# Questions tagged [matrices]

Questions where the notion matrix has an important or crucial role (for the latter, note the tag matrix-theory for potential use). Matrices appear in various parts of mathematics, and this tag is typically combined with other tags to make the general subject clear, such as an appropriate top-level tag ra.rings-and-algebras, co.combinatorics, etc. and other tags that might be applicable. There are also several more specialized tags concerning matrices.

3,100
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### What is the correct approach to calculate the determinant of a matrix? [closed]

I am a neophyte undergraduate student reviewing multivariate analysis. I am learning from Mathematical Tools for Applied Multivariate Analysis (J.D. Caroll, P.E. Green).
I covered the co-factor ...

4
votes

0
answers

102
views

### Continuity of eigenvector of zero eigenvalue

Wonder whether anyone has an idea on showing the following or to point out that it is not true:
Let $A(t) \in \Re^{n \times n}$ be differentiable over an interval $I$, and it has a zero eigenvalue for ...

4
votes

1
answer

71
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### What does the matrix-valued solution of $X = A X A^T + \operatorname{Id}$ look like?

Let $A \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times n}$ be an invertible contraction, i.e. all singular values are in $(0,1)$. By reformulating the equation
\begin{align*}
& X = A X A^T + \operatorname{Id} \tag{1}
\...

-2
votes

1
answer

124
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### Norm of a matrix function of a vector $x$

I have a matrix $$A(x) = \frac{-1}{(1+\|x\|_2^2)^{\frac{3}{2}}}xx^T + \frac{1}{(1+\|x\|_2^2)^{\frac{1}{2}}}I$$ I see that $$\|A(x)\|_2 \le 1 \ \forall x$$
But is $\|A(x)\| \le 1$ in general $\forall x$...

0
votes

1
answer

101
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### “Smallest” non-zero linear combination of vectors to obtain a non-negative vector

We say that a vector $\mathbf{x}$ in $\mathbb{Z}^j$ is non-negative if it is of the form
\begin{bmatrix}
x_1 \\
x_2 \\
\vdots \\
x_j \\
\end{bmatrix}
where $x_{j} \geq 0$.
Suppose that ...

0
votes

0
answers

62
views

### Quick calculation of a symmetric product with two indices

Say I have a product $\prod_{1\le i \le N-1}\prod_{i<j\le N-1} (1+t_i t_j a_{ij})$, where $a_{ij}$s are real number. I want to calculate the coefficient of $\prod_{0 \le i < N} t_i$. Is there an ...

1
vote

2
answers

120
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### Right inverse of integer matrix

If I have a rectangular matrix $A$ (say $4 \times 6$) with integer entries, is there a way to tell whether it has a right inverse that also has integer entries. I know that if $AA^T$ has determinant $...

1
vote

1
answer

158
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### Matrices over a finite field: matrices for which some unipotent $U$ satisfies Trace$(ZU)=0$ for all $Z$ in the commutant

Let $p$ be an odd prime number, let $A\in M_p(\mathbb{F}_p)$ be a $p$-by-$p$ matrix with coefficients in $\mathbb{F}_p$, let $C(A)$ be the commutant of $A$, and let $N\in M_p(\mathbb{F}_p)$ be a ...

1
vote

1
answer

95
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### Solution to $a=e^t (t-r_1)(t-r_2)$ with Lambert $W$ function, where $r_1, r_2 $ are complex

Lambert $W$ works when $r_1$, and $r_2$ are real. However, I am trying to solve the equation when $r_1$, and $r_2$ are complex numbers.

3
votes

0
answers

145
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### What are the measure of the volume and boundary (and other quermaß measures) of the positive semidefinite matrices?

Let $E$ be the real vector space of $n\times n$ real symmetric (resp. complex Hermitian) matrices, and $E_1$ those with trace $1$. Endow $E$ with the bilinear (resp. sesquilinear) form given by $(P,Q)...

0
votes

0
answers

31
views

### What is the impact of individual estimate on each other in matrix inversion?

I am looking to understand the impact of each estimate on each other in matrix inversion.
Lets say I have a vector $A = \left[a_1, a_2 \right]^T$ of size $2 \times 1$ and $a_1$ and $a_2$ are related ...

4
votes

0
answers

154
views

### Zero-one pairings between sets of vectors

Let
$A\subseteq V$ and
$B\subseteq V^\star$
be spanning sets in
a finite-dimensional real vector space $V$ and
its dual $V^\star$.
Suppose that
$$
\langle b,a\rangle\in\lbrace0,1\rbrace
$$
for all
$a\...

1
vote

0
answers

47
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### Ideals of Laurent polynomial ring over matrix ring

Let $K$ be a field. Let $R=M_2(K)\langle x,x^{-1}\rangle$ be the ring obtained from the matrix ring $M_2(K)$ by adjoining two elements $x$ and $x^{-1}$ which are inverse to each other ($x$ and $x^{-1}$...

0
votes

1
answer

43
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### Handling the $\ell^2$ norm of a matrix expression in a linear regression

I am reading a scientific article in which matrices are handled (which I do not use often). We consider a matrix $X\in\mathbb R^{n\times p}$ and a vector $y\in\mathbb R^n$. The authors show that the ...

2
votes

0
answers

67
views

### The rank of a certain linear combination of mutually commuting nilpotent matrices

Let $A_1,\ldots,A_r$ be mutually commuting $n\times n$ nilpotent matrices over $\mathbb C$, the field of complex numbers. For any complex number $c$, let $A(c):=A_0+cA_1+c^2A_2+\ldots +c^rA_r$. We ...

1
vote

1
answer

324
views

### Solvability of $A X B=C$ with $X=X^\mathrm{T}$

I am studying symmetric solutions to the complex matrix equation
\begin{equation}
A X B=C,
\end{equation}
where $A$, $B$, and $C$ are $m\times n$, $n \times k$, and $m \times k$ complex matrices, ...

51
votes

8
answers

5k
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### Is there a fast way to check if a matrix has any small eigenvalues?

I have hundreds of millions of symmetric 0/1-matrices of moderate size (say 20x20 to 30x30) which (obviously) have real eigenvalues.
I wish to extract from this list the tiny number of matrices that ...

1
vote

0
answers

78
views

### Interpreting positive semidefinite matrix as a graph

Given any symmetric matrix $S \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times n}$, if $S \succeq 0$, is there a way to encode $S$ into a graph such that it takes into account the positive semidefinite constraint, and ...

0
votes

0
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134
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### Simultaneous triangulation and Jordan normal form of commuting nilpotent matrices

Let $A_1,\ldots,A_r$ be $n\times n$ nilpotent matrices over $\mathbb C$, the field of complex numbers, satisfying $A_i\cdot A_j=A_j\cdot A_i$ for all $i,j$. As the matrices commute, they admit ...

3
votes

2
answers

262
views

### An analogue of Jacobi's formula for the matrix permanent

Is there an analogoue to Jacobi's formula for the matrix permanent?

2
votes

1
answer

199
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### Is matrix B obtained from matrix A?

Assuming a matrix $\mathbf{A} \in \mathbb{R}^{4096 \times 4096}$ sampled from a standard normal distribution $N(0, 1)$, and another matrix $\mathbf{B} \in \mathbb{R}^{4096 \times 4096}$ either sampled ...

1
vote

0
answers

114
views

### Gelfand's representation on matrices: construct maximal ideal in matrix algebra

I would like to see a constructive proof (some algorithm?) of the following statement:
Let $A_1, A_2, \dotsc ,A_k \in M_n(\mathbb C)$ be some commuting matrices, let $B$ be the commutative algebra (...

10
votes

3
answers

2k
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### Trace inequality for non-reversible Markov chain

Let $P \in \mathbb{R}^{d \times d}$ be the transition kernel for a Markov chain with stationary measure $\pi$ and define $P^\ast$ to be the time-reversed transition kernel defined by $P^\ast_{ij} := ...

0
votes

1
answer

91
views

### Matrix-order derivatives (differentiating a function a matrix number of times)

I have been exploring methods of generalizing the order of derivatives to a broader range of inputs (such as real numbers, complex, and now matrices). We are very well familiar with integer-order ...

5
votes

1
answer

77
views

### Interpolation between two matrices so that $L^p$ norm is controlled

Assume to have two square matrices $A$ and $B$ acting on $\mathbb{R}^n$ such that all their entries are in the interval $[0,1]$ and such that $||Ax||_1 = ||x||_1$ and $||Bx||_\infty \leq ||x||_\infty$....

0
votes

1
answer

370
views

### What is the mathematician's definition of the determinant? [closed]

I am trying really hard to find a good definition of the determinant.
I have looked virtually every single resource online and everybody gives a different answer:
sum of cofactors or minors https://...

6
votes

1
answer

165
views

### Efficiently solve the Sylvester equation $AX+XA = C$ where $X$ is skew-symmetric

Is there a way (more efficient than the standard vectorization) to solve the following Sylvester equation in the skew-symmetric matrix $X$ $$AX+XA = C$$ where the matrix $A$ is symmetric positive ...

2
votes

0
answers

246
views

### Two questions about three circulant matrices

Consider the following matrix equation in $n \times n$ circulant $\pm 1$ matrices $A$, $B$, $C$
$$2AA^T+BB^T+CC^T=(4n+4)I-4J$$
where $I$ is the $n \times n$ identity matrix and $J$ is the $n×n$ matrix ...

6
votes

2
answers

623
views

### Is there a name for matrices of the form $a_{ij}=\frac{1}{a_{ji}}$?

I have a matrix that is “kind of symmetric.” Specifically, it is an $n \times n$ real matrix such that the entries $a_{ij}=1/a_{ji}$ whenever $j \ne i$. I want to investigate the properties of this ...

0
votes

0
answers

46
views

### Conditions on symmetric $3 \times 3$ matrices to satisfy the convex equality for cofactor and determinant

Given any $3\times 3$ finite set of symmetric matrices $A_i$ and positive real $a_i$ such that $\sum_ia_i=1.$ Is there any equivalent condition to the existence of skew symmetric matrices $X_i$ such ...

0
votes

0
answers

117
views

### On a matrix equation with Kronecker product

Is there any work on the matrix equation in unknowns $X, Y \in {\Bbb C}^{n \times n}$ $$(X \otimes Y + Y \otimes X) \operatorname{vec}(A)=0$$ where $\otimes$ is the Kronecker product? Or, in general, ...

6
votes

0
answers

135
views

### Expressing an invertible sparse matrix as a product of few elementary matrices

Let $M$ be an $n \times n$ matrix with integer entries. Suppose that $M$ is invertible (over the integers) and that $M$ has at most $An$ nonzero entries, each of which is less than $B$ in absolute ...

0
votes

0
answers

47
views

### Symmetric indefinite matrix of fixed rank — manifold structure?

I have been studying symmetric indefinite matrices of fixed rank, which have been rather useful for a particular application. I wonder if there is a way to parameterise these by a smooth manifold, e.g....

0
votes

1
answer

81
views

### Change of the smallest positive eigenvalue after a rank-one update

Given natural numbers $n,r,R\in\mathbb{N}$ with $r,R\le n$, let $A\in\mathbb{R}^{n\times r}$ and $B\in \mathbb{R}^{n\times R}$ be two matrices with full column rank and let $c\in\mathbb{R}^n$.
Denote ...

0
votes

0
answers

29
views

### Elliptic operators with Robin boundary conditions

Can it be proved that two elliptic operators with Robin boundary conditions generate an interval $P$-matrix?
$$
-a\Delta u_i = f_i, \quad a\frac{\partial u_i}{\partial n} + bu_i = 0
$$
$$
-a\Delta v_i ...

2
votes

1
answer

220
views

### Continuous path of unitary matrices with prescribed first column?

Consider a continuous curve $u \colon [0,1] \to \mathbb{C}^n$ where $u(t)$ is always a unit vector, $u(t)^* u(t) = 1$.
Question 1: Does there exist a continuous curve $U \colon [0,1] \to \mathbb{C}^{n ...

3
votes

1
answer

139
views

### Does this matrix equation always have a solution?

Let $\{A_i, i\ge 3\}$ be the matrices whose columns represent numbers from $0$ to $2^i-1$ in binary form. For example,
$A_3 = \begin{bmatrix} 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 \...

1
vote

1
answer

41
views

### Wold decomposition of toral endomorphisms

Suppose that $A\in M_d(\mathbb{Z})$ is a $d \times d$ matrix with non zero determinant and suppose that $\mathbb{T}^d$ is the $d$-dimensional torus. Then one can define an operator on $L^2(\mathbb{T}^...

0
votes

0
answers

17
views

### Low-rank factorization of a Finite Element matrix

I have a matrix $M\in \mathbb R^{n\times n}$, stemming from a Finite Element discretization of an advection function.
I want to find a factorization $ M= S E T $ with $S, T\in \mathbb R^{n\times s}$ ...

1
vote

0
answers

49
views

### Eigenvalues of a subset of matrix semigroup

My apologies for slightly longer post but I wanted to explain lower dimensional cases and their proofs before asking the actual question, which starts after the phrase The general case below.
A two-...

3
votes

1
answer

104
views

### Calculate the Riemannian Hessian of Karcher mean problem on positive definite matrices

Consider a collection of positive definite matrices $\{A_1,...,A_n\}\in\mathbb{S}_{++}^d$, the Karcher mean of these matrices is given by (see (5.4) in [1]):
$$
\min_{X\in\mathbb{S}_{++}^d} f(X):=\...

1
vote

0
answers

85
views

### Non-vanishing principal minors up to swapping columns

An undergraduate student asked me the following seemingly easy question. After a few days of thinking, I still couldn't come up with an answer, nor could I find one online. Maybe folks here could help?...

9
votes

2
answers

575
views

### Are these two methods for constructing Hadamard matrices known?

These two observations came while researching the empty set of odd perfect numbers and unitary perfect numbers:
Context:
Let $n$ be a natural number and $D_n$ be the set of divisors.
We can make this ...

1
vote

0
answers

75
views

### Pre-positive definite functions?

A function $f(x,y)$ is positive definite if matrices $( f(x_i, x_j) )_{i, j \in F}$ are positive definite for all finite index sets $F$. This is frequently hard or impossible to check given some ...

0
votes

1
answer

127
views

### Existence of cyclic subspace decompositions for pairs of commuting matrices

Let $\mathbb{K}$ be an arbitrary field (possibly finite). Let $V$ be a finite-dimensional vector space over $\mathbb{K}$, and let $A,B$ be two linear endomorphisms of $V$ which commute.
For $v\in V$, ...

0
votes

0
answers

61
views

### Interpretate a condition on Signed graph

In my research I came up with a condition on signed complete graph as follows:
Consider adjacency matrix of signed complete graph, i.e. symmetric, diagonal-free matrix with elements $A_{ij}=-1$ or $+1$...

2
votes

1
answer

178
views

### Inductive Cholesky decomposition to prove that a function is positive definite over the natural numbers?

I am trying to prove that the function:
$$k(a,b):=\frac{1}{\operatorname{rad}\left ( \frac{ab}{\gcd(a,b)^2} \right )}$$
is a positive definite function over the natural numbers. What has sometimes ...

8
votes

3
answers

547
views

### Jensen-like inequality for random matrix: $\Bbb E[\det X^2]\ge\det\Bbb E[X^2]$

Let $X\in M_n(\Bbb R)$ be a random matrix with iid elements following a continuous distribution.
What are the necessary and sufficient conditions for $$\Bbb E[\det X^2]\ge\det\Bbb E[X^2]$$ to hold? Is ...

1
vote

1
answer

226
views

### Solve permutation matrix equations of the form: $X^T A X = B_1$ and $X A X^T = B_2$

I have a hard time solving the following two matrix equations for unknown permutation matrix $X \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times n}$:
$$X^T A X = B_1$$
$$X A X^T = B_2$$
where, $A$, $B_1$ and $B_2$ are all $n ...

35
votes

4
answers

2k
views

### Determinant of the random matrix $X^2+Y^2$

$\DeclareMathOperator\Prob{Prob}$Let $X,Y\in M_n(\mathbb{R})$ be $2$ random matrices. The entries of $X,Y$ are i.i.d. variables. They follow the standard normal law $N(0,1)$.
i) When $n=2,3,4$, one ...