# Questions tagged [sequences-and-series]

The sequences-and-series tag has no usage guidance.

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### Extension of Valdivia-Vogt isomorphism from $\mathscr{D}(K)$ to $\mathscr{E}'(K)$

Let $M$ be a $d$-dimensional (say, Hausdorff, paracompact, connected and oriented) smooth manifold, and $K\subset M$ compact with $\mathring{K}\neq\varnothing$. M. Valdivia has shown (based on ...

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17 views

### The asymptotics of a vector sequence defined by a recursion relation

The sequence of vectors $(\mathbf{v}_0,\mathbf{v}_1,\mathbf{v}_2,\dots)$ obeys the recursion relation that
$A\mathbf{v}_j-\mathbf{v}_{j-1}=\sum_{k=0}^j diag(\mathbf{v}_k)B\mathbf{v}_{j-k}$,
where A ...

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**0**answers

32 views

### How to scale up or scale down a group of numbers such that the largest number in the original group does not contribute more than 25% in the new group [on hold]

Let's say there is a group of 5 numbers or more. In this group of numbers, the largest number contributes approx. 63% to the total of the group. How to either scale up or scale down or do nothing to ...

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**1**answer

298 views

### A possible surprise involving Euler's constant $e$ [closed]

Let
\begin{align*}
c_n &= n!\left(e-\sum_{k=0}^n \frac{1}{k!}\right) \\
\\
u_n &= \bigg\lfloor{\frac{1}{c_n} \bigg\rfloor} \\
\\
v_n &= \bigg\lfloor{\frac{1}{1/c_n-\lfloor{u_n} \rfloor}} ...

**-1**

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**1**answer

44 views

### square weighted l^2

I am looking the sequence spaces $l^1$ and $$\{(x_k)_k: \|x\|_{sq}^2 := \sum_{k=1}^\infty k^2\cdot x_k^2 < \infty\}. $$
I am particularly interested in relations between their respective norms: It ...

**2**

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**1**answer

139 views

### Integrating nasty gaussian over square root

TLDR: trying to solve,
$$\int_1^\infty \exp\left(-\frac{x^2}{2\omega^2}\right) \frac{1}{\sqrt{ax^2+bx-1}}dx$$
After doing some reading and looking at some other questions 1, 2 (and even going through ...

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**4**answers

317 views

### How to compute this series: $\sum_{k=0}^\infty \frac{C_k}{2^{2k+1}}$ [closed]

How to compute this series: $$\sum_{k=0}^\infty \frac{C_k}{2^{2k+1}}$$ where $C_k$ is the catalan number: $C_k=\frac{1}{k+1}{2k \choose k}$. (Further, is there any general method to treat this ...

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**0**answers

53 views

### Flow of zeros in the shifted exponential generating function?

Given a sequence $a_n$ (of real numbers, described more fully below), one may define the exponential generating function (on the complex plane) as $E(z)=\sum_{n=0}^\infty a_n z^n/n!$. The derivatives $...

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136 views

### Has this self-similar sequence the ratio $(\sqrt2+1)^2$?

This is inspired by a math.SE question, where an infinite sequence of pairwise distinct natural numbers $a_1=1, a_2, a_3, ...$ has been defined as follows:
$a_n$ is the smallest number such that $s_n:=...

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**2**answers

251 views

### Formula for a sum of product of binomials

We know that equation $$s_1+s_2+s_3=n-1 \quad \mbox{$s_1,s_2,s_3$}\geq 1$$
has $\binom{n-2}{2}$ solution.
I want to find any good formulae for the following form :
$$\sum_{(s_1,s_2,s_3)}\prod_{i=1}^...

**4**

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**0**answers

138 views

### Counting “motifs” with the same “energy”

This question is motivated by physics --- trying to understanding the so-called 'accidental' (i.e. non representation-theoretic) degeneracies that occur in the spectrum of the Haldane--Shastry spin ...

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**2**answers

358 views

### Value of $c$ such that $\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}\sum_{k=1}^{n-1}\frac{1}{(n-k)c+\log(n!)-\log(k!)}=1$

What is the value of $c$ such that
$$\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}\sum_{k=1}^{n-1}\frac{1}{(n-k)c+\log(n!)-\log(k!)}=1?$$
Numerically, it seems that the answer is $c=\log 2$. But I'd like to see a reason ...

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**1**answer

348 views

### On convergent series - in the spirit of Abel and Dini

Nonexistence of boundary between convergent and divergent series?
I'm hoping the following is true:
Suppose $a_i $ is a positive sequence and $\sum_i a_i < \infty.$ Then there exists a positive ...

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**0**answers

62 views

### Laurent series expansion of Theta function expression

Using the product definition of the theta function
$$ \theta(z;q) = \prod_{k=0}^{\infty}(1-q^k x)(1-q^{k+1}/x) $$
I would like to find the Laurent series expansion of the following:
$$ \frac{\theta^...

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**0**answers

81 views

### Understanding proof of q-theta function expression

In arXiv:math/0309252v4 at the bottom of page 11, the following result is proposed
$$ b_1 \theta(b_0 b_1^{\pm};p) \frac{z^{-1}\theta(z^2;p)}{\theta(b_0 z^{\pm};p)\theta(b_1 z^{\pm};p)} = (p;p)^{-2}\...

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20 views

### Defect of subnormality and repeated normalizer series

Let $G$ be a a finite group and $S$ a subnormal subgroup of $G$. The lenght of a fastest chain of subgroups $(U_i)_{1\le i\le n}$ such that $U_1=S$, $U_i$ normal in $U_{i+1}$ and $U_n=G$ is called the ...

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93 views

### Ulam Sequence and Primes

The Ulam sequence is defined as 1,2,3,4,6,8,11,... where, after 2, a number is added to the sequence if and only if it is expressible as a sum of two distinct preceding numbers in a unique way.
It ...

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**0**answers

78 views

### unknown sequences of rational numbers with sum of a transcendental number [closed]

Starting with a transcendental number like $e$, it is known that we can write it as a sum of infinitely many rational numbers of the form :
$e= \sum \limits _{n=0}^{\infty }{\dfrac {1}{n!}}={\frac {1}...

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115 views

### A relation concerning the “sum of squares” counting function $r_2(n)$

This is a re-post from MSE as I did not get any response there.
Let $r_2(n)$ denote the number of ways in which a positive integer $n$ can be expressed as the sum of squares of two integers. Here ...

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**1**answer

241 views

### Asymptotic behavior of a certain trigonometric partial sum

Let $a<0$ and $b>0$ be real numbers such that $a<-2b$. Let $n>1$ be a positive integer and consider the following partial sum:
$$
f(n) = \frac{1}{(n+1)^2}\sum_{i=1}^{n}\sum_{j=1}^{n} (-1)^{...

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197 views

### A problem of Erdős on convergence of $\sum (-1)^nn/p_n$ and equidistribution of $\pi(n)$ modulo 2

Erdős asked1 whether the series
$$\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n n}{p_n}$$ converges.
Here, $p_n$ denotes the n-th prime.
I can show that this series converges simultaneously with the series $\sum_{...

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98 views

### When will the series be zero

Let $$S_n=a_n-\frac{1}{a_{n-1}-\frac{1}{a_{n-2}-\frac{1}{a_{n-3}-\frac{1}{\ddots \\ a_2-\frac{1}{a_1}}}}}$$ where $a_1,\dots, a_n$ are real numbers and $a_1$ is nonzero. It can be seen that if $a_1,\...

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430 views

### Randomly picking $k$ members of $\{1,\ldots,n\}$

Every day, I randomly pick a sample consisting of $k$ members of $\{1,\ldots,n\}$ where $k\leq n$. I stop as soon as every number of $\{1,\ldots,n\}$ has been picked at least once. Let $S$ be the ...

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320 views

### Why do some mathematicians believe that the notation $(x_n)_{n\in \omega}$ is better than $(x_n)_{n=0}^\infty$ or $(x_n)_{n\in \mathbb N}$ [closed]

It seems that there is a trend among certain set-theory-oriented mathematicians to prefer the notation $n\in \omega$ to $n\in \mathbb N$ even when dealing with things totally unrelated to ordinal ...

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vote

**1**answer

106 views

### $\sum_{n=0}^{N-1}\exp(-i\frac{\pi}{N}n^2)=\sqrt{N}\exp(-i\frac{\pi}{4})$

The question is: N is an even positive integer, then $\sum_{n=0}^{N-1}\exp(-i\frac{\pi}{N}n^2)=\sqrt{N}\exp(-i\frac{\pi}{4})$. I thought the terms on the left are the solutions set of some polynomial ...

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**1**answer

242 views

### Constant “periodization” of a function

Let $w$ be a rapidly decaying function on $\mathbb{R}$ such that
$$ \sum_{n \in \mathbb{Z}} w(x+n) = 0$$
for all $x \in \mathbb{R}$. Does that imply that $w$ is identically zero? What if we assume ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

140 views

### Finding closed form of recurrence relation in two variables [closed]

I have a recurrence,
$$F(n, m) = F(n-1, m) + F(n, m-1) + F(n-1,m-1) $$
$$F(n,1) = 0$$
$$F(1,n) = 2*(n-1)$$
I would like to compute $F(N,M)$ in terms of $N$ and $M$. The system is defined for $1 \...

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**3**answers

1k views

### Adventure with infinite series, a curiosity

It is easily verifiable that
$$\sum_{k\geq0}\binom{2k}k\frac1{2^{3k}}=\sqrt{2}.$$
It is not that difficult to get
$$\sum_{k\geq0}\binom{4k}{2k}\frac1{2^{5k}}=\frac{\sqrt{2-\sqrt2}+\sqrt{2+\sqrt2}}2.$$
...

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vote

**1**answer

136 views

### Approximate the following series on the euclidean grid

I had trouble in finding a closed form solution for the following series, so now I am trying to find a good approximation for it. The $\sqrt{i^2 + j^2}$ in the exponent comes from distances on the ...

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**0**answers

40 views

### Is there a formula for computing the parity of a sequence with discrete alphabet?

Suppose we have a sequence of number, whose alphabet is chosen from a discrete set such as (0,1,2). An example of such sequence is 0210122. Now I would like to determine if it is an odd permutation ...

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**2**answers

227 views

### Infinite sum of reciprocals of squares of lengths of tangents from origin to the curve $y=\sin x$

This question is actually from MSE. I had to post it here due to the lack of response there even after placing a bounty. Here goes the question
Let tangents be drawn to the curve $y=\sin x$ from ...

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votes

**2**answers

605 views

### Searching for a proof for a series identity

The below identity I have found experimentally.
Question. Is this true? If so, may you provide a "slick" (or any) proof.
$$6\sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\frac{k^2q^k}{(1-q^k)^2}+12\left(\sum_{k=1}^{\infty}...

**2**

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**1**answer

90 views

### Quotient with positive second derivative in the limit?

I am studying the quotient of
$$f(\varepsilon) = \sum_{i=1}^{\infty} \frac{i^2}{2^{\varepsilon i^2}}$$
and $$g(\varepsilon) = \sum_{i=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{2^{\varepsilon i^2}}$$
for some $\...

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**1**answer

94 views

### May Champernowne constants $C_m$ be related to other numbers than $m$?

[This question is related to another question concerning normal numbers I asked at Math SE.]
Has it ever been found worth to ask the question if the Champernowne constants $C_m$, especially $C_2$ ...

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**2**answers

122 views

### How to estimate a recursive inequality with an upper bound

The below is a simplification of part of a proof I'm working on, in numerical analysis. It is similar to a paper that I studied some months ago, for which I got some advice here on MathOverflow.
I ...

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**1**answer

98 views

### Matching two sequences between each other

Given the sequence of symbols $A$ (contains ~10,000 symbols) and sequence of blocks $B$ (contains ~3,000 blocks, ~30 symbols inside each block) I need to exclude some blocks from sequence $B$ so that ...

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**1**answer

2k views

### A remarkable almost-identity

OEIS sequence A210247 gives the signs of $\text{li}(-n,-1/3) = \sum_{k=1}^\infty (-1)^k k^n/3^k$, also the signs of the Maclaurin coefficients of $4/(3 + \exp(4x))$.
Mikhail Kurkov noticed that it ...

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votes

**2**answers

65 views

### Divergence rate of geometric sum of random variables

Let $(X_n)_{n\in\mathbb{N}}$ be a sequence of strictly positive and identically distributed random variables and let $\beta\le 1$. I am trying to prove that
$$
0<\lim_{\beta\rightarrow 1}(1-\...

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votes

**1**answer

170 views

### Guess (or upper bound) the general formula for a double sequence

Let $t,s \geq 0$ be integers. We have the following recursive formula:
$$f(t+1,s) = f(t,s) + f(t,s-1) + \sum_{0\leq a,b,c \leq h(t):\\a+b+c = s-1}f(t,a)f(t,b)f(t,c),$$ where
$$h(t) = \frac{1}{2}3^t -\...

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**1**answer

229 views

### Descartes' rule of signs for infinite series

Consider the function given by
$$f(x)=1-a_1x-a_2x^2-a_3x^3-\cdots$$
where each $a_k\geq0$ and some $a_j>0$. If $f(x)$ is a polynomial then Descartes' Rule of signs tells us there is exactly one ...

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263 views

### Denominators of certain Laurent polynomials

Consider the following somos-like sequence
$$x_n=\frac{x_{n-1}^2+x_{n-2}^2}{x_{n-3}}.$$
It's known that $x_n$ is a Laurent polynomial in $x_0, x_1$ and $x_2$. I got interested in the denominators of ...

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vote

**1**answer

136 views

### About a Dirichlet series [closed]

I would like to know if the following assertion is true:
Let consider a real decreasing sequence $(t_n)$ of positive numbers with limit zero, if the series $\sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty(t_n)^a$ is ...

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**0**answers

145 views

### Infinite series identities in search of a proof

This comes in relation to the Fishburn numbers.
I stumbled on the following relation for which I ask a proof if true.
Let $Q_i(z):=1-(1-t)^{i-1}(1-zt)$. Then
$$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{(n+1)zt}{...

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**0**answers

437 views

### Does every real function have this weak derivation property?

After this question : Does every real function have this weak continuity property?
Natrualy there are an other (more difficult) :
Is it true that for every real function $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}...

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**3**answers

3k views

### Does every real function have this weak continuity property?

In my research I came across the following question :
Is it true that for every real function $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$, there exists a real sequence $(x_n)_n$, taking infinitely many values, ...

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**2**answers

311 views

### Are there integral solutions for $(2a-1)(2^{(b+c)}-3^c )=2^b-1$?

Can anyone prove this assertion? Or at least suggest a method of attack? It has come up in my research.
There do not exist $a,b$ and $c$ such that$$
(2a-1)(2^{(b+c)}-3^c )=2^b-1
$$where $a>0,b&...

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**0**answers

35 views

### Order 2 linear/geometric recurrent sequence

Let $(u_n)_{n\geq 0}$ a sequence of reals satisfying the following recurrence relation:
$$
\forall n>1, \qquad u_{n+2} = r^{n+2}\big( Au_{n+1}+ Bu_n\big)
$$
for fixed non zero constants $A,B,r$. ...

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votes

**1**answer

73 views

### Convergence of a real sequence (stochastic approximation)

Let $(\gamma_n)_{n \geq 1}$ be a sequence of positive real numbers satisfying $$\sum_{n \in \mathbb{N}}\gamma_n = + \infty \text{ and }\sum_{n \in \mathbb{N}}\gamma_n^2 < + \infty$$
I would like ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

149 views

### What is the shortest length of an Egyptian fraction expansion for a given $p/q$?

An Egyptian fraction expansion is a sum of reciprocals of integers, for example:
$$\frac{4}{17} = \frac{1}{5} + \frac{1}{29} + \frac{1}{1233} + \frac{1}{3039345}$$
Every positive rational number $p/...

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votes

**1**answer

119 views

### Is anything known about this class of series involving the divisor function?

I hope it is OK to ask the following reference request. If my question is not suitable, please let me know and I will do my best to modify it!
Let $N\in\mathbb{N}$, let $q$ be a point in the open ...