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Questions tagged [sequences-and-series]

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0
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5 views

Extension of Valdivia-Vogt isomorphism from $\mathscr{D}(K)$ to $\mathscr{E}'(K)$

Let $M$ be a $d$-dimensional (say, Hausdorff, paracompact, connected and oriented) smooth manifold, and $K\subset M$ compact with $\mathring{K}\neq\varnothing$. M. Valdivia has shown (based on ...
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0answers
17 views

The asymptotics of a vector sequence defined by a recursion relation

The sequence of vectors $(\mathbf{v}_0,\mathbf{v}_1,\mathbf{v}_2,\dots)$ obeys the recursion relation that $A\mathbf{v}_j-\mathbf{v}_{j-1}=\sum_{k=0}^j diag(\mathbf{v}_k)B\mathbf{v}_{j-k}$, where A ...
-4
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0answers
32 views

How to scale up or scale down a group of numbers such that the largest number in the original group does not contribute more than 25% in the new group [on hold]

Let's say there is a group of 5 numbers or more. In this group of numbers, the largest number contributes approx. 63% to the total of the group. How to either scale up or scale down or do nothing to ...
0
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1answer
298 views

A possible surprise involving Euler's constant $e$ [closed]

Let \begin{align*} c_n &= n!\left(e-\sum_{k=0}^n \frac{1}{k!}\right) \\ \\ u_n &= \bigg\lfloor{\frac{1}{c_n} \bigg\rfloor} \\ \\ v_n &= \bigg\lfloor{\frac{1}{1/c_n-\lfloor{u_n} \rfloor}} ...
-1
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1answer
44 views

square weighted l^2

I am looking the sequence spaces $l^1$ and $$\{(x_k)_k: \|x\|_{sq}^2 := \sum_{k=1}^\infty k^2\cdot x_k^2 < \infty\}. $$ I am particularly interested in relations between their respective norms: It ...
2
votes
1answer
139 views

Integrating nasty gaussian over square root

TLDR: trying to solve, $$\int_1^\infty \exp\left(-\frac{x^2}{2\omega^2}\right) \frac{1}{\sqrt{ax^2+bx-1}}dx$$ After doing some reading and looking at some other questions 1, 2 (and even going through ...
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4answers
317 views

How to compute this series: $\sum_{k=0}^\infty \frac{C_k}{2^{2k+1}}$ [closed]

How to compute this series: $$\sum_{k=0}^\infty \frac{C_k}{2^{2k+1}}$$ where $C_k$ is the catalan number: $C_k=\frac{1}{k+1}{2k \choose k}$. (Further, is there any general method to treat this ...
3
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0answers
53 views

Flow of zeros in the shifted exponential generating function?

Given a sequence $a_n$ (of real numbers, described more fully below), one may define the exponential generating function (on the complex plane) as $E(z)=\sum_{n=0}^\infty a_n z^n/n!$. The derivatives $...
7
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0answers
136 views

Has this self-similar sequence the ratio $(\sqrt2+1)^2$?

This is inspired by a math.SE question, where an infinite sequence of pairwise distinct natural numbers $a_1=1, a_2, a_3, ...$ has been defined as follows: $a_n$ is the smallest number such that $s_n:=...
5
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2answers
251 views

Formula for a sum of product of binomials

We know that equation $$s_1+s_2+s_3=n-1 \quad \mbox{$s_1,s_2,s_3$}\geq 1$$ has $\binom{n-2}{2}$ solution. I want to find any good formulae for the following form : $$\sum_{(s_1,s_2,s_3)}\prod_{i=1}^...
4
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0answers
138 views

Counting “motifs” with the same “energy”

This question is motivated by physics --- trying to understanding the so-called 'accidental' (i.e. non representation-theoretic) degeneracies that occur in the spectrum of the Haldane--Shastry spin ...
10
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2answers
358 views

Value of $c$ such that $\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}\sum_{k=1}^{n-1}\frac{1}{(n-k)c+\log(n!)-\log(k!)}=1$

What is the value of $c$ such that $$\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}\sum_{k=1}^{n-1}\frac{1}{(n-k)c+\log(n!)-\log(k!)}=1?$$ Numerically, it seems that the answer is $c=\log 2$. But I'd like to see a reason ...
6
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1answer
348 views

On convergent series - in the spirit of Abel and Dini

Nonexistence of boundary between convergent and divergent series? I'm hoping the following is true: Suppose $a_i $ is a positive sequence and $\sum_i a_i < \infty.$ Then there exists a positive ...
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0answers
62 views

Laurent series expansion of Theta function expression

Using the product definition of the theta function $$ \theta(z;q) = \prod_{k=0}^{\infty}(1-q^k x)(1-q^{k+1}/x) $$ I would like to find the Laurent series expansion of the following: $$ \frac{\theta^...
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0answers
81 views

Understanding proof of q-theta function expression

In arXiv:math/0309252v4 at the bottom of page 11, the following result is proposed $$ b_1 \theta(b_0 b_1^{\pm};p) \frac{z^{-1}\theta(z^2;p)}{\theta(b_0 z^{\pm};p)\theta(b_1 z^{\pm};p)} = (p;p)^{-2}\...
2
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0answers
20 views

Defect of subnormality and repeated normalizer series

Let $G$ be a a finite group and $S$ a subnormal subgroup of $G$. The lenght of a fastest chain of subgroups $(U_i)_{1\le i\le n}$ such that $U_1=S$, $U_i$ normal in $U_{i+1}$ and $U_n=G$ is called the ...
0
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0answers
93 views

Ulam Sequence and Primes

The Ulam sequence is defined as 1,2,3,4,6,8,11,... where, after 2, a number is added to the sequence if and only if it is expressible as a sum of two distinct preceding numbers in a unique way. It ...
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0answers
78 views

unknown sequences of rational numbers with sum of a transcendental number [closed]

Starting with a transcendental number like $e$, it is known that we can write it as a sum of infinitely many rational numbers of the form : $e= \sum \limits _{n=0}^{\infty }{\dfrac {1}{n!}}={\frac {1}...
5
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0answers
115 views

A relation concerning the “sum of squares” counting function $r_2(n)$

This is a re-post from MSE as I did not get any response there. Let $r_2(n)$ denote the number of ways in which a positive integer $n$ can be expressed as the sum of squares of two integers. Here ...
6
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1answer
241 views

Asymptotic behavior of a certain trigonometric partial sum

Let $a<0$ and $b>0$ be real numbers such that $a<-2b$. Let $n>1$ be a positive integer and consider the following partial sum: $$ f(n) = \frac{1}{(n+1)^2}\sum_{i=1}^{n}\sum_{j=1}^{n} (-1)^{...
5
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0answers
197 views

A problem of Erdős on convergence of $\sum (-1)^nn/p_n$ and equidistribution of $\pi(n)$ modulo 2

Erdős asked1 whether the series $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n n}{p_n}$$ converges. Here, $p_n$ denotes the n-th prime. I can show that this series converges simultaneously with the series $\sum_{...
0
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0answers
98 views

When will the series be zero

Let $$S_n=a_n-\frac{1}{a_{n-1}-\frac{1}{a_{n-2}-\frac{1}{a_{n-3}-\frac{1}{\ddots \\ a_2-\frac{1}{a_1}}}}}$$ where $a_1,\dots, a_n$ are real numbers and $a_1$ is nonzero. It can be seen that if $a_1,\...
6
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3answers
430 views

Randomly picking $k$ members of $\{1,\ldots,n\}$

Every day, I randomly pick a sample consisting of $k$ members of $\{1,\ldots,n\}$ where $k\leq n$. I stop as soon as every number of $\{1,\ldots,n\}$ has been picked at least once. Let $S$ be the ...
1
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0answers
320 views

Why do some mathematicians believe that the notation $(x_n)_{n\in \omega}$ is better than $(x_n)_{n=0}^\infty$ or $(x_n)_{n\in \mathbb N}$ [closed]

It seems that there is a trend among certain set-theory-oriented mathematicians to prefer the notation $n\in \omega$ to $n\in \mathbb N$ even when dealing with things totally unrelated to ordinal ...
1
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1answer
106 views

$\sum_{n=0}^{N-1}\exp(-i\frac{\pi}{N}n^2)=\sqrt{N}\exp(-i\frac{\pi}{4})$

The question is: N is an even positive integer, then $\sum_{n=0}^{N-1}\exp(-i\frac{\pi}{N}n^2)=\sqrt{N}\exp(-i\frac{\pi}{4})$. I thought the terms on the left are the solutions set of some polynomial ...
3
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1answer
242 views

Constant “periodization” of a function

Let $w$ be a rapidly decaying function on $\mathbb{R}$ such that $$ \sum_{n \in \mathbb{Z}} w(x+n) = 0$$ for all $x \in \mathbb{R}$. Does that imply that $w$ is identically zero? What if we assume ...
1
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1answer
140 views

Finding closed form of recurrence relation in two variables [closed]

I have a recurrence, $$F(n, m) = F(n-1, m) + F(n, m-1) + F(n-1,m-1) $$ $$F(n,1) = 0$$ $$F(1,n) = 2*(n-1)$$ I would like to compute $F(N,M)$ in terms of $N$ and $M$. The system is defined for $1 \...
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3answers
1k views

Adventure with infinite series, a curiosity

It is easily verifiable that $$\sum_{k\geq0}\binom{2k}k\frac1{2^{3k}}=\sqrt{2}.$$ It is not that difficult to get $$\sum_{k\geq0}\binom{4k}{2k}\frac1{2^{5k}}=\frac{\sqrt{2-\sqrt2}+\sqrt{2+\sqrt2}}2.$$ ...
1
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1answer
136 views

Approximate the following series on the euclidean grid

I had trouble in finding a closed form solution for the following series, so now I am trying to find a good approximation for it. The $\sqrt{i^2 + j^2}$ in the exponent comes from distances on the ...
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0answers
40 views

Is there a formula for computing the parity of a sequence with discrete alphabet?

Suppose we have a sequence of number, whose alphabet is chosen from a discrete set such as (0,1,2). An example of such sequence is 0210122. Now I would like to determine if it is an odd permutation ...
3
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2answers
227 views

Infinite sum of reciprocals of squares of lengths of tangents from origin to the curve $y=\sin x$

This question is actually from MSE. I had to post it here due to the lack of response there even after placing a bounty. Here goes the question Let tangents be drawn to the curve $y=\sin x$ from ...
5
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2answers
605 views

Searching for a proof for a series identity

The below identity I have found experimentally. Question. Is this true? If so, may you provide a "slick" (or any) proof. $$6\sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\frac{k^2q^k}{(1-q^k)^2}+12\left(\sum_{k=1}^{\infty}...
2
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1answer
90 views

Quotient with positive second derivative in the limit?

I am studying the quotient of $$f(\varepsilon) = \sum_{i=1}^{\infty} \frac{i^2}{2^{\varepsilon i^2}}$$ and $$g(\varepsilon) = \sum_{i=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{2^{\varepsilon i^2}}$$ for some $\...
0
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1answer
94 views

May Champernowne constants $C_m$ be related to other numbers than $m$?

[This question is related to another question concerning normal numbers I asked at Math SE.] Has it ever been found worth to ask the question if the Champernowne constants $C_m$, especially $C_2$ ...
2
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2answers
122 views

How to estimate a recursive inequality with an upper bound

The below is a simplification of part of a proof I'm working on, in numerical analysis. It is similar to a paper that I studied some months ago, for which I got some advice here on MathOverflow. I ...
3
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1answer
98 views

Matching two sequences between each other

Given the sequence of symbols $A$ (contains ~10,000 symbols) and sequence of blocks $B$ (contains ~3,000 blocks, ~30 symbols inside each block) I need to exclude some blocks from sequence $B$ so that ...
29
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1answer
2k views

A remarkable almost-identity

OEIS sequence A210247 gives the signs of $\text{li}(-n,-1/3) = \sum_{k=1}^\infty (-1)^k k^n/3^k$, also the signs of the Maclaurin coefficients of $4/(3 + \exp(4x))$. Mikhail Kurkov noticed that it ...
2
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2answers
65 views

Divergence rate of geometric sum of random variables

Let $(X_n)_{n\in\mathbb{N}}$ be a sequence of strictly positive and identically distributed random variables and let $\beta\le 1$. I am trying to prove that $$ 0<\lim_{\beta\rightarrow 1}(1-\...
2
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1answer
170 views

Guess (or upper bound) the general formula for a double sequence

Let $t,s \geq 0$ be integers. We have the following recursive formula: $$f(t+1,s) = f(t,s) + f(t,s-1) + \sum_{0\leq a,b,c \leq h(t):\\a+b+c = s-1}f(t,a)f(t,b)f(t,c),$$ where $$h(t) = \frac{1}{2}3^t -\...
7
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1answer
229 views

Descartes' rule of signs for infinite series

Consider the function given by $$f(x)=1-a_1x-a_2x^2-a_3x^3-\cdots$$ where each $a_k\geq0$ and some $a_j>0$. If $f(x)$ is a polynomial then Descartes' Rule of signs tells us there is exactly one ...
10
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2answers
263 views

Denominators of certain Laurent polynomials

Consider the following somos-like sequence $$x_n=\frac{x_{n-1}^2+x_{n-2}^2}{x_{n-3}}.$$ It's known that $x_n$ is a Laurent polynomial in $x_0, x_1$ and $x_2$. I got interested in the denominators of ...
1
vote
1answer
136 views

About a Dirichlet series [closed]

I would like to know if the following assertion is true: Let consider a real decreasing sequence $(t_n)$ of positive numbers with limit zero, if the series $\sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty(t_n)^a$ is ...
8
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0answers
145 views

Infinite series identities in search of a proof

This comes in relation to the Fishburn numbers. I stumbled on the following relation for which I ask a proof if true. Let $Q_i(z):=1-(1-t)^{i-1}(1-zt)$. Then $$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{(n+1)zt}{...
16
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0answers
437 views

Does every real function have this weak derivation property?

After this question : Does every real function have this weak continuity property? Natrualy there are an other (more difficult) : Is it true that for every real function $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}...
50
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3answers
3k views

Does every real function have this weak continuity property?

In my research I came across the following question : Is it true that for every real function $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$, there exists a real sequence $(x_n)_n$, taking infinitely many values, ...
-1
votes
2answers
311 views

Are there integral solutions for $(2a-1)(2^{(b+c)}-3^c )=2^b-1$?

Can anyone prove this assertion? Or at least suggest a method of attack? It has come up in my research. There do not exist $a,b$ and $c$ such that$$ (2a-1)(2^{(b+c)}-3^c )=2^b-1 $$where $a>0,b&...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

Order 2 linear/geometric recurrent sequence

Let $(u_n)_{n\geq 0}$ a sequence of reals satisfying the following recurrence relation: $$ \forall n>1, \qquad u_{n+2} = r^{n+2}\big( Au_{n+1}+ Bu_n\big) $$ for fixed non zero constants $A,B,r$. ...
4
votes
1answer
73 views

Convergence of a real sequence (stochastic approximation)

Let $(\gamma_n)_{n \geq 1}$ be a sequence of positive real numbers satisfying $$\sum_{n \in \mathbb{N}}\gamma_n = + \infty \text{ and }\sum_{n \in \mathbb{N}}\gamma_n^2 < + \infty$$ I would like ...
3
votes
1answer
149 views

What is the shortest length of an Egyptian fraction expansion for a given $p/q$?

An Egyptian fraction expansion is a sum of reciprocals of integers, for example: $$\frac{4}{17} = \frac{1}{5} + \frac{1}{29} + \frac{1}{1233} + \frac{1}{3039345}$$ Every positive rational number $p/...
7
votes
1answer
119 views

Is anything known about this class of series involving the divisor function?

I hope it is OK to ask the following reference request. If my question is not suitable, please let me know and I will do my best to modify it! Let $N\in\mathbb{N}$, let $q$ be a point in the open ...