Prime numbers, diophantine equations, analytic or algebraic number theory, arithmetic geometry, Galois theory, transcendental number theory, continued fractions

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1
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1answer
78 views

s(n) = kn or s(n) = n/k? [on hold]

This is not an important question, just for fun. Definition: $\sigma (n)$ = sum of the positive divisors of $n$. $s(n)$ = sum of the proper positive divisors of $n$. For $s(n) = kn$ , $k$ is a ...
0
votes
0answers
49 views

Divisibility of Dirichlet L-functions

let $k$ be an even integer and $p$ a prime number such that $p-1|k$. Suppose that $p$ does not divide $L(1-k,\chi)$ and $L(1-k,\psi)$, where $\chi$ and $\psi$ are quadratic characters. Can we deduce ...
6
votes
1answer
101 views

Density of prime divisors of $a^n + b$

Suppose $a > 1, b \neq 0$ be two rational numbers. Is it known in general that the set of prime divisors of (the numerator of) $a^n + b$ has a positive relative density?
5
votes
0answers
120 views

Solving polynomial equations modulo $1$

Let $P\in \mathbb{R}\lbrack x\rbrack$ be given. (In practice, the coefficients could be given as, say, decimals to sufficient precision.) Let $M\geq 1$, and let $I$ be an interval in ...
5
votes
1answer
192 views

On property of monic polynomial with integer coefficients

For a monic polynomial with integer coefficients $f$ where $\partial f = 2$, we have $$ \textrm{inf}(f(x)) > 0 \implies \textrm{inf}(f(x)) \geq \frac{3}{4} . $$ Could we generalize this (for ...
0
votes
1answer
85 views

Finding out $p$-torsion elements of an elliptic curve $E$ over $\mathbb{Q}_p$

Let $E$ be an elliptic curve over $\mathbb{Q}$. Then how to compute the $p$-torsion elements of $E$ over the $p$-adic field $\mathbb{Q}_p$ using SAGE or any other means ? At least can we say whether ...
0
votes
1answer
87 views

Number of solutions to a modular congruence

What methods are there for determining the number of solutions to modular congruences of the form $a^m \equiv b^n k \pmod{p}$ with $1 \leq a,b \leq p-1$ where $p$ is a prime? In the case $m,n$ ...
3
votes
1answer
82 views

The average number of a class of reduced, primitive, positive definite binary quadratic forms

Let $f(x,y) = ax^2 + 2bxy + cy^2 \in \mathbb{Z}[x,y]$ be a positive definite binary quadratic form with even discriminant. We say that $f$ is primitive if $\gcd(a,2b,c) = 1$ and it is reduced if $0 ...
3
votes
1answer
203 views

Number of prime divisors of p^2-1 for a prime p

Let $n$ be an integer and $n=p_1^{a_1}\dots p_s^{a_s}$ be its factorization into primes. Denote by $\Omega(n)$ the sum of $a_i$. Does there exist a constant $k$ such that there are infinitely many ...
3
votes
2answers
188 views

Relation of these two Dirichlet $L$-functions

Let $\chi$ and $\psi$ be two quadratic Dirichlet characters and let $L(s,\chi)$ and $L(s,\psi)$ their associated Dirichlet $L$-functions. Is there a realtion between these two Dirichlet ...
2
votes
1answer
117 views

Ask for a special function related to the error function

I am wondering whether anyone knows the following integration has a named special function or a reference $$ F_{a,b}(z) :=\frac{2}{\sqrt{\pi}} \int_0^z \text{erf}(a+b y)\: e^{-y^2} \text{d}y $$ for ...
2
votes
2answers
265 views

How many integer solutions of $a^2+b^2=c^2+d^2+n$ are there?

Are there any references to study the integer solutions (existence and how many) of Diophantine equations like $a^2+b^2=c^2+d^2+2$, $a^2+b^2=c^2+d^2+3$, $a^2+b^2=c^2+d^2+5$...? Actually, I can prove ...
6
votes
0answers
78 views

Is the analogue of the Simple Continued Fraction in p-adic number fields useful?

Is there an analogue of the Simple Continued Fraction in p-adic number fields? Is it useful and does it have relations to best rational approximation in the p-adic sense? In the analytic case there is ...
6
votes
4answers
789 views

Clarification on the weak BSD conjecture

It is usually told that Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer developped their famous conjecture after studying the growth of the function $$ f_E(x) = \prod_{p \le x}\frac{|E(\mathbb{F}_p)|}{p} $$ as $x$ tends to ...
2
votes
1answer
109 views

Clarification request on sign changes of Hecke eigenvalues

In their paper 'Sign changes of Hecke eigenvalues', Matomaki and Radziwill established in Lemma 6.2 the following result: There exists absolute positive constants $c$ and $\eta$ such that uniformly in ...
0
votes
0answers
65 views

Finding the number of integer points inside a sphere of radius R and dimension D centered at the Origin [on hold]

I am writing a computer program to count the number of integer points inside a sphere of radius R and Dimension D centered at the origin. In essence, if we have a sphere of dimension 2 (circle) and ...
3
votes
1answer
439 views

On progress towards inverse Galois problem over rationals

I have heard that Progress towards the Inverse Galois problem over $\mathbb{Q}$ is very well documented for sporadic groups ($M_{23}$ is the only case open) and for $PSL_n(q)$. From where I can read ...
2
votes
1answer
117 views

Simultaneous $\pmod{p}$ congruences of two ternary quadratic forms

Let $$\displaystyle f(x_1,x_2,x_3) = a_1 x_1^2 + a_2 x_2^2 + a_3 x_3^2,$$ $$\displaystyle g(x_1, x_2, x_3) = b_1 x_1^2 + b_2 x_2^2 + b_3 x_3^2$$ be two integral ternary quadratic forms with $f$ ...
3
votes
0answers
161 views

Effective prime number theorem

The prime number theorem implies that for every $ϵ>0$, there is $n_\epsilon$ such that for all $n≥n_\epsilon$ the number of primes in $[n,cn]$ is at least $\frac{(c−1−\epsilon)n}{\log n}$ and at ...
3
votes
1answer
262 views

Frobenius at ramified primes

Let $E$ be an elliptic curve defined over $\mathbf{Q}$, fix an odd prime $p>3$, let $T_p$ denote the $p$-adic Tate module of $E$, and let $V_p = T_p \otimes \mathbf{Q}_p$. If the action of ...
3
votes
0answers
179 views

Number of solutions to $x_1x_2=x_3x_4\bmod n$

In https://www.math.ksu.edu/~cochrane/research/xyuvmodp.pdf it is shown $x_1x_2=x_3x_4\bmod p$ where $p$ is a prime has $\frac{|\mathcal B|}p+O(\sqrt{|\mathcal B|}\log^2p)$ solutions ...
4
votes
0answers
223 views

Proof for new deterministic primality test possible?

Conjecture: Let $n \in \mathbb{N}$ and $n$ odd. Then the number $N=2^2 + n^2$ is prime, if and only if $N$ divides $2^{(N-1)/2} + 1$. Thanks.
13
votes
3answers
371 views

Infiniteness of the Galois cohomology over a number field with coefficients in a finite Galois module

Let $k$ be a number field and $M$ be a nonzero finite discrete $\mathrm{Gal}(\bar k/k)$-module. Is it true that $H^1(k,M)$ is infinite? This would complete the answer of Daniel Loughran. There is a ...
5
votes
0answers
92 views

Primitive element for a number field, and ramification

Let $K=\mathbb Q(\theta)$ be a number field with integral primitive element $\theta$, and let $f(x)$ be the minimal polynomial of $\theta$. Let $p$ be a rational prime. It's well known that if $p$ ...
3
votes
0answers
76 views

Globalizing local field extensions with controlled ramification

Let $K_1/k_1, \ldots, K_r/k_r$ be "separable cyclic" extensions of degree $n$ where each $k_i$ is a local field of characteristic 0 (archimedean or not). By separable cyclic of degree $n$, I mean the ...
1
vote
0answers
97 views

What interesting information can be deduced from knowledge of how deep a geodesic ventures into the cusp

First of all I have to apologise as I am not a geometer and my knowledge of geometry is poor. Let $M$ be the modular surface and $\gamma$ to denote a geodesic in $M$. In the the following paper by ...
8
votes
1answer
192 views

Algebraic points of uniformly bounded degree on an algebraic variety

Let $k$ be a perfect field, and let $\bar k$ be a fixed algebraic closure of $k$. Let $\overline{X}$ be a nonempty smooth algebraic variety over $\bar k$. Does there exist a natural number ...
3
votes
1answer
122 views

Irreducible monic polynomials

I am looking for criteria for the irreducibility of monic polynomials with constant term $\pm1$ over $\mathbb Q$. Eisenstein's criterion clearly doesn't apply here. For instance, for the family of ...
4
votes
1answer
201 views

Reference for: Every local field can be realized as the completion of a global field

It is well known that every local field (i.e. nondiscrete topological field locally compact with respect to the topology) is the completion of some global field. I know the argument, a nice ...
2
votes
0answers
67 views

Is $\sum_{\rho} \frac{1}{(\rho - s)^{1 + \delta}}$ bounded as Im(s) goes to infinity?

Let $\rho$ denote the zeros of the Riemann zeta-function and $\delta > 0$. Is the function $f(s) = \sum_{\rho} \frac{1}{(\rho - s)^{1 + \delta}}$ bounded as Im(s) goes to infinity?(the real part ...
0
votes
0answers
88 views

Numbers with many prime divisors

Is there a positive $c$ such that for every $n$ there exists $m$ such that $2^m-1$ has at least $n$ distinct prime divisors and $m$ is not greater than $n^c$? I'm also interested in this question ...
17
votes
2answers
842 views

What is the smallest positive integer for which the congruent number problem is unsolved?

The congruent number problem is the problem of figuring out whether a given positive integer $N$ is the area of a right-angled triangle with all side lengths rational. According to Dickson's "History ...
4
votes
2answers
189 views

Group cohomology question, trivial Galois action on discrete Galois module means we can say what about kernel of map

Say we have a number field $K$. Let $G_K = \text{Gal}(\overline{K}/K)$. Let $M$ be a discrete $G_K$-module. We know that $H^1(K, M) := H^1(G_K, M)$, i.e. profinite group cohomology. For each place $v$ ...
15
votes
1answer
399 views

Pop's proof that $\mathrm{Gal}(\overline{\mathbb{Q}}/\mathbb{Q})=\mathrm{Aut}\underline\pi^{alg}_{\overline{\mathbb{Q}}}$

I've heard of this result in a paper on which Yves André proves the p-adic analogue (that is, $\mathrm{Gal}(\overline{\mathbb{Q}}_p/\mathbb{Q}_p)=\mathrm{Aut}\underline\pi^{temp}_{{\mathbb{C}}_p}$), ...
2
votes
0answers
74 views

Conditions to check whether a prime ramifies in a certain way

Let $p$ be a prime number and let $f = a_n x^n + \cdots + a_0$ be an irreducible polynomial of degree $n \geq 3$ with a root $\alpha$. We say that $p$ ramifies in a powerful way over $K = ...
7
votes
1answer
189 views

Characters of simply connected semsimple algebraic groups over local fields

Let $G$ be a semisimple algebraic group over $\mathbb{Q}_p$. Then by definition $G$ admits no non-trivial algebraic characters, i.e. homomorphisms $G \to \mathbb{G}_m$. However, it is quite possible ...
2
votes
0answers
113 views

Uniform bound on the Mordell-Weil rank of elliptic curves

I want to know that if there is an uniform upper bound for the rank of elliptic curves over $\mathbb{C}(t)$, the rational function field over complex numbers, and generaly over the function field of ...
-4
votes
0answers
117 views

A group theory problem? [closed]

Let $p$ be a prime s.t $p>2$ and k an integer s.t $k>1$, and l be a positive integer s.t $0<l<p^k<2^n$, does the following equation have any solutions in $Z_{2^n}$? $$l^2=p^{2k}$$ In ...
0
votes
0answers
47 views

Estimating exponential sum of the form $\sum e( \alpha_1 f + \alpha_2 L)$, where $f$ is quadratic and $L$ is linear, on the minor arcs

Let $f(x_1, x_2, x_3)$ be a degree two homogeneous polynomial with coefficients in $\mathbb{Z}$. Let $L(x_1, x_2, x_3)$ be a linear homogeneous polynomial with with coefficients in $\mathbb{Z}$. Let ...
1
vote
0answers
67 views

“Algebrazing” canonical subgroups of elliptic curves

I'm puzzled by a part of the construction of the canonical subgroup of a "not too supersingular" elliptic curve. In Katz's paper, one produces a subgroup of the formal group of the elliptic curve but ...
2
votes
0answers
304 views
+50

Analytically continuing the limit of this series?

Main Question I believe to following formula gives the right answer: $$ \lim_{k \to \infty} \lim_{n h \to k} \left( \sum_{r=1}^n c_r f(hr) h\right) = \int_0^\infty f(x) \, dx \times ...
1
vote
2answers
292 views

Expository articles on Algebraic Number Theory

I am about to start learning Algebraic Number Theory and thus was looking for some expository articles on this subject. So far I have found two such articles: Dickson, L. E.. (1917). Fermat's Last ...
2
votes
1answer
148 views

Fundamental Units in Totally Real Cubic Fields

How much is known about the fundamental units in totally real cubic fields? For example, Daniel Shanks has a family of totally real cubic fields for which the fundamental units are known; those with ...
1
vote
1answer
174 views

Repdigit numbers, which are sum of consecutive squares

Following up on this question, http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/1788015/is-112122132142152162-1111-special/1788102?noredirect=1#comment3649733_1788102 is anything known about the sequence of ...
2
votes
1answer
144 views

Character group of the multiplicative rationals

I was reading some stuff on Hecke characters and came across an issue I have not been able to resolve. I posted it here on math stack exchange first. Let $\mathbb{Q}^{\times}$ be the multiplicative ...
6
votes
2answers
261 views

Noncoprime polynomial values

Let $p_1, \ldots, p_n$ be a finite sequence of nonconstant polynomials with integer coefficients. Does there exist a finite sequence of integers $x_1, \ldots, x_n$ such that the integers $p_1(x_1), ...
4
votes
2answers
226 views

Adjoint semi-simple algebraic groups over non-algebraically closed fields

Let $k$ be a field of characteristic zero and let $G$ be an adjoint semi-simple algebraic group over $k$. On p34 of the paper "Sansuc - Groupe de Brauer et arithmétique des groupes algébriques ...
12
votes
1answer
395 views

A combinatorial identity involving harmonic numbers

The harmonic numbers are given by $$H_n=\sum_{k=1}^n\frac{1}{k}.$$ Numerical calculation suggests $$ \sum_{k=1}^{n}(-1)^k{n\choose k}{n+k\choose k}\sum_{i=1}^{k}\frac{1}{n+i}=(-1)^nH_n. $$ I can not ...
1
vote
1answer
123 views

Want more details about the image of a Maass form in the AIM press release concerning LMFDB

Actually I came upon this through MO a couple of days ago: in here (http://aimath.org/aimnews/lmfdb/) there is a mesmerizing image The caption reads A Maass form, one of the 20 different types ...
-2
votes
0answers
87 views

A prime number theory problem? [duplicate]

Let $p$ be an odd prime and $k$ an integer s.t $k>1.$ Are there $0<\lambda<p^k$ an integer and positive integer $n$ such that $$(p^k-\lambda^2)(2^n-1)=p^k(p^k-1).$$ If there isn't, Is there ...