# Questions tagged [metric-spaces]

A metric space is a pair $(X,d)$, where $X$ is a set and $d:X \times X \to \mathbb{R}$ satisfies the following conditions for all $x,y,z \in X$. (Symmetry) $d(x,y)=d(y,x)$. (Identity of Indiscernibles) $d(x,y)=0$ if and only if $x=y$. (Triangle Inequality) $d(x,y)+d(y,z) \geq d(x,z)$.

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### Spreading $n$ points in $\{0,1\}^n$ as far as possible

Given a positive integer $n$, the Hamming distance $d^H_n(x,y)$ of $x,y\in \{0,1\}^n$ is defined by $$d^H_n(x,y) = |\{k\in\{0,\ldots,n-1\}: x(k)\neq y(k)\}|.$$
We say that a positive integer $s$ is $...

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### What is the structure preserved by strong equivalence of metrics?

Let $X$ be a set. Then we can define at least three equivalence relations on the set of metrics on $X$. We say that two metrics $d_1$ and $d_2$ are topologically equivalent if the identity maps $i:(...

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### Stretching map of $n$ points from $\{0,1\}^n$ to $\{0,1\}^{n+1}$ with respect to their Hamming distance

Given a positive integer $n$, the Hamming distance $d^H_n(x,y)$ of $x,y\in \{0,1\}^n$ is defined by $$d^H_n(x,y) = |\{k\in\{0,\ldots,n-1\}: x(k)\neq y(k)\}|.$$
Given an integer $n>0$ and a set $S\...

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### Is every finite graph isomorphic to the proximity graph of some $S\subseteq \mathbb{R}^n$?

This is the question that I should have asked before asking this older question.
If $(X,d)$ is a metric space, we associate with it a simple, undirected graph, called its proximity graph $G(X,d)$ ...

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69 views

### Spatial dimension of a finite graph

If $(X,d)$ is a metric space, we associate with it a simple, undirected graph, called its proximity graph $G(X,d)$ given by $V(G(X,d)) = X$ and $$E(G(X,d)) = \big\{\{x,y\}:x\neq y\in X \text{ and } d(...

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62 views

### Takahashi minimization theorem for lower pseudo-continuous functions on complete metric spaces

Takahashi minimization theorem says : Let $(X,d)$ is a complete metric space, $f:X\to \mathbb{R}\cup\{+\infty\}$ is a proper(not constantly +$\infty$) lower semi continuous function, which is bounded ...

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148 views

### Greedy simplices in an ultrametric space (generalized Bhargava $p$-orderings)

Let $\left(U, d\right)$ be a finite ultrametric space -- that is, $U$ is a finite set, and $d : U \times U \to \mathbb{R}_{\geq 0}$ is a metric on $U$ such that every $x, y, z \in U$ satisfy $d\left(x,...

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92 views

### An extension for lower semi continuous lower bounded real valued functions class

Let $(X,d)$ be a complete metric space. I need some explanations about the class of all functions like $f$ which have $f:X \to \mathbb{R}\cup\{ +\infty\}$, be a lower bounded and, for all $y \in X$ we ...

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148 views

### largest diameter of intersection of two balls

Two closed balls with a common radius are positioned so that the centre of either ball is on the boundary of the other.
I am interested in the extremal diameter of their intersection, in an arbitrary ...

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### Weak convexity in graphs

I asked the following question in MathStackExchange, but I did not get any answer, and I think that this might be the appropriate venue for the question.
As we know, a finite undirected graph ...

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67 views

### Graphs represented by a subset of a metric space

Let $(X,d)$ be a metric space, and suppose $S\subseteq X$ is a finite subset in which all pairwise distances are distinct (formal definition here).
If $x\in S$ and $k$ is a non-negative integer with $...

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98 views

### Extending homeomorphisms between compact metric subsets

Let $X$ be a compact metric, second countable space with finite covering dimension. Let $A,B$ be two closed subsets of $X$. Assume that $h:A\to B$ is a homeomorphism.
Is it possible to extend $h$ to a ...

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272 views

### Intersection of nested open ball in complete metric spaces is nonempty?

My question is that whether the following statement is true or not.
In a complete metric space $(X, d)$, if a sequence of open balls $\{B(x_i, r_i)\}_{i=1}^\infty$ satisfies
$$
\exists \epsilon > ...

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77 views

### Measure on group invariant under group action on metric space

This is a question very similar to I recently asked on mathexchange, but different enough to get its own entry in MO.
The setting is still the same. I consider the metric space $\mathbb{R}$ and the ...

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66 views

### A property on some unbounded metric spaces

Suppose that $(X,d)$ is a metric spaces. Which condition(s) can guaranties the following property:
$\forall x, \forall y \in X, \exists \{z_n\}$ such that $\lim_{n\to +\infty } d(x,z_n)=+\infty$ and $\...

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60 views

### Does uniform continuity of bounded continuous functions implies the same for all continuous functions on a uniform space?

Recently I came to know about Atsuji space from the paper. A metric space $X$ is called an Atsuji space if every real-valued continuous function on $X$ is uniformly continuous. Strikingly I have found ...

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253 views

### Balls in Lawvere metric spaces

Let $V$ be the monoidal category $[0,\infty)$ (as a poset) with $+$ and $0$. Lawvere shows that $V$-enriched categories are a more natural generalisation of the notion of a metric space (note no ...

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197 views

### Universally meager spaces and large cardinals

Definition: (Todorcevic) A subset $A$ of a topological space $X$ is called universally meager if for every Baire space $Y$ and every continuous $f : Y \to X$ which is nowhere constant (not constant on ...

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115 views

### Path Metric Topology

Is there an example of a metric space $(X,d)$ whose corresponding path metric, $d^\prime$ generates a strictly finer topology compared to the topology generated by $d$?

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402 views

### On the Large Cardinal Strength of Normal Moore Space Conjecture

In his seminal 1937 paper, Jones [1] proved the following result about Moore spaces:
Theorem. (Jones) If $2^{\aleph_0}<2^{\aleph_1}$ then all separable normal Moore spaces are metrizable.
Then ...

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125 views

### Quotient of compact metrizable space in Hausdorff space

Lets $X$ be a compact metrizable space and $f:X\to Y$ be a quotient map such that $Y$ equipped with the quotient topology is Hausdorff. Thus $Y$ is metrizable. Lets $\sim$ be an equivalence relation ...

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### Are there any statistical metrics that satisfy this kind of condition?

Let $f=N(\mu,\sigma^2)$ be a univariate normal distribution with mean $\mu$ and variance $\sigma^2$ and let $f_1 = N(\mu+\epsilon,\sigma^2)$ and $f_2=N(\mu,(\sigma+\epsilon)^2)$ be some small ...

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116 views

### Li-Yorke chaos: the non compact case

1) Is there any notion of Li-Yorke chaos for non compact (metric) spaces $X$ and non continuous transformation $f:X \rightarrow X$? Could you bring some references?
2) I mean, why are so important ...

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265 views

### Earth movers distance (EMD) between two multivariate normals. Is it negative definite distance?

I was looking at the closed form formula for 2-Wassersteins distance for multivariate normal distribution on Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wasserstein_metric#Normal_distributions
It has a ...

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**1**answer

53 views

### Is the function $g$ always injective where $g$ is obtained by lipschitz re-parametrization

Suppose $(X,d)$ is a metric space with the nearest point property and $a,b \in X$ with $a \ne b$. Suppose there is a path of finite length in $X$ from $a$ to $b$ and let $m$ be the infimum of the ...

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### does there always exists a path $g:[0,1] \rightarrow X$ from $f(0)$ to $f(1)$ that has the same image as $f$ and ..?

Suppose $(X,d)$ is a metric space and $f:[0,1] \rightarrow X$ is a path in $X$ with no-zero finite length $L$. Then, does there always exists a path $g:[0,1] \rightarrow X$ from $f(0)$ to $f(1)$ that ...

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402 views

### Totally bounded spaces and axiom of choice

Wikipedia article on totally bounded spaces states "... the completion of a totally bounded space might not be compact in the absence of choice." Where is the axiom of choice used, and do you need it ...

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### Does rate of convergence in probability come from a metric?

In general, when we talk about convergence of a sequence, we need a topological space. If we want to talk about a rate of convergence, we need to quantify how far away one element of the sequence is ...

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58 views

### Hausdorff convergence of preimages of discrete-valued functions

Suppose $f_n$, $f:X\to K$ where $K$ is a finite set and $(X,d)$ is a metric space. Suppose also that $f_n(x)\to f(x)$ for all $x\in X$ (pointwise convergence). Finally, let $d_H$ be the Hausdorff ...

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347 views

### Base of topology for metric-like space

Let $X$ be a nonempty set and $p:X\times X\rightarrow\mathbb{R}^+ $ be a function satisfying the following conditions for all $x,y,z\in X$: \begin{align} &1)\enspace p(x,y)=0\implies x=y \\ &2)...

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### Gromov-Hausdorff relative compactness without curvature restrictions

A famous theorem of Gromov says that the set of compact Riemannian manifolds with $Ric \geq c$ and $\text{diam} \leq D$ is relatively compact in the Gromov-Hausdorff metric. Chapter 10 of the book by ...

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### Is there a “universal” connected compact metric space?

Fact 1. The Cantor set $K$ is "universal" among nonempty compact metric spaces in the following sense: given any nonempty compact metric space $X$, there exists a continuous surjection $f\colon K \to ...

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### Graph contained in a metric space

I have a metric space $X$ and a graph $G=(V,E)$ whose set of vertices is a subset $V\subset X$ (and $E$ is the set of edges, which is a symmetric subset of $V\times V$). For each $v\in V$, the set of ...

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171 views

### A Riemannian metric on the plane such that the intersection of every two discs is a disc, again

Is there a Riemannian metric on $\mathbb{R}^2$ (or a $2$ dimensional manifold) such that the intersection of every two open discs is an open disc, again?
As linear version of this question we ask:
...

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232 views

### $\ell_1$ and $\ell_\infty$ as complementary subspaces of Banach space

Let $X$ be a Banach space, and let $X'\subset X$ - its subspace. Then the following propositions are true:
$X'$ is closed, $X/X' \cong \ell_1 \Rightarrow X'$ is complementary;
$X' \cong \ell_\infty ...

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395 views

### How to compute the Gromov-Hausdorff distance between spheres $S_n$ and $S_m$?

There is the question, because when we consider the Gromov-Hausdorff distance, we must fix the metric, so we use the natural metric induced from the embedding $\mathbb{S}_n \to \mathbb{R}^{n+1}$. Is ...

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### Existence and uniqueness of fixed point in generalized condition of triangular norm

Definition 1) A Menger space is defined as a triple $\left( S,F,T \right)$ where $S$ is a set , $F$ is a collection of distribution functions and $T$ is a triangular norm function
$T:[ 0,1 ]\...

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### A characterization of Cauchy filters on countable metric spaces?

Given a filter $\mathcal F$ on a countable set $X$, consider the family
$$\mathcal F^+:=\{A\subset X:\forall F\in\mathcal F\;(A\cap F\ne\emptyset)\}.$$
The following characterization is well-known.
...

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### Given a topological field with non-trivial topology given by a metric, is the metric necessarily translation-invariant? [closed]

If the topology is locally compact and non-trivial, then the metric is usually translation-invariant or even arises from a norm. But is it necessary to be invariant? I failed to give a counterexample.

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### Equivalent of linearity for the Fréchet mean under translations

Following Pennec (2006), the Fréchet mean for a set of draws $\{x_i\}_{i=1,\dots,n}$ from a metric space $M$ with distance function $d$ is defined as the minimiser of the variance of the draws,
$$
E[\...

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### Ultraproduct of metric spaces

Let $I$ be a set and $\mathcal{U}$ be an ultrafilter on $I$. Suppose that $(X_{i}, d_{i})_{i\in I}$ is a family of pointed metric spaces with a distinguished point $e_{i}$ for each $i\in I$. We set
$$...

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**1**answer

207 views

### Approximation of semicontinuous function

I'm looking for a reference for the theorem saying that a real-valued lower (upper) semicontinuous function on any metric space can be reached as a pointwise limit by a non-decreasing (non-increasing) ...

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### In a metrizable order topology, is the order relation compatible with the metric? [closed]

Does $x \le y \le z$ imply $d(x, y) \le d(x, z)$?!

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### Results that are easier in a metric space

Are there any significant results in the theory of metric spaces that (are considerably more difficult to reproduce/have not been reproduced) in the theory of uniform spaces?
In particular, I'm ...

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### Why doesn't this construction of the tangent space work for non-Riemannian metric manifolds?

In the 1957 paper, On the differentiability of isometries, Richard S. Palais gives a way to construct the tangent spaces of a Riemannian manifold using only its metric space structure (Theorem, p.1).
...

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### When is “metric dimension” well defined?

A subset $B$ of a metric space $(M,d)$ is called a metric generating set if and only if $$[\forall b \in B, d(x,b)=d(y,b)] \implies x = y \,. $$ A metric generating set $B$ is called a metric basis ...

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### When does a metric space have “infinite metric dimension”? (Definition of metric dimension)

Definition 1 A subset $B$ of a metric space $(M,d)$ is called a metric basis for $M$ if and only if $$[\forall b \in B,\,d(x,b)=d(y,b)] \implies x = y \,.$$
Definition 2 A metric space $(M,d)$ ...

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### Cauchy subsequences in “Hausdorff Cauchy sets”

This is a follow-up to an older question.
Let $(X,d)$ be a metric space and let $(A_n)_{n\in\mathbb{N}}\subseteq X$ be a sequence of bounded non-empty subsets of $X$ such that for all $\varepsilon &...

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### Hausdorff distance and Cauchy sequences

This is a generalization of an older question.
Let $(X,d)$ be a metric space and let $(A_n)_{n\in\mathbb{N}}\subseteq X$ be a sequence of non-empty closed subsets such that for all $\varepsilon > ...

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65 views

### Lipschitz extensions preserving the convex hull of the range

We assume that $X$ is a metric space and that $A \subseteq X$ is a subset. Let $f : A \rightarrow \mathbb R$ be a Lipschitz-continuous function with Lipschitz constant $L$.
By the Kirszbraun theorem, ...