# Questions tagged [prime-numbers]

Questions where prime numbers play a key-role, such as: questions on the distribution of prime numbers (twin primes, gaps between primes, Hardy–Littlewood conjectures, etc); questions on prime numbers with special properties (Wieferich prime, Wolstenholme prime, etc.). This tag is often used as a specialized tag in combination with the top-level tag nt.number-theory and (if applicable) analytic-number-theory.

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### A possible variant of Zagier's one-sentence proof for Fermat's sum of two squares theorem?

Is it possible to modify Zagier's one-sentence proof of Fermat's sum of two squares theorem (see here) to prove certain non-trivial cases of Jacobi's four-square theorem (see here)? Let $p$ be a prime ...
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### Effective Erdős–Kac theorem

I have some number $N$ and some integer $k>0$. I want to know what fraction of numbers up to $N$ have more than $k$ prime factors. (In my application, with repetition, but the $\omega$ version is ...
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### Is it possible to have square-free order(s) in $\mathbb{Z}^\times_N$?

Suppose, $N=p\cdot q$ is the product of two safe primes $p=2p'+1$ and $q=2q'+1$ for some odd primes $p'$ and $q'$. Let, $p_0,p_1,\ldots,p_m\ll p',q'$ be a few odd primes chosen uniformly at random ...
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### Discovering patterns in data and methodologies used

I feel really dumb asking this but are there examples of any type of data where once a pattern/structure is discovered, the pattern is usually simple but the methodology used to discover that pattern ...
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### Is there a statement in Presburger arithmetic about primes this simple heuristic fails for?

I came up with the following conjecture while thinking about ways to formulate some heuristics about primes: Conjecture: Given a statement $s$ in Presburger arithmetic, using an additional unary ...
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### How to know if a random natural number is a probable semiprime?

Let that $n\in\Bbb N$ generated from a hash function where $n$ is long enough to be hard to factor in the gnfs algorithm. How to check if $n$ is probably a semi‑prime in a faster way than factoring it ...
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### There are infinitely many prime which have arbitrary large gap in their digits in particular base expansion

Consider $m$ and $r$ is any fixed positive integer and $t$ is a variable $(t=0,1,2,3,...)$. Below, $[a]$ denotes the greatest integer function of $a$ (or floor function). Claim 1 : There exists a ...
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### On the elliptic curve $X^3+6d^2X-7d^3 = Y^2$ and the ellipse $p^2+3q^2-d = 0$?

From the ellipse $p^2+3q^2 - d = 0$ we can find a solution to the equation, $$a^3+b^3+c^3 = (c+m)^3$$ if we solve the elliptic curve, $$E:=X^3+6d^2X-7d^3 = Y^2$$ More details can be found in this MSE ...
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### On the primality of $j(n)=\varphi(p_n+1-n)+1$ when $j(n) \equiv 19 \pmod {100}$

Related to Power of primes. Let $p_n$ denote n-th prime and $\varphi$ the totient function. For natural $n$, define $j(n)=\varphi(p_n+1-n)+1$. For $n$ up to $10^9$ if $j(n) \equiv 19 \pmod {100}$ then ...
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### Is $1 = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{\pi(p_n^2)-n+2}{p_n^3-p_n}$ , where $\pi$ denotes the prime counting function and $p_n$ denotes the $n$-th prime?

Is $$1 = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{\pi(p_n^2)-n+2}{p_n^3-p_n},$$ where $\pi$ denotes the prime counting function and $p_n$ denotes the $n$-th prime? Context: This question came out as a result in ...
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