# Questions tagged [probability-distributions]

In probability and statistics, a probability distribution assigns a probability to each measurable subset of the possible outcomes of a random experiment, survey, or procedure of statistical inference.

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### Probability distribution of total time for a job, given a workflow graph

$$
\begin{array}{cccccccccccc}
& & \text{A} \\
& \swarrow & & \searrow \\
\text{B} & & & & \text{C} \\
& \searrow & & \swarrow \\
\downarrow & &...

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### the projection distribution induced by integral points on the sphere

Let $A=\{\mathbf{v} \in \mathbb{Z}^{n}: \|\mathbf{v}\|^2= m \}$ and a fixed $\mathbf{y}\in \mathbb{R}^n$, the norm here refers to the Euclidean norm.
Suppose $\mathbf{x}$ is a uniform distribution on ...

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### Prove that the regularized incomplete beta function monotone with each of its parameter

Consider the regularized incomplete beta function $I_x(a, b)$ with $x \in [0,1]$ and $a, b > 0$. I am hypothesizing that the function is monotone decreasing with respect to $a$ and monotone ...

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### trying to get intuition into why Cross Entropy will always be greater or equal to the Entropy

I understand what entropy measures and cross entropy is the same except it is uses another distribution $q$ to compare it against $p.$ Is it because the log function is concave down so the predictions ...

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### Does $X_t$ with $t>0$ admit a density?

$
\newcommand{\RR}{\mathbb{R}}
\newcommand{\TT}{\mathbb{T}}
\newcommand{\NN}{\mathbb{N}}
\newcommand{\PP}{\mathbb{P}}
\newcommand{\EE}{\mathbb{E}}
\newcommand{\FF}{\mathbb{F}}
\newcommand{\PPP}{\...

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### Proof of the monotonicity of a regularized incomplete beta function

I want to prove the monotonicity of $I_r(nr, 2+(1-r)n)$ on $n$ but has no clues. The $I$ is the regularized incomplete beta function, defined as follows:
$$I_r(nr, 2+(1-r)n)=\frac{\int_0^r x^{nr-1}(1-...

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87
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### Concentration bound for a increasingly weighted sum of bernoulli random variables

Given $x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_n$ i.i.d. bernoulli random variables with $P(x_i=1)=\frac1n$. Given a constant $c=1+\frac{1}{m}, m\geq n$. Is there an explicit theorem that can derive a concentration argument ...

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### When are increasing functions on posets (specifically, lattices) the CDF of a probability measure?

This is perhaps a basic question, but I couldn't find a reference. Let $P = (X,\leq)$ be a poset. Given a probability measure $\mu$ on $P$ (with respect to the Borel $\sigma$-algebra generated by sets ...

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### Definition of "interval of continuity" for function defined on sets

At the beginning of Chapter 8 of Kubilius's Probabilistic Methods in the Theory of Numbers, the author defines $Q=Q(E)$ to be a completely additive nonnegative function defined for all Borel subsets $...

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### Calculate the distance between categorical distributions when different categories are somehow related [closed]

I want to calculate the distance between some categorical distributions, for example A:0.1, B:0.2, C:0.7. I know this can be done by simply using kl divergence or cross entropy.
But in my case ...

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### stochastic process and integral

Let $(X_n(t))_{t\in [1,+\infty], n\geqslant 1}$ be a sequence of nonnegative random variables and $(\mathcal{F}_s)$ a filtration ($\mathcal{F}_s \subset \mathcal{F}_r$ for $s\leqslant r$). We assume ...

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### Expected number of solutions of a random quadratic polynomial system over a finite field

Let $\mathbb{F}_q$ be a field of $q$ elements. Let $a_{i,j,k}$, $b_{i,j}$, $c_i$ ($1 \leq i \leq m$, $1 \leq j \leq k \leq n$) be independent uniformly distributed random variables in $\mathbb{F}_q$, ...

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### Bounded density for determinant of GOE

Let $M$ a random GOE matrix, i.e. $M=(M_{i,j})$ is a symmetric matrix and the $M_{i,j},i\leq j$ are independent centred Gaussien entries with variance 1, except on the diagonal where the variance is $...

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### Finding a collection of random variables satisfying (exactly or numerically) a given set of moment identities

Let $X_p$ for $p\in \mathbb{Z}$ be a collection random variables that satisfy for all $k>0$, $p\in \mathbb{Z}$:
$$\sum_{p_1+\dots+p_k=p} \mathbb{E}[X_{p_1} \dots X_{p_k}]=\begin{cases}
0 &...

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### What is the direct role of exchangeability in ensuring coverage in conformal prediction?

I was wondering how exchangeability directly relates to the proof of the coverage guarantee in conformal prediction. In most papers I have seen, usually they say that by exchangeability the order of ...

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### Position dependent service time in queue

Is there any literature for queuing analysis (waiting time, capacity etc.) of a queue with service time that depends on the position of the customer in the queue?
I have encountered a problem where a ...

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1
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87
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### Maximum column norm of random $A^{-1}B$

Suppose that $A$ is an $n$ by $n$ Gaussian matrix (each component i.i.d. normal distributed with mean 0 and variance 1). Let $b$ be a $n$-Gaussian vector. Then it could be easily proven that the ...

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### Queues wait for other queues- A communication problem

I am working on a problem which involves a single server that requires multiple inputs to do a computation. Each of these inputs arrive as a Poisson process with rate $\lambda$. Hence, a situation ...

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### Are there probability densities $\rho, f_n$ such that $\lim_n \frac{[\rho * f_n]_\alpha}{\|\rho * f_n\|_\infty} = \infty$?

We fix $\alpha \in (0, 1)$. Let $[f]_\alpha$ be the best $\alpha$-Hölder constant of $f: \mathbb R^d \to \mathbb R^k \otimes \mathbb R^m$, i.e., $[f]_\alpha := \sup_{x \neq y} \frac{|f(x) - f(y)|}{|x-...

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### Lower bound the best $\alpha$-Hölder constant of a convolution

Let $\mathcal D_1$ be the set of bounded probability density functions on $\mathbb R^d$. This means $f \in \mathcal D_1$ if and only if $f$ is non-negative measurable such that $\int_{\mathbb R^d} f (...

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### Is the difference between $\alpha$-Hölder constants of $f*\rho$ and $g*\rho$ controlled by $\|f-g\|_\infty$?

Let $\mathcal D_1$ be the set of bounded probability density functions on $\mathbb R^d$. This means $f \in \mathcal D_1$ if and only if $f$ is non-negative measurable such that $\int_{\mathbb R^d} f (...

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### Comparison between the expected values of the inverse of the CDF of binomial-distributed random variables

Let us denote with $F(x;j,\mu)$ the cdf of a Binomial distributed random variable with $j$ trial with success probability $\mu$ considered in $x$, and let $f(x;j,\mu)$ be the pmf. Defining $0\leq \...

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87
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### Reverse Pinsker's inequality for smooth density classes

Suppose we are given a class of probability density functions $\mathcal{F}$ so that for every $f \in \mathcal{F}$ we have $\alpha \leq f \leq \beta$ for some positive $\alpha, \beta \in \mathbb{R}_+$ ...

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### Reference request: Best book to cite on a property of the family of Cauchy distributions

Kai Lai Chung once began a section of a textbook on probability by writing
"Everybody knows" that $$ e^x = \sum_{n\,=\,0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}. $$
(with those quotation marks). Other ...

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46
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### Everywhere existence of marginals

Let $f\in L^1(\mathbb{R}^2)$ be a (joint) probability density function which satisfies $f(x,y)>0$ for all $(x,y)\in \mathbb{R^2}$.
What is a necessary and sufficient condition under which the ...

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### Moment generating function for product states

In the sequel $B=M_\ell(\mathbb{C})$.
For $M\in\mathbb{N}$ fixed and $N\geq M$ I consider the symmetrizer $\pi_{M,N}(x_M)\in B^{\otimes N}$, which is the symmetrized tensor product of $a_1$,...,$a_M$ ...

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### Chebyshev's inequality for Poisson distribution

Reading an old Richard Karp paper, in which he mentions this argument "Application of Chebyshev's inequality yields the result that, if $X$ is Poisson distributed with mean $\lambda$, then $E(X\...

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### reference request: product measures defined by a subsequence of measures

Suppose $\{\mu_n\}_{n\in\mathbb{N}}$ is a sequence of pairwise equivalent probability measures, each of which is defined on $\mathbb{R}$. Let $\bigotimes_n\mu_n$ be the product measure defined on $\...

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### From convergence of sequences to uniform convergence in probability

For $n=1, 2,\ldots$ consider a sequence of sets of ascending integers $I_n=\{\underline{i}_n,\underline{i}_n+1, \ldots, \overline{i}_n\}$, with $\underline{i}_n \to \infty$ and $\underline{i}_n=o(\...

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### If a probability measure is a mixture of products of its marginals, does it have finite moments?

Let $\mu$ be a Borel probability measure on $\mathbb{R}^n$. For a linear subspace $E\subset \mathbb{R}^n$, let $\mu_E$ denote the marginal of $\mu$ on $E$. The usual orthogonal complement of $E$ is ...

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### A property of the distribution related to stochastic ordering

Let $X$ be a random variable with a symmetric support $S\subset[-M,M]$ for some $M>0$. (i.e., if x is a point of increase of CDF $F_X(\cdot)$, so is $-x$.)
Has the infimum value of $c$ such that
\...

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### Asymptotic stochastic ordering for weighted sum of i.i.d. random variables

Are you aware of any literature focusing on the conditions such that for two i.i.d. sequences of discrete r.v.'s $\{X_n\}$ and $\{Y_n\}$,
\begin{equation}
a_1X_1+a_2X_2+\ldots+a_nX_n\geq_1 a_1Y_1+...

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### Maximizing the trace of the resolvent of a Wishart matrix over positive unit trace matrices?

Let $G$ be a standard $d \times d$ Wishart random matrix and consider the problem of maximizing the function
$$
f(M) = \mathbb{E}\Big[\mathrm{tr}((G + M^{-1})^{-1})\Big],
$$
over the class of real ...

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### Gumbel-Softmax like function

I am trying to train my DNN models and face some mathematical problems.
Let me explain my goal. Consider an input tensor like [1,2,3,4,5]. I aim to obtain a one-hot encoded vector of the argmax of ...

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### Gibbs Priors form a Martingale

I am working on adapting variational inference to the recently developed Martingale posterior distributions. The first case, which reduces the VI framework to Gibbs priors, is proving hard to show as ...

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### Limit distribution of the self-normalized sum of Cauchy random variables

This is something that has come up in my research. I originally posted this question on CrossValidated but realized it might be better suited for this site. I have deleted the question there (in case ...

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### Upper-bound of the tail of a weighted sum of iid random variables

I have a question related to this one. $X_i$ are n iid random variables with CDF $1_{[0,+\infty[}(x) \Phi(x)$, i.e. it is a mixture between a folded Gaussian and a delta in $0$, both with weight $1/2$....

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### Random walks on groups

I recently started reading Wolfgang Woess' book titled "Random Walks on Infinite Groups". In the section where he introduces Markov chains and random walks on a set $X$, he has defined a ...

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### Stochastic order on weighted sum of iid random variables

$X_i$ are n iid random variables with CDF $1_{[0,+\infty[}(x) \Phi(x)$, i.e. it is a mixture between a half Gaussian and a delta in $0$, both with weight $1/2$.
I would like to show that, $\forall a \...

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### Deriving the distribution of standardized variables with empirical mean and standard deviation

I'm working with a set of independent and identically distributed random variables $\{ x_i \}_{i=1}^N$, where each $x_i$ follows a Gaussian distribution $P_X(x) = \mathcal{N}(x; \mu, \sigma^2)$. This ...

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### Characterize algebras of the "topological simplices" operad

The operad of topological simplices, which I'll denote $\Delta$, has as $n$-ary operations the set
$$
\Delta_n:=\left\{P\colon\{1,\ldots,n\}\to[0,1]\;\middle|\;1=\sum_{i=1}^n P(i)\right\}
$$
of ...

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### Existence of derivative of distribution of exponential family?

Suppose $(X, \mathcal{F})$ is a measurable space and $\left\{F_\theta, \theta \in \Theta\right\}$ is a distribution family on $(X, \mathcal{F})$. When $\left\{F_\theta, \theta \in \Theta\right\}$ is ...

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### Relationship between fixed points and inversions in permutations

Inversions in a permutation $Y$ are defined as pairs where $Y_a < Y_b$ but $a > b$, while fixed points in $Y$ are defined as elements where $Y_a = a$ (i.e., 1-cycles). Let $S_\alpha$ be the set ...

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### Probability density function estimation for rare events

My goal is to numerically estimate the probability density function (pdf) $P(f)$ for the function $f(x_1,x_2,\cdots,x_n)$. Here the random variables $x_1,x_2,\cdots,x_n$ are drawn from the independent ...

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### Computing the Laplace transform of an expression

I would like to find the Laplace transform of the following expression with respect to the Laplace parameter s
$ \int_{z=u}^{\infty} e^{-az/c} g^{'}(\dfrac{z-u}{c}) \int_{x=0}^{\infty} \varphi(z-x)dF(...

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533
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### A variation on the Borel–Cantelli lemma theme

Let $X,X_0,X_1,\dots$ be nonnegative independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables. Let
\begin{equation*}
E:=\bigcap_{n\ge0}B_n,
\end{equation*}
where
\begin{equation*}
B_n:=\...

2
votes

1
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121
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### Convexity of a function

Let: $F_{j+1,y}(s)$ be the cumulative distribution function of a binomial distribution with mean $y$, $j+1$ independent trials considered for $s$ successes. Is it possible to show in any way that:
$\...

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### How can one build a min-2-wise independent small sample space from min-3-wise permutations?

I have been studying a polynomial-size set of permutations from one of my lectures. The below image, taken from the lecture notes PDF, illustrates how to construct min-3-wise permutations.
My ...

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### Upper bound $I_R := \int_{B_R^c} |x| (P_t \ell_\nu) (x) \, \mathrm d x$ in terms of $R, \nu, t$?

Let $(p_t)_{t >0}$ be the Gaussian heat kernel on $\mathbb R^d$ and $(P_t)_{t >0}$ its induced semi-group, i.e.,
$$
\begin{align}
p_t (x) &:= (4\pi t)^{-\frac{d}{2}} e^{-\frac{|x|^2}{4t}},
\...

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### Algebraic area of Brownian half-plane excursion

Is anything known about the distribution of the algebraic area, à la Lévy's stochastic area, of a Brownian excursion in the half-plane? To be precise, letting $x>0$, we consider the path $(X_t,Y_t)...