $p$-adic numbers, Kurt Hensel produced an incorrect local/global proof of the fact that $e$ is transcendental. Apparently, the intended proof goes along the following lines: ...

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### Algebraicity of a generating function and binomial numbers

It is an obvious fact that the sum $\sum_{n\geq 0} \binom{2n}{n} x^n$ defines an algebraic function. I am interested in the variation of this sum, namely
$$A(x)=\sum_{n\geq 0} \binom{2n}{n}^2 x^n$$
...

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### Key ideas behind p-adic Baker's theorem

I'm trying to understand Kunrui Yu's series of papers [1 2 3] on lower bounds of linear forms of p-adic logarithms (i.e., p-adic Baker's theorem). I know the proof of the usual Baker's theorem through ...

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### Transcendentality of Coleman integral

I wonder if there's any work that considers the algebracity/transcendentality of Coleman integral (over $\mathbb{Q}_{p}$). The reason I think about this is because, for hyperelliptic curves, there are ...

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### Transcendence on $ \alpha+f(\alpha), \alpha f(\alpha) $ and $ \alpha/f(\alpha) $ where $ \alpha$ is transcendental

Let $f(x)$ be a real transcendental function with algebraic coefficients. So $f(x)$ and $x$ are algebraically independent. Let $\alpha$ be a transcendental number, are the numbers $$\alpha+f(\alpha),\...

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### Why is it easier to prove $e$ is transcendental than $\pi$?

Why is it easier to prove $e$ is transcendental than $\pi$?
I noticed that the proofs of $\pi$'s transcendence are much longer and have more details to check than those of $e.$ My guess is that it's ...

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### Transcendence of values of Fredholm series at algebraic arguments

Let $d$ be an integer greater than $1$ and let $f(z)=\sum_{n\ge0}z^{d^n}$ be the Fredholm series. It is well-known that the Roth-Ridout theorem implies that $f(r)$ is a transcendental number for all ...

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### Does logarithms conjecture imply Gelfond conjecture?

Assume that logarithms conjecture is true: Let $a_1,\cdots,a_n$ be algebraic numbers such that $\log(a_1),\cdots,\log(a_n)$ are $\mathbb Q$-linearly independant. Then, $\log(a_1),\cdots,\log(a_n)$ are ...

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### Testing whether $e^x+ax^2+bx+c$ has a zero

What is the simple test with exponential polynomials to determine whether
$$f(x)=e^x+ax^2+bx+c$$ has a positive zero?
This was prompted by the question about discriminants here. We have an ineffective ...

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### How to prove that the solution to $x^{x+1}=(x+1)^{x}$ is transcendental?

I was asked by an high school student if there is an algebraic way to find the exact value of the solution to the equation
\begin{equation}\label{eq}
x^{x+1}=(x+1)^x
\end{equation}
Let us define that ...

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### On $\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac1{p_1+\cdots+p_n}$ and $\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac1{p_1\cdots p_n}$

For $n=1,2,3,\ldots$ let $p_n$ denote the $n$-th prime number.
Question. Are the two numbers
$$c_1=\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac1{p_1+\cdots+p_n}\ \ \ \ \text{and}\ \ \ \ c_2=\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac1{p_1\...

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### Is the “amalgamation” of an enumerated infinite collection of absolutely normal real numbers always absolutely normal?

Let $S$ denote an enumerated infinite collection of absolutely normal (i.e. normal in all integer bases greater than or equal to $2$) real numbers (with no repetitions) such that any natural number ...

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### Do we have an algorithm for comparing $e^e$ with rationals?

Do we have an algorithm for comparing $e^e$ with rationals, with a known time to convergence?
In a non-constructive sense, there obviously is an algorithm.
If $e^e$ is some rational $q_0$, then we ...

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### Picture of Lambert's proof that $\pi$ is irrational?

With a suitably generous notion of "picture proof" or "proof without words" or "geometric proof," there do exist such proofs of the irrationality of square roots and even ...

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### Galois theory of periods of algebraic varieties PhD project

I finished my MMath at Exeter in July of this year and I would like to undertake a PhD at the interface of algebraic geometry, number theory and Galois theory. More specifically, I recently came ...