Prime numbers, Diophantine equations, analytic number theory, algebraic number theory, arithmetic geometry, Galois theory, transcendental number theory, continued fractions

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2
votes
1answer
49 views

For $k>3$ does there exist an odd prime $q_k$ such that $p_k=2^kq_k+1$ is prime and $p_k$ divides $a_k=\dfrac{3^{2^{k-1}}+1}{2}$?

Question: For $k>3$ does there exist an odd prime $q_k$ such that $p_k=2^kq_k+1$ is prime and $p_k$ divides $a_k=\dfrac{3^{2^{k-1}}+1}{2}$?\ If $k=3$ the answer is Yes because for $q_3=5$ we ...
4
votes
0answers
66 views

Representing one diagonal of Pascal's triangle using special sums coming from a different diagonal

Let $m, n$ be any fixed natural numbers. Is it true that infinitely many elements of the sequence $\left(\begin{array}{c} m+k \\ m \\ \end{array}\right)_{k=1,2,3,...}$ ( as well as of the sequence ...
0
votes
0answers
40 views

References about identities of Gauss sum

I am reading the paper. In the end of page 10, there are the following identities of Gauss sum. \begin{align} & h(b) h(a+b) = q^b h(b) h(a), \\ & h(b) g(a+b) = q^b h(b) g(a), \\ & g(a+b) ...
6
votes
0answers
39 views

Prime divisors of the norm of the first coefficient of an elliptic newform at width-1 cusps.

Let $E/\mathbb{Q}$ be an elliptic curve of conductor $N$ and let $f$ be its newform. Suppose $p \geq 5$ is a prime such that $p^2 \mid N$. We assume $f$ is $p$-minimal, which is equivalent to that the ...
6
votes
1answer
175 views

Are these inequalities for primes equivalent?

Let $p_n$ be the $n$th prime, let $L$ consist of the primes satisfying $p_{n+2} - 2p_{n+1} + p_{n} > 0$, and let $Q$ consist of the primes satisfying $p_{n+1}^2 < p_{n}p_{n+2}.$ Is $L=Q$? ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Lower and upper density of iterations of subsets of $\mathbb{N}$ [migrated]

For $A\subseteq \mathbb{N}$ we define the lower and upper density by if $$\text{lowd}(A)=\text{lim inf}_{n\to\infty}\frac{|A\cap\{1,\ldots,n\}|}{n}, \text{upd}(A)=\text{lim ...
3
votes
3answers
171 views

Enumerating cosets of the modular group

Suppose we chose the generators $f(z) = z+1, g(z) = z-1, h(z) = -1/z$ for the modular group $\Gamma$ (i.e. the group of fractional linear tranformations $z \mapsto (az +b)/(cz+d)$ with $a,b,c,d \in ...
2
votes
0answers
150 views

References for 'Theory of $p$-adic Galois Representations by Fontaine & Ouyang'

Presently I am reading the 'Theory of $p$-adic Galois Representations by Fontaine & Ouyang'. I am finding it difficult for eg. the initial sections on $l$-adic geometric representation of finite ...
3
votes
0answers
55 views

Localized at $p$ integral representations of finite elementary $p$-groups

Let $C_p$ be a cyclic group of prime order $p$. Let $F=C_p^n=C_p\times\dots\times C_p$ ($n$ times). I would like to to classify finite dimensional representations of $F$ over ${\mathbb{Z}}$. However, ...
-1
votes
0answers
60 views

If $N = q^k n^2$ is an odd perfect number with Euler prime $q$, can $\sigma(n^2)$ be divisible by $(q+1)/2$?

If $N = q^k n^2$ is an odd perfect number given in Eulerian form (i.e., $q$ is prime with $q \equiv k \equiv 1 \pmod 4$ and $\gcd(q,n)=1$), then can $\sigma(n^2)$ be divisible by $(q+1)/2$? I think ...
2
votes
1answer
91 views

Positive rational numbers as sum of unit fractions [duplicate]

Let $U = \{\frac{1}{n}: n\in\mathbb{N}, n>0\}$ be the set of unit fractions. For integers $m,n>0$ there is always a finite subset $S\subseteq U$ such that $\frac{m}{n} = \sum_{u\in S} u$, see ...
6
votes
0answers
103 views

Complete list of exceptions and efficient algorithm for Waring's problem

2 weeks ago, Samir Siksek http://arxiv.org/abs/1505.00647 proved more than 150-years-old conjecture that every positive integer other than 15, 22, 23, 50, 114, 167, 175, 186, 212, 231, 238, 239, 303, ...
3
votes
1answer
138 views

Numbers represented by inhomogeneous forms

I have a family of Diophantine equations that I am trying to solve, and I am trying to figure out what methods could be used to prove existence of solutions. Unfortunately, the equations are ...
2
votes
3answers
531 views

A Diophantine equation with prime powers

Let $p$ and $q$ be prime numbers such that $p^2+p+1=3q^a$: is it true that $a=1$? This specific equation appears when computing order components of finite groups.
3
votes
1answer
303 views

Is this version of van der Waerden's Theorem consistent with ZFC?

One way to phrase van der Waerden's Theorem is: For every finite coloring of $\mathbb N$ and every finite $F \subseteq \mathbb N$, there exist $a,b \in \mathbb N$ such that $a + b \cdot F$ is ...
10
votes
1answer
398 views

Does van der Waerden's Theorem hold for $\omega_1$?

One way to phrase van der Waerden's Theorem is: For every finite coloring of $\mathbb N$ and every finite $F \subseteq \mathbb N$, there exist $a,b \in \mathbb N$ such that $a + b \cdot F$ is ...
11
votes
2answers
882 views

What is prime power of this equation of p?

Let $p$ be a prime number, I think when $p^2+p+1=q^a$, where $q$ is a prime number, then $a=1$. But I can't prove it. Is it true?
-1
votes
0answers
100 views

Order of element in algebraic group [migrated]

Denote by $\mathbb{F}_q$ the finite field with $q$ elements, and denote by $\bar{\mathbb{F}}_q$ its algebraic closure. Let $G$ be an affine algebraic group over $\bar{\mathbb{F}}_q$, and let $F$ be a ...
-5
votes
0answers
58 views

Better chances on a gambling game [on hold]

I'm working on a program that I hope it will help me to get better chances on a gambling game. I have a very large database of numbers how occur in this game and my program pass through those numbers ...
3
votes
0answers
151 views

The Prime Shuffle Puzzle

Given as input: an ordered list of distinct prime numbers $A = ( p_1,p_2,...,p_n )$, a set of triples $B = \{ (a_1, b_1, c_1 ), (a_1, b_1, c_1 ), ...., (a_m, b_m, c_m ) \}$, where $a_i, b_i, c_i ...
3
votes
2answers
333 views

Non-standard Gauss sums

I have the following problem. Let $p$ be some prime. What is the value of \begin{equation} \sum_{k=1}^{p-1} \left(\frac{k+1}{p}\right) \omega_p^{kl}, \end{equation} where $\left(\frac{k+1}{p}\right)$ ...
6
votes
1answer
125 views

On the independence of lower and upper asymptotic and Banach densities

Given a set $X \subseteq \mathbf N^+$, denote by $\mathsf{d}_\ast(X)$ and $\mathsf{d}^\ast(X)$, respectively, the lower and upper asymptotic (or natural) density of $X$, viz. $$\mathsf{d}_\ast(X) := ...
5
votes
1answer
199 views

Congruence properties of $x_1^6+x_2^6+x_3^6+x_4^6+x_5^6 = z^6$?

(This was posted previously in MSE without getting any answers.) It is known that given primitive (co-prime) integer solutions to, $$x_1^4+x_2^4+x_3^4+x_4^4 = z^4$$ then there is one $x_i$ such ...
0
votes
2answers
152 views

Smallest constant so that there are at least $n/\log_2{n}$ primes between $n$ and a constant multiple of $n$

What is the smallest known $c$ so that for any $n\geq 2$ there are at least $n/\log_2{n}$ primes between $n$ and $cn$ (inclusive)? The prime number theorem seems to give an asymptotic result so I am ...
3
votes
2answers
170 views

Equidistribution of Hecke points and $p = (a+bi)(a-bi) = e^{i\theta}\sqrt{a^2 + b^2}$

I have seen two versions of a result called "Hecke Equidistribution" and I wanted to know if they were the same or different. #1 Let $p = 4k+1 = (a+bi)(a-bi) = e^{i\theta}\sqrt{a^2 + b^2}$. Then ...
1
vote
0answers
69 views

Existence of Euler product on critical line for $L(\chi,s) L(\overline{\chi},1-s)$?

Generally there is no Euler product for Dirichlet L-functions $L(\chi,s)$ in the critical strip.(cf Is the Euler product formula always divergent for 0<Re(s)<1?) But I would like to know if ...
1
vote
0answers
46 views

Are all complex zeros of $\Psi^{(s)}(1) \pm \Psi^{(1-s)}(1)$ on the critical line?

The balanced polygamma function $\Psi^{(s)}(x)$ for $x=1$ can be expressed as: $$\Psi^{(s)}(1)=\dfrac{\big(\Psi(-s)+\gamma\big)\,\zeta(s+1)+\zeta'(s+1)}{\Gamma(-s)}$$ Note $\Psi(s)$ is the digamma ...
-1
votes
2answers
57 views

Collecting sufficient conditions for Sorli's conjecture on odd perfect numbers

Sorli's conjecture predicts that, for an odd perfect number $N$ given in the Eulerian form $N = {q^k}{n^2}$ (where $q$ is prime with $\gcd(q, n) = 1$ and $q \equiv k \equiv 1 \pmod 4$), the condition ...
9
votes
1answer
390 views

On a result attributed to W. Ljunggren and T. Nagell

I've read in a number of places that, building on previous work of T. Nagell, W. Ljunggren proved in 1 that the Diophantine equation $$\frac{x^{n}-1}{x-1} = y^{2}$$ doesn't admit solutions in ...
0
votes
0answers
66 views

Expliciting the distance between consecutive Goldbach numbers assuming it's finite

In this paper, the author shows unconditionally that at least one of the following statements holds: i) the distance between two consecutive Goldbach numbers is finite, i.e. there exists an ...
1
vote
1answer
92 views

Uniform convergence of infinite sum with Dirichlet characters

I would like to prove uniform convergence of function series like : $$\sum\limits_{n=1}^{\infty} \chi(n) f(nx)$$ where $\chi$ is a primitive character and $f(x)$ a function decreasing to zero in ...
3
votes
2answers
193 views

Upper bound on Betti numbers of an intersection of hypersurfaces (or quadrics)

I have a problem I have been stuck with since several weeks now, and yet I believe it should be easy to specialists. Let $k$ be an algebraically closed field, $m$ and $n$ two integers. Let ...
2
votes
0answers
134 views

Second differences of primes determined by increasing first differences: every positive even integer?

Suppose that $p(1)$ and $p(2)$ are primes. For $n > 2$, let $p(n)$ be the least prime $p$ such that $p-2p(n-1)+p(n-2)>0$. Does $p(n)-2p(n-1)+p(n-2)$ range through all the even positive ...
1
vote
2answers
147 views

On the natural density of almost perfect numbers

This question is pretty basic, so I apologize in advance if it is unsuitable for MO. If so, please do let me know and I will migrate it over to MSE. Essentially, by work of Kanold, we know that the ...
2
votes
0answers
150 views

Some continued fractions for transcendental numbers

In a chapter of Computational Algebra and Number Theory called Continued Fractions of Algebraic Numbers (Available at ...
1
vote
0answers
254 views

Langlands reciprocity for C*-algebras

I just came across this paper which, judging by what I understood, establishes the Langlands reciprocity conjecture for a certain Shimura variety. My question, regardless of the validity of the proof, ...
3
votes
0answers
138 views

Looking for a copy of Algebraic Number Theory in honor of Iwasawa

I am looking for an electronic copy of this volume: Advanced studies in Pure Mathematics, Volume 17 Algebraic Number Theory - in honor of K. Iwasawa Edited by J. Coates, R. Greenberg, B. Mazur and I. ...
3
votes
0answers
68 views

Low height integer points on a rank variety

Let $M_i$ be fixed rectangular matrices with integer coefficients less than $n$. Consider the variety defined by the condition $$ \mathrm{rank}(\lambda_1M_1 + \lambda_2M_2 + ... + \lambda_kM_k) = 1. ...
2
votes
1answer
296 views

How to find representatives of $SL(2,\mathbb{R})/SL(2, \mathbb{Z})$

While reading about the Teichmuller flow, I am reading about the space of lattices $SL(2,\mathbb{R})/SL(2, \mathbb{Z})$. I could not a find a good way of computing the Teichmuller flow on this ...
-2
votes
0answers
112 views

Solution to Exercise 6.31 in Finite Fields by Lidl and Niederreiter [closed]

I can not prove the Exercise 6.31 of Finite Fields by Lidl and Niederreiter. I hope to get help. The Exercise 6.31 is to determine the number of solution of system \begin{align*}a_1x_1^2 + a_2x_1^2+ ...
5
votes
1answer
137 views

On the number of 3-Selmer elements of rational elliptic curves

I am trying to understand a step in the proof of Theorem 39 in the recent work of Bhargava and Shankar, "Ternary Cubic Forms having bounded invariants, and the existence of a positive proportion of ...
-1
votes
0answers
47 views

Must a multivariate polynomial be zero subject to constraint on the values of all pairs of distinct variables at solutions?

I suppose this is both easy and false. Let $f \in \mathbb{F}_2[x_1, \ldots x_n]$. Suppose in all solutions of $f(x_1, \ldots x_n)=0$ all pairs of variables $(x_i,x_j),i \ne j$ can take all possible ...
3
votes
1answer
115 views

Subconvexity bound for Hecke $L$-functions in the $s$-aspect

Let $L(s,\chi)$ be the $L$-function of a non-trivial Hecke character of a general number field $K$, so that $L(s,\chi)$ which has no pole or zero at $s=1$. I am looking for a reference for upper ...
8
votes
2answers
292 views

An algorithm for Poincare recurrence time

Define the function $[0,+\infty) \rightarrow R$: $$ f = \cos (t) + \cos (\sqrt{2} t) + \cos (\sqrt{3} t) + \cos (\sqrt{5} t ) . $$ I want a number $t $ bigger than $10^7$ such that $$ f(t) > 4 ...
6
votes
1answer
357 views

Multiplicity one theorem

I am reading Dorian Goldfeld's book Automorphic forms and L functions for the groups GL(n,R) ...
2
votes
1answer
339 views

A property of e?

Define $f(n) = \lfloor {ne}\rfloor$ if $n$ is odd and $f(n) = \lfloor {n/e}\rfloor$ if $n$ is even. Is the set $\{n, f(n), f(f(n)),\dots\}$ bounded for every $n$? Computer sampling suggests that ...
1
vote
0answers
44 views

Asymptotics on number of bounded prime gaps [duplicate]

It's been over 2 years since the groundbreaking paper by Yitang Zhang in which he has shown that infinitely many prime pairs are by some constant $H$, with $H\leq 70000000$. Over the course of the ...
0
votes
1answer
78 views

Weil group of a local field, small notational problem

In Bushnell and Henniart, The Local Langlands conjecture for GL(2), there is a proposition on p. 184 in which they prove the following: Let $F$ be a non-archimedean local field, $\mathcal W_F$ its ...
0
votes
0answers
82 views

A question on the Siegel's theorem in specific condition

I want to know the number of expressions such that \begin{align} x=p+aq \end{align} for sufficiently large even number $x$, where $p$ and $q$ are prime numbers and $a$ is a positive odd integer which ...
2
votes
1answer
332 views

A question on the bounds of the $n$-th composite $c_n$

While trying to prove the inequality $$c_{p_n-m}+c_{m-n}>p_n+2$$ I tried the bounds of $c_n$ (denotes the $n$-th composite number) given in this paper to prove that the sum $c_{p_n-m}+c_{m-n}$ ...