# Questions tagged [limits-and-colimits]

For questions on limits and colimts in the sense of category theory, and related notions.

205
questions

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### 2(Probably quite simple) Math Questions [closed]

https://i.stack.imgur.com/LTJXB.jpg
I need help with these two questions.I can't try anything because i'm not good at math.Thanks for the help.

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### Primitive ideals of inductive limits of $C^*$-algebras

I am trying to understand ideals of direct limits in the category of $C^{\ast}$-algebras.
Let $(A_n,f_n)$ be a direct sequence of $C^{\ast}$-algebras and let $I$ be a primitive (modular) ideal of ...

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**1**answer

117 views

### Reference for homotopy colimit = total complex

I'm looking for a reference for the following fact:
take a simplicial chain complex $ X:\Delta^{op}\to Ch_{\geq 0}(\mathcal A)$ for $\mathcal A$ a nice abelian category (say, cocomplete with enough ...

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105 views

### Is the module of Kähler differentials a coend?

Let $\phi\colon R\to S$ be a ring map. The module of Kähler differentials $\Omega_{S/R}$ of $\phi$ can be constructed as the following coequaliser:
$$\left(\bigoplus_{(a, b)\in S^2} S[(a, b)]\right) \...

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**3**answers

129 views

### Injective maps and direct limits [closed]

I have the following question. Assume you have a category $\mathcal{C}$ such that direct limits exists. Let $(C_n)_{n\in\mathbb{N}}$ be a sequence of objects in $\mathcal{C}$ and consider the ...

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### Reference for limits of schemes with non-affine transitions?

Inverse systems of projective schemes appear in several contexts, for example:
in constructing the Zariski-Riemann space of a projective variety,
in studying subvarieties of a projective variety ...

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135 views

### Does forgetting colimits preserve colimits?

For each regular cardinal $\kappa$ let $\operatorname{Cat}_{\kappa}$ be the $(2,1)$-category of small categories with $\kappa$-small colimits, and functors that preserve those colimits. For each pair ...

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**1**answer

147 views

### Convergence in $C_c$ but not in $C$

Let $C_c(\mathbb{R})$ be the set of compactly-supported continuous functions on $\mathbb{R}$. We can view this with a number of different topologies but I have my eye on two in particular. Let $X$ ...

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61 views

### Comparison of inductive limit topology with very-rapidly decaying non-convex $L^{!/2}$-space topology

This is related to these posts and here.
Let $L^1([n,n+1])$ denote the subspace of $L^p$-functions on $[0,\infty)$ essentially supported on $[-n,n]$. Denote the accelerated $\ell^1$-direct sum ...

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51 views

### Equivalence of categories preserves (co)products [closed]

Let $A$ and $B$ be categories with (arbitrary) products and coproducts and $F : A \rightarrow B$ is an equivalence of categories, then $F$ preserves limits and colimits, hence $F$ preserves arbitrary ...

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70 views

### Convergence in LB-spaces

Edit:
Let $X$ be a strict LB-space described by $\lim X_n$ and suppose that $\{x_n\}_{n \in \mathbb{N}}$ converges in $X$. I'm looking for a reference showing that $x_n$ must converge in some $X_N$.

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47 views

### Relative completeness of a relative cocompletion of a subcategory

I'm going to use the language from Lack and Rosicky's Notions of Lawvere theory, but I won't be touching on actual enriched category theory.
Suppose I have a category $\mathbb{C}$ with a class of ...

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392 views

### Cocomplete and finitely complete category with nice pullbacks that is not locally presentable

I have a result that holds for cocomplete and finitely complete categories such that pullbacks preserve directed colimits, by which I mean $A \times_B (\operatorname{colim}_{i \in I} C_i) = colim_{i \...

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**1**answer

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### Comparison of product topology and colimit topology in sequence spaces

In Munkres Theorem 20.4 it is shown that the (relative) uniform topology induced by:
$$
d(x,y)\triangleq \sup_{n \in \mathbb{N}} d(x_n,y_n)
$$
is strictly finer than the product topology on $\prod_{n \...

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96 views

### Classification of absolute 2-limits?

Let $\mathcal V$ be a good enriching category. Recall that an enriched limit weight $\phi: D \to \mathcal V$ is called absolute if $\phi$-weighted limits are preserved by any $\mathcal V$-enriched ...

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**1**answer

71 views

### Sobolev topology on essentially compactly supported Sobolev-“functions”

The locally convex space of essentially compactly-supported $p$-integrable "functions" $\operatorname{L}_{\mathrm{comp}}^p(\mathbb{R}^d,\mathbb{R})$ is defined as the set
$$
\bigcup_{n \in \mathbb{N}} ...

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**1**answer

124 views

### Projective module which splits off sequence of submodules, but not the sum

Does there exist an example of a module $X$ over some ring $R$ together with submodules $T_i$ such that:
$X$ is projective,
$X$ splits as an internal direct sum $X\cong T_1\oplus T_2\oplus \ldots \...

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votes

**3**answers

451 views

### Cofinality for coends?

Recall that a functor $I \xrightarrow u J$ is cofinal if it has the property that for any functor $J \xrightarrow F C$, we have that $\varinjlim F \cong \varinjlim Fu$ via the canonical map, either ...

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votes

**1**answer

166 views

### Is there such a thing as a weighted Kan extension?

The title pretty much sums it up.
More in detail. Let $C$, $D$ and $E$ be categories, let $F:C\to D$ and $G:C\to E$ be functors, and let $P:C^{op}\to \mathrm{Set}$ be a presheaf. The colimit of $F$ ...

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**1**answer

182 views

### Limit of split short exact sequences

Let $X$ be a module over some ring which splits as $$X\cong M_1\oplus S_1\cong M_1\oplus M_2 \oplus S_2 \cong M_1\oplus M_2 \oplus M_3\oplus S_3\cong \ldots$$
where the isomorphisms come from ...

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**4**answers

1k views

### Conceptual reason that monadic functors create limits?

Let $U: Alg_T \to C$ be the forgetful functor from the category of algebras of $T: C \to C$ ($T$ could be a monad; I'm happy to think about the simpler case where $T$ is just an endofunctor or pointed ...

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### Continuous function on colimit

Let $X$ be a Banach space and $f:X\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be continuous. Suppose that $\{X_n\}_{n \in \mathbb{N}}$ is a strictly nested sequence of sub-Banach spaces, for which $\cup_{n \in \mathbb{N}...

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480 views

### Can filtered colimits be computed in the homotopy category?

For $\mathcal{S}$ the $(\infty,1)$-category of spaces its homotopy category $h\mathcal{S}$ does not have pushouts or pullbacks. Even if it does, they won't always agree with the (homotopy) pushouts or ...

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334 views

### $L^{\infty}$ as colimit

I recently read a result (in Jarchow's book) that any ultrabornological space can be expressed as a colimit (in the category LCS) of Banach spaces. My question is the following.
Let $\mu$ be a ...

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**1**answer

301 views

### Simple examples of colimits of affine schemes (evaluated in the presheaf category) which are not affine schemes

Notation and Setting: let $\operatorname{Aff}$ denote the category of affine schemes whose objects are covariant representable functors $\operatorname{X}:\operatorname{Ring}\rightarrow\operatorname{...

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**2**answers

472 views

### moving from sphere spectrum to finite spectrum

I am reading Hatcher's treatment of the Adam's spectral sequence. http://pi.math.cornell.edu/~hatcher/SSAT/SSch2.pdf
On page 20, he states "Thus for each $i$ the groups $\pi_i(Z^k)$ are zero for all ...

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### Refinement: Can $L^1_{loc}$ be represented as colimit?

Let $\mu$ be a $\sigma$-finite measure on a measure space $(\mathbb{R}^d,\Sigma)$. Can $L^1_{\mu,loc}$ be represented as an injective-limit in the category of LCS (locally convex spaces and ...

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### Surjectivity of colimit maps for topological spaces

From this post and to (co)completness of the category Top of topological spaces and continuous functions we know that for any diagram $B_i$ and an object $A$ in Top, there are natural maps of sets:$\...

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### Gluing together dense subset of Projective Limit in $Ban_1$

Let $(X_n,\pi_n^{m})$ be a countable projective system in the category Ban$_1$ of Banach spaces and short linear maps (is (continuous) linear constructions). Then (co)-completeness of this category ...

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259 views

### $L^1_{\mu}$ as limit

Let $(X,\Sigma,\mu)$ be a $\sigma$-finite measure space. Does there exist a countable set of finite measures $\{\mu_n\}_{n \in \mathbb{N}}$ on $(X,\Sigma)$ such that $L^1_{\mu}(\Sigma)$ can be ...

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225 views

### Diagonal of a diagram of codescent objects

Given the following diagram in a $2$-category, in which squares of the same "type" commute, where each column and each row is a strong codescent diagram (Edit: it should be reflexive as well), is ...

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247 views

### Can homotopy colimits recover cohomology sheaves?

The question is basically the one outlined in the title. Let $\mathcal{T}$ be a triangulated category containing infinite direct sums (e.g. $D_{qc}(X)$ for some separated, finite type over a field $k$,...

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### Existence of homotopy limits and colimits in model categories

I am not an expert, thus I apologize if my question is very naive. Let $\mathsf{M}$ be a model category (I do not assume any functoriality on the factorization),
Q1. Is there a reference where it ...

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votes

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### Can $L^1_{loc}$ be represented as colimit?

Let $L^1_{loc}$ denote the set of all functions from $\mathbb{R}$ to itself which are locally integrable. For every infinite compact subset $K\subseteq \mathbb{R}$, let $L^1_{m_K}$ denote the space ...

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149 views

### Limit of balls in $L^p$

Setup:
Let $\mu$ be a measure on a measurable space $(X,\Sigma)$, such that for every $p ,q\in [1,\infty)$, $L^p_{\mu}(\Sigma)\subseteq L^q_{\mu}(\Sigma)$ if $p\geq q$. Furthermore, the inclusions ...

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152 views

### The Stone-Čech compactification of a inverse system

Is the Stone-Čech compactification of the inverse limit of an inverse system $\left\{ X_{i},f_{ij},I\right\} $ of Tychonoff spaces equal to the limit of the inverse system $\left\{ \beta X_{i},\beta ...

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240 views

### Colimits in the category of (not necessarily locally convex) topological vector spaces

Do colimits in the category of (not necessarily locally convex) topological vector spaces (over R, C, respectively) exist in general?
If no, is there a well-known condition of when they exist?
If ...

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188 views

### Zero in colimit of sheaves category

This question is motivated by showing that the category $\mathbf{Sheaves} (X)$ from the open subset excluding the empty set category to the category of abelian group $\mathbf{Ab}$ has enough injective ...

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101 views

### Need of filtered indexed categories

Similar questions have already been asked here and here but not exactly in the direction I need.
I have a (small) index category $\mathcal{I}$ which is not cofiltered, and I need to consider ...

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**1**answer

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### Most general context where a “disjoint sum” definition of a direct limit is applicable and always exist

I am a bit out of my element here so I'm hopefully not saying something stupid.
Anyways, wikipedia gives two ways to define direct limits, one for "algebraic structures" and one for general ...

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249 views

### Higher-dimensional version of the “Magic Cube Lemma” for homotopy pushouts/pullbacks

The "Magic Cube Lemma" is a surprising (to me) relationship between (homotopy) pushouts and (homotopy) pullbacks of spaces:
Consider a cubical diagram $I^3\to \mathcal{S}$ in the $\infty$-category of ...

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293 views

### What is the categorical analogue of openness?

Let us say that a category $\mathcal C$ has enough of some class $\mathcal U$ of object if every object in $\mathcal C$ is a colimit of objects of the class $\mathcal U$. The pointset topology ...

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### Faithfully flat descent for modules from the simplicial point of view

Let $R \rightarrow R'$ be a faithfully flat ring map, let $M$ be an $R$-module, and let $M_n$ be the base change of $M$ to the tensor product of $n + 1$ copies of $R'$ over $R$. One way to formulate ...

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### Equivalence relations in arbitrary categories

Let $C$ be a category and $A\in\mathrm{ob}(C)$. A relation is a subobject $q:Q\hookrightarrow A^{\times 2}$ and the quotient is defined as the coequalizer
$$A/Q:=\mathrm{coeq}\left(Q\stackrel{q}{\...

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375 views

### Basic example of a formal affine scheme, functorial point of view

$\let\opn=\operatorname$For my BA thesis I have to describe formal groups from the functorial point of view. I am hence reading Strickland - Formal Schemes and Formal Groups, which is apparently the ...

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179 views

### Algorithmically deciding existence of finite limits in a category

Given $\Sigma$ a consistent finite first order theory in vocabulary $L$, one can consider the category of its models $\mathcal{M}(\Sigma)$, its objects are the models of $\Sigma$ and arrows are ...

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### Two directed colimits of same spaces with different inclusions

For any natural number $n$, let $i_{n},j_{n}:X_{n}\rightarrow X_{n+1}$ be a pair of monomorphisms of simplcial sets.
Define $$X=\operatorname*{colim}_n \{\cdots X_n \rightarrow_{i_n} X_{n+1}\cdots \}...

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248 views

### Sufficient sets of colimits in small categories

Let $C$ be a small category, and consider the class of diagrams $G:D\to C$, with $D$ a small category, that have colimits in $C$. This is a proper class even when $C$ is very small, e.g. whenever $D$ ...

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### Filtered colimit of a topological space

Suppose that $X$ is a space filtered by closed subspaces $X_{1}\subset X_{2}\subset \dots$.
As topological space $X=\operatorname{colim}_{n}X_{n}$.
We define $Y_{n}=X_{n+1}/X_{n}$, and consider the ...

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119 views

### Inductive limit commutes with topological tensor product

Consider $H \left(U \right); U \subset \mathbb{C}$ - space of holomorphic functions with compact-open topology. In this topology, this space is Montel, nuclear and Frechet. I want to take the ...