# Questions tagged [analytic-number-theory]

A beautiful blending of real/complex analysis with number theory. The study involves distribution of prime numbers and other problems and helps giving asymptotic estimates to these.

2,873
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### Modified Gauss Sum when the characters have different period

Let $\chi$ be a Dirichlet character mod q, and
\begin{eqnarray}
t(\chi)=\sum_{n=1}^{q}\chi(n)e(\frac{n}{2q}).
\end{eqnarray}
Do we have a bound or formula for $t(\chi)$ similar to that of the usual ...

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### Generators of the ideal class group

Theorem 4 of Eric Bach's "Explicit bounds for primality testing and related problems" states the following:
Let $K$ be a number field of degree greater than 1. Let $d$ be the absolute value ...

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### Error function of the second moment of the divisor function

It is easy to show that the second moment of the divisor function has asymptotics:
$$\sum_{n\leq x} d_0(n)^2 = xP(\log(x))+E_2(x)$$
Where $P$ is some polynomial and that:
$$E_2 = o(x)$$
Previously, ...

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### Electrostatic potential energy of point-charges at primes up to $x$

Given a positive real (or integral) number $x$ we consider the
electrostatic potential energy of equal point charges at all primes up to $x$
given by
$$E(x)=\sum_{p_1<p_2\leq x}\frac{1}{p_2-p_1}$$
...

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### Empirical bounds on $\left|\frac{\zeta'(1+it)}{\zeta(1+it)}\right|$

It is reasonable to expect that $$\left|\frac{\zeta'(1+it)}{\zeta(1+it)}\right| < 2 \log \log t$$
for all $t\geq 4$ (say): a somewhat stronger bound is known for $t\geq 10^{165}$ or so (Theorem 5 ...

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### Density of a set of numbers whose prime factors are defined by congruences

Let $S$ be the set of positive integers not divisible by $3$ where if $p$ is a prime factor of $n \in S$ and $p \equiv 1\bmod 3$ then $p^2$ does not divide $n$, but if $p\equiv2 \bmod 3$ then $p^2$ ...

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### Number of zeros of the zeta function along horizontal lines

Are there any known results about the number of zeros of the zeta function along horizontal lines of the complex plane? The Riemann hypothesis states that for any such line the number is at most 1, ...

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### Reference request - Pillai-Selberg Theorem

I want to find a proof of the following claim. Let $\Omega(n)$ denote the number of prime factors of an integer $n$ counted with multiplicity. Then $\Omega(n)$ equidistributes over residue classes. ...

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### Limit of an infinite series with quadratic arguments

I have encountered a limiting process on some infinite series. So, I would like to ask:
QUESTION. Assume $n$ is an even positive integer. Is this true?
$$\lim_{r\rightarrow1^{-}}\sum_{j=1}^{\infty}\...

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### Interpretation of the rank of a system $h=(h_1,\dots,h_R)$ of forms when $R=1$

I am reading a paper Liu and Zhao - On forms in prime variables. The paper establishes the minimum number of variables required by a general system of forms of degree $d\ge2$ to have solutions in ...

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### A question about the setup of zero density estimates for Dirichlet $L$-functions

For $L(s,\chi)= \sum_{n \geq 1}\frac{\chi(n)}{n^s}$, where $s = \sigma + it$, we define the function $N(\sigma, T, \chi)$ which counts the zeros $\rho = \beta + i\gamma$ for which $L(\rho, \chi) =0$ ...

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### Average Goldbach and Riemann Hypothesis

This question is a follow up to About Goldbach's conjecture.
To make it self contained, I paste below the required prerequisites of this former question of mine:
"let's consider a composite ...

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### There are infinitely many prime which have arbitrary large gap in their digits in particular base expansion

Consider $m$ and $r$ is any fixed positive integer and $t$ is a variable $(t=0,1,2,3,...)$. Below, $[a]$ denotes the greatest integer function of $a$ (or floor function).
Claim 1 : There exists a ...

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### Conjectured upper bound on the maximum value of the absolute value of the Möbius function in the poset of multiplicative partitions under refinement

PRELIMINARIES:
Consider the poset $(\mathcal{P}_n, \leq_r)$ of the (unordered) multiplicative partitions of $n$ partially ordered under refinement (for all $\lambda, \lambda’ \in \mathcal{P}_n$, we ...

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### On the asymptotic behaviour of the series $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \left ( \frac{\zeta(ns)}{n}+\frac{s}{1-ns}\right )$ near $s=0$

I am interested in determining the behaviour of the the series/function
$$f(s)=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \left ( \frac{\zeta(ns)}{n}+\frac{s}{1-ns}\right )$$
near $s=0$. It is clear that $f(0)$ is undefined....

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### Is there any notion of Poincaré series for Hermitian modular forms?

I have been studying modular forms and their generalisations for a year or so. It is a very interesting fact that the space of cusp forms $S_k$ is generated by the Poincaré series of exponential type (...

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### Asymptotic behaviour of a sum involving Möbius function

(This is a cross-posted simplification of this question posted in MSE which did not have a complete answer.)
I am trying to get the asymptotic behaviour when $n$ grows to infinity of a partial sum of ...

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### prime distribution lower bound: Does the inequality hold for $s=19/10$?

Define a transformation of the prime counting function, $\pi(k)$, by $$J: (0,1) \longrightarrow (0,1) $$
where
$$J(x)= \lim_{r \to \infty} \frac{\int_2^{rx} \pi(k) \, dk }{\int_2^r \pi(k) \, dk}$$
...

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### Is there any way to estimate this functions: $f(n)=\sum_{d|n}d\varphi(d)$ and $g(n)=\sum_{d|n}\frac{\varphi(d)}{d}$?

Let that $n$ be a natural number and $\varphi(n)$ be the Euler totient function. Is there any formula or estimation for computing functions $f,g$ such that:
$$
f(n)=\sum_{d\mid n}d\varphi(d)
$$
and
$$
...

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### A strictly increasing, analytic function that goes through key points of the iterated logarithm?

Is it possible to create a function $f(x)$ that:
is strictly increasing (at least for $x>0$)
is real analytic
goes through all the points where the iterated logarithm would increment value?
i.e. [...

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### What is the lattice point distribution over binary quadratic forms?

Let $f(x,y)=x^2+ny^2$ be the binary quadratic form of interest and consider the lattice points $S=\{ (x,y,f(x,y)) \in \mathbb{N}^3 \}$.
For simplicity, we keep things only on quadrant I of the ...

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### What is the form of the incomplete Eisenstein series on PGL_2(C)?

Let $F$ be an imaginary quadratic number field. Let $G = \mathrm{PGL}_2(\mathbb{C}) $ and $\varGamma = \mathrm{PSL}_2(\mathcal{O}_F)$. We have the Iwasawa decomposition $G = NAK$ where $K = \mathrm{...

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### Zeros of the semiprimes

Let $P$ be the prime zeta function
$$
P (s) = \sum_{p\, \in\text{ primes}} \frac 1 {p^s} = \frac {1} {2^s} + \frac {1} {3^s} + \frac 1 {5^s} + \frac 1 {7^s} + \frac 1 {11^s} + \cdots
$$
and define the ...

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### Upper bound on prime powers in interval

I just spent a full day on the brutish and thankless task of proving that the Brun-Titchmarsh bound holds for prime powers (including primes), and not just for primes, in the following senses:
(a) the ...

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### The logarithmic derivative of a twisted L-function?

Let $F$ be a quadratic number field with class number $h_F = 1$. Let $\zeta_F$ be the Dedekind zeta function, we have
$$ \frac{\zeta_F ' (1+it)}{\zeta_F (1+it)} \ll \frac{\log t}{\log\log t} .$$
(I ...

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### Integers with $k$ prime factors, in terms of the Möbius function

A $k$-free integer is an integer $n$ such that there is no $k$th power dividing $n$. It is well known (see Murty's Problems in Analytic Number Theory q1.18 for instance) that \begin{equation}\sum_{d^k|...

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### A limit related to quasi-periodic function

Let us consider $V(x) = 2-\sin(x) - \sin(\sqrt{2} x)$ on $x\in \mathbb{R}$ so that $V(x)>0$ everywhere. One can see that
$$
\frac{C_1}{t^2} \leq \min_{|x|\leq t} V(x)\leq \frac{C_2}{t^2}
$$
...

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### Does this condition characterise intervals, among subsets of the real line?

For a real number, $c\in \left]0,1\right[$, consider the following property $\mathbf(\mathbf P_c\mathbf)$ of subsets $A$ of $\mathbb R$:
$\mathbf(\mathbf P_c\mathbf)$ For every bounded set $B\subset \...

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### Where to find or how to prove that the ratio of two Bernoulli polynomials is increasing?

It is well known that the classical Bernoulli polynomials $B_j(t)$ are generated by
\begin{equation*}
\frac{s\operatorname{e}^{ts}}{\operatorname{e}^s-1}=\sum_{j=0}^{\infty}B_j(t)\frac{s^j}{j!}, \quad ...

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### Real part of the Riemann zeta function

Consider the real part of the Riemann zeta function on the critical line. Are there any results for the number of zeros of this real function in the interval [0,T]?

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### Large prime divisors of values of a polynomial, in a given residue class

Let $f(X) \in \mathbb{Z}[X]$ be an irreducible polynomial of degree $d \geq 2$. Let $q \in \mathbb{N}$ be an integer, and let $q \mathbb{Z} + r$ be a residue class that contains infinitely many primes ...

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### Upper bound on sum of Lambda(n) over short interval

I am looking for a bound of type
$$\sum_{x<n\leq x+y} \Lambda(n) \leq \frac{\log(x+y)}{\log y} \cdot 2y$$
(or better). Of course such a bound has to exist: the idea of the proof of Brun-Titchmarsh (...

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### A conjectured series expression for the Riemann $\xi$-function and/or Completed L-series. Could this be proven?

This post builds on an MSE question about a conjectured series expression for the Riemann $\xi$-function:
$$\xi(s) = \xi(1-s) = \sum_{n=1}^\infty (-1)^{n+1}\,\big(\xi\left(s+in\right)+\xi\left(1-s+in\...

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### Analyticity of unramifed part of Rankin-Selberg $L$-functions on $\Re(s)=1$

I have only a little knowledge about automorphic representations and $L$-functions. Now I am reading the textbook of Goldfeld and Hundley on automorphic representations, and also planning to read the ...

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### Approximating $\zeta'/\zeta$ (and its derivatives) by a finite sum

Let $A(s) = (-\zeta'/\zeta)^{(r)}(s) = \sum_n a_n n^{-s}$, where $r\geq 0$. (We can consider $r=0$ first for simplicity.) Say I want to approximate $A(s)$ for $s=1+it$ by a finite sum - preferably a ...

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### Does there exist an $L$-function for any subset of $\mathbb{N}$?

Consider the following prime sum:
\begin{aligned}
\sum _{p}{\frac {\cos(x\log p)}{p^{1/2}}}
\end{aligned}
whose spikes appear at the Riemann $\zeta$ zeros as shown here.
Taking these detected spikes (...

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### On fifth powers forming a Sidon set

We call a set of natural numbers $\mathcal S$ to be a Sidon Set if $a+b=c+d$ for $a,b,c,d\in \mathcal S$ implies $\{a,b\}=\{c,d\}$. In other words, all pairwise sums are distinct.
Erdős conjectured ...

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### Is there any use of logarithmic derivatives of modular forms?

Does taking the logarithmic derivative of a modular form have any uses, such as identifying patterns in its coefficients or possible zeros of its corresponding L function?

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### Is every real number in [0,1] a product of three (or more) Cantor set's numbers?

It is well known that every number $x$ in the unit interval $[0,1]$ is the arithmetic mean of two elements of the (triadic) Cantor set $C$. The way to see it I like the most: the Cantor set is the ...

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### Taking integer values of a sequence of Beurling primes

Let $P=(p_j)_{j=1}^\infty$ be an increasing sequence of real numbers with $1<p_1$ and $\lim_{j\to\infty}p_j=\infty$. As mentioned in [1], Beurling proved that if the multiplicative group $N_P$ ...

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### '$\times$' or '$\otimes$' when writing $L$-functions?

Recently, I came across the Langlands correspondence theorem, there is the following line:
$$L(s,\pi(\sigma) \times \pi(\tau)) = L(s,\sigma \otimes \tau), $$
where $\sigma$ and $\tau$ are ...

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### Does summing divergent series using cutoff functions give consistent results?

One way to try to give a value $S$ to a divergent series $\sum_{n=1}^\infty a_n$ is with a smooth cutoff function:
$$
S = \lim_{N\to\infty}\sum_{n=1}^\infty a_n \eta\left(\frac{n}{N}\right)
$$
where $\...

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### Can all modular forms be written as Eta Quotients?

I have been going through a couple of introductory courses in modular forms and am quite curious whether all modular forms can be written as eta quotients of the Dedekind eta function?

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### Computing hypergeometric function at 1

I'm looking to compute
$${}_ 3F_ 2\biggl(\begin{matrix} -m-1/2,\ -m,\ k-m+1/2 \cr
1/2-m,\ k-m+3/2\end{matrix};1\biggr)$$
for $m,k > 0$ are positive integers and $0 < k < m$. I'm wondering if ...

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### Behavior of Dirichlet L-functions at the edge of the critical strip

Given a Dirichlet L-function $L(\chi, s)$ of a primitive character $\chi$, what is the asymptotic behavior of $L(\chi, 1+it)$ for real $t$? I am looking for as many answers for the same question. This ...

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### Linear third order water wave pde admitting particular gamma factor solution. How do you understand evolution on vertical strip in complex plane?

I would like to understand a little bit about how to interpret and construct $1$-parameter gamma factors that are dynamical - that is they are particular solutions to linear PDE's. Some possible ...

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### Does this partial sum over primes spike at all zeta zeros?

Below is a plot of $\exp \sum _p^x -\frac{\cos \left(x \log \
p\right)}{\sqrt{p}}$, where $p$ runs over the primes, and the $x$-values of the Riemann $\zeta$ zeros are marked with dashed lines:
Below ...

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### Decrease of $(1/\zeta)^{(r)}(\sigma + i T)$ as $\sigma\to -\infty$?

What is a standard reference for the simple fact that, for $T$ fixed and $\sigma\to -\infty$,
every derivative $|(1/\zeta)^{(r)}(\sigma+i T)|$ of the Riemann zeta function decreases faster than any ...

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### $L^1$ norm for a product of cosines

Let $k$ be an integer and consider the function
$$
f(t)=\prod_{i=1}^{k} \cos(3^{i-1}\pi t).
$$
I'm interested in finding bounds for $\int_{0}^{1}|f(t)|dt$ in terms of $k$. The first idea that comes to ...

2
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2
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### Can any Hurwitz zeta function be written as an Euler product?

I am attempting to understand the behavior of Hurwitz zeta functions and for what $a$ do they have an analytic continuation. Is it possible to write any Hurwitz zeta as an Euler product or are there ...