# Questions tagged [linear-orders]

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66
questions

4
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### Find an order-embedding of $S_3\times{\bf2}\times{\bf2}$ into ${\mathbb Z}^4$

A function $f:P\to Q$ from a poset $(P,\le_P)$ to a poset $(Q,\le_Q)$ is an order-embedding if, for all $p,p'\in P$, $p\le_P p'$ if and only if $f(p)\le_Q f(p')$.
We partially order the Cartesian ...

5
votes

0
answers

114
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### Which monomials are "leadable"?

Question: Let $k$ be a field, let $f \in k[t_1,\ldots,t_N]$ be a nonzero polynomial. Which monomials
$m_a = t_1^{a_1} \cdots t_N^{a_n}$ appearing in $f$ are leadable in the sense that they are the ...

3
votes

0
answers

66
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### What are all the order types of maximal chains of $\Delta^0_2$ sets?

A set of natural numbers is $\Delta^0_2$ if it’s computable from the halting set. Consider the quasi-order/pre-order of all $\Delta_0^2$ sets ordered by $m$-reduction, or equivalently consider the ...

2
votes

0
answers

71
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### Ordered vector space that can be embedded into its bidual

We say that an ordered vector space $(V, \ge)$ (over $\mathbb{R}$) is "bidual embeddable" (I made up this name, not sure whether this concept already exists) if for every $x \in V$, if $x$ ...

-3
votes

1
answer

94
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### Order-embeddability of ${\frak b}$ and ${\frak d}$ in $\mathbb{R}$ [duplicate]

The starting point of this question is the observation that in ${\sf (ZFC)}$, all ordinals $\alpha < \omega_1$ can be order-embedded in $\mathbb{R}$.
Let $\omega^\omega$ denote the set of all ...

2
votes

0
answers

59
views

### Countable highly order-transitive subgroups of $\mathrm{Aut}(\mathbb{Q},\leq)$

Consider $A := \mathrm{Aut}(\mathbb{Q},\leq)$, the group of order-automorphisms of $(\mathbb{Q},\leq)$. Call a subgroup $U$ highly order-transitive if for any two finite ordered sequences $s_1$ and $...

2
votes

0
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97
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### Closed images of linearly ordered spaces

Is there a description of the class of continuous closed images of linearly ordered spaces?

5
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0
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186
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### Given a totally ordered system of Banach spaces, can we we always change the norms to get isometric embeddings?

Given a real vector space $V$ which is the union of a totally ordered family of vector subspaces $V=\bigcup_{i\in I} V_i$. By that I mean that we assume that $(I,\leq)$ is a totally ordered set and ...

10
votes

0
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354
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### Can one define in ZFC a directed system of embeddings on the class of all linear orders realizing the surreal line as the direct limit?

Consider the surreal line $\langle\newcommand\No{\text{No}}\No,\leq\rangle$, in its order structure only. This is a proper class linear order, which is universal for all set-sized linear orders, as ...

4
votes

1
answer

146
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### Classifying the endofunctors of the category $\Delta$ of finite linear orders

Is there a theory of endofunctors of the category $\Delta$ of finite linear orders ?
Can they be classified ? Is there a reference on this ?
Can one classify endofunctors $T:\Delta\to\Delta$ which ...

1
vote

0
answers

170
views

### A variant of Buchholz's ordinal notation

Buchholz here introduced an ordinal notation, consisting of a set $\mathcal{T}$, a linear order $\prec$ on $\mathcal{T}$ and some $\mathcal{OT} \subset \mathcal{T}$ such that $(\mathcal{OT}, \prec)$ ...

4
votes

0
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201
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### Is there a ${\bf 0'}$-computable linear order with "all intervals wild"?

Say that a linear order $L$ is a thicket iff $L$ is infinite, and for all elements $a,b,c_1,...,c_n\in L$ with $a<_Lb$ and $[a,b]_L$ infinite the following are equivalent:
$\{a,b\}\subseteq \...

3
votes

1
answer

142
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### A closed subset of a Dedekind-complete order has subspace topology equal to order topology

Here's a fairly easy fact from point-set topology that I'm having trouble finding a reference for. Say $X$ is a total order satisfying the least-upper bound property, and $S$ is a closed subset of it....

6
votes

0
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185
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### A representation of a partial order by a slowly changing sequence of linear orders

We study visualizations of attractors, which occur in chaotic dynamic systems, and for a few years trying to prove or refute Conjecture [3]. It has an equivalent formulation in terms of order theory, ...

6
votes

1
answer

229
views

### Ordering preference for two zero mean Gaussian outcomes

Let $X\sim \mathcal{N}(0,1)$ be a standard Gaussian random variable. If we let $f_a(x)\triangleq\mathbb{E}[\max\{aX,x\}]$ for $a,x >0$, how to prove that $$f_a(f_b(1))<f_b(f_a(1))~~\text{for }0&...

3
votes

1
answer

152
views

### Is there an explicit linear extension for the subsequence partial order?

Consider the set of finite sequences (of bounded length $\leq k$, if necessary) whose elements are taken from some finite alphabet $\Sigma$. We define a partial order on this set so that
$X = (X_1,...,...

9
votes

1
answer

257
views

### Is a Banach lattice isomorphic to a Hilbert space in fact a Hilbert lattice?

The title says it all:
Let $E$ be a Banach lattice, which is isomorphic to a Hilbert space (as normed spaces). Is there an equivalent Hilbert norm on $E$, which still makes it a Banach lattice with ...

17
votes

1
answer

1k
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### Suprema of directed sets

Let $(X, \le)$ be a partially ordered set. We call a subset $S \subseteq X$...
... a chain if each two elements in $S$ are comparable with respect to $\le$ (in other words, $S$ is linearly ordered ...

1
vote

0
answers

99
views

### About a type of permutations

How many permutations are there on the set $\{1,2, \cdots, n\}$ ($n\geq 3$), such that any three elements are not in increasing or decreasing order? For example, for $n=3$ we have $(1,3,2), (2,1,3), (...

1
vote

0
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85
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### Name for partial orders which are total on connected components

In my context, I encounter a lot of partial orders with the distinguished property that the order is total on connected components. Equivalently, they satisfy the condition
$$x \le y,z \enspace \lor \...

14
votes

1
answer

566
views

### On certain order-automorphisms of the rationals

Consider the rationals $\mathbb{Q}$ with the usual order $\leq$. Now let $A$ be a subset of $\mathbb{Q}$, such that foreseen with the induced order $\leq$, $(A,\leq)$ is a dense linear order.
...

2
votes

1
answer

207
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### Fundamental theorem of linear orders

Let $(\Omega,\leq)$ be a countable linear order. Suppose that for every finite $m \in \mathbb{N}$, and all subsets $S_1$ and $S_2$ of $\Omega$ of order $m$, there is an order-automorphism of $(\Omega,\...

8
votes

2
answers

508
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### Ordinal notations within non-standard models of arithmetic

It is well-known that the order type of any countable non-standard model of arithmetic $\mathfrak{A}$ is $\omega+(\omega^*+\omega)\eta$. My question is what could be said about the order types of ...

4
votes

1
answer

245
views

### Characterization of Archimedean linearly ordered monoids

In this question, it is shown that all Archimedean ordered groups are isomorphic to an ordered subgroup of $\mathbb R$. Additionally, it is shown that if such a group is complete, then it is ...

1
vote

1
answer

180
views

### Self-embeddings of uncountable total orders

A nice theorem of Dushnik and Miller (from 1940) states that if $(\Omega,\leq)$ is a countable total order, then either
there is an element $\omega \in \Omega$ such that $(\Omega \setminus \{\omega\}...

8
votes

1
answer

304
views

### A strictly decreasing function between uncountable subsets of the reals

By a standard technique of inductive killing everything relevant (in this case decreasing homeomorphisms between uncountable $G_\delta$-subsets of the real line) it is possible to prove the following ...

3
votes

0
answers

44
views

### Maximal number of sets, obtained as intersections of semiintervals of $k$ linear orders

Given a finite set $S$ with $n$ elements, and a fixed small $k$ (say $k=3$), how to find $k$ linear orders $\leq_1, \dots, \leq_k$ on $S$, such that the number of feasible subsets of $S$ is ...

3
votes

2
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144
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### What is the dimension of a subspace of the product of $n$ linearly ordered compacta

This question is motivated by this problem of Dominic van der Zypen.
Problem. Let $X=\prod_{i=1}^nX_i$ be the Tychonoff product of linearly ordered compact Hausdorff spaces $X_1,\dots,X_n$. Is it ...

14
votes

1
answer

1k
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### Characterizing $\mathbf{R}$ as an ordered group

A standard characterization of $\mathbf{R}$ uses the order and the field structure: any linearly ordered field that is archimedean and complete is isomorphic to $(\mathbf{R}, +, \times, <)$ as an ...

4
votes

1
answer

141
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### Kruskal's tree theorem and $\Pi_1$ sentences of linear orderings with finitely many constants

In their paper "Theories with recursive models" [1] Lerman and Schmerl used a version of Kruskal's tree theorem about finite n-augmented trees.
An n-augmented tree is a tree T together with $n$ unary ...

2
votes

1
answer

289
views

### Name for this algebraic structure?

I've found myself looking at a structure $\mathbb{M}$ whose important properties are:
$\mathbb{M}$ is a discretely ordered additive monoid.
$\mathbb{M}$ has a least element, and this least element is ...

9
votes

3
answers

583
views

### Associative mean

Can there be a function $m(a,b)$ that is both associative and a mean, i.e.,
$\min (a,b) \leq m(a,b) \leq \max (a,b)$? The obvious solutions are $m(a,b) = \max(a,b)$ or $\min(a,b)$, but are there ...

6
votes

1
answer

463
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### Upward Löwenheim–Skolem theorem for well-ordered models with/without measurable cardinals

Consider a complete first order theory $T$ whose language contains a binary predicate $\leq$. Assume that $T$ has an uncountable model that is well-ordered by $\leq$ so that this question isn't stupid ...

5
votes

1
answer

128
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### Is there literature on finite geometries with ordered lines?

A difference between finite geometries and (e.g.) Euclidean space is that "lines" in finite geometries are unordered subsets of the universe, while "lines" in Euclidean space are ordered subsets of ...

4
votes

2
answers

217
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### locally incomparable dense linear orderings extending $\langle \mathbb{R}, < \rangle$

This follows up on Incomparable dense linear orderings extending $\langle \mathbb{R},< \rangle$
and hopefully sparks more discussion.
Where $a<b$, say that the four “types” of nonempty bounded ...

7
votes

1
answer

266
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### Incomparable dense linear orderings extending $\langle \mathbb{R},< \rangle$

Where $a<b$, say that the four “types” of non-empty bounded intervals are:
$(a,b)$, $[a,b]$, $(a,b]$, and $[a,b)$.
Let $\langle X,< \rangle$ and $\langle Y,< \rangle$ be dense linear ...

4
votes

1
answer

187
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### An algebraically generated set of linear orders

Notation: Let $L_1,L_2,...$ be linearly ordered sets.
$L_{i}^{-1}$ denotes the reverse linear order of $L_{i}$,
$L_1+L_2$ denotes the sum of linear orders, i.e. the disjoint union $L_1\cup L_2$ with ...

11
votes

0
answers

406
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### Example of $\aleph_1$-categorical linear order

Is it possible to have an $L_{\omega_1,\omega}$-sentence $\phi$ in a vocabulary that includes $<$ that satisfies the following?
$<$ is a linear order on a definable subset;
$\phi$ is $\aleph_1$-...

2
votes

1
answer

109
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### The pseudo-metric and linear orders

Is there a necessary and sufficient condition for a linearly ordered topological space to be pseudo-metrizable? (by a pseudo-metric, I mean a map $X\times X\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ in which all the ...

3
votes

1
answer

171
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### Least ordinal not embedded in a total order

If $(E,<)$ is a linear order, let $s(E,<)$ denote the least ordinal which doesn't embed in $(E,<)$.
I am trying to prove the following:
If $(M,+,.,0,1)$ is a model of open induction, (or ...

18
votes

0
answers

834
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### Is the universality of the surreal number line a weak global choice principle?

I'd like to consider the principle asserting that the surreal
number line is universal for all class linear orders, or in other
words, that every linear order (including proper-class-sized)
linear ...

1
vote

0
answers

82
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### reconstructing a linear order corrupted by noise

Suppose we have a partial order (efficiently computable), $\leq$, on $\mathbb{R}^n$, a set $S \subset \mathbb{R}^n$, and let $\rho$ be the standard Euclidean metric. We want to find a set $S^\prime = ...

4
votes

2
answers

499
views

### Maximal cones and lexicographic orderings

Let $V$ be a real vector space. It is well known that, given a totally ordered basis of $V$ (say $(b_i)_{i\in I}$ where $I,<$ is totally ordered), $V$ is totally ordered by the lexicographic ...

19
votes

0
answers

763
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### A Linear Order from AP Calculus

In teaching my calculus students about limits and function domination, we ran into the class of functions
$$\Theta=\{x^\alpha (\ln{x})^\beta\}_{(\alpha,\beta)\in\mathbb{R}^2}$$
Suppose we say that $...

3
votes

4
answers

898
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### Is there a compact connected Hausdorff space in which every non-empty $G_\delta$ set has non-empty interior?

Q1.
Is there a compact connected Hausdorff space (with at least two points) in which every non-empty $G_\delta$ set has non-empty interior? (Without the requirement for connectedness, every finite $...

1
vote

0
answers

209
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### Existence of $\lambda$-transitive linear orders for $\lambda \geq \aleph_0$

A linear order $(L, <)$ is $\lambda$-transitive iff any order-preserving bijection between sets of size $\lambda$ can be extended to an order automorphism of $L$.
For $\lambda < \aleph_0$, $2$-...

3
votes

1
answer

292
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### Normal subgroup of a totally ordered group

A totally ordered group is a group equipped with a compatible total order, that is, $x\leq y$ and $z\leq t$ imply $x+z\leq y+t$ for all $x,y,z,t$ in the group.
Is it true that every totally ordered ...

3
votes

1
answer

359
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### reduction to np hard ordering problem

I am trying to show a reduction from a problem of ordering problem to an np-hard problem that has approximation poly-time algorithm.
My problem is: I have M auctions and in each auction I have N ...

2
votes

3
answers

407
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### Compact, densely ordered spaces

During my work with order preserving homeomorphisms, I got interested in the double arrow space and, subsequently, in the lexicographic square.
I would really like to find examples of spaces like ...

4
votes

2
answers

511
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### Is it consistent with ZFC that $\mathrm{dv}(\kappa) = \kappa$ for all infinite cardinal numbers $\kappa$?

Whenever $\kappa$ is an infinite cardinal number, write $L(\kappa)$ for the powerset of $\kappa$ ordered lexicographically. (Where the "$L$" stands for linear order.) Furthermore, write $B(\kappa)$ ...