Questions in which polynomials (single or several variables) play a key role. It is typically important that this tag is combined with other tags; polynomials appear in very different contexts. Please, use at least one of the top-level tags, such as nt.number-theory, co.combinatorics, ac.commutative-...

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### $(x + y + z)…(x + y\omega_n^{n-1} + z\omega_n) = x^n + y^n + z^n - P(x,y,z)$ To find $P$

$$(x + y + z)(x + y\omega_n + z\omega_n^{n-1})(x + y\omega_n^2 + z\omega_n^{n-2})....(x + y\omega_n^{n-1} + z\omega_n) = x^n + y^n + z^n - P(x,y,z)$$ where $\omega_n$ is an nth root of unity.
The ...

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78 views

### gcd of polynomial values

Suppose that $f$ and $g$ are two coprime polynomials in $\mathbb Z[x]$. I'm interested in any sort of upper bound on $gcd(f(a),g(a))$, in terms of the integer $a$. Are there any results of this type?...

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159 views

### On the connection between Faulhaber's formula and identity $n^{2m+1}=\sum_{k=0}^{n-1}\sum_{j=0}^m A_{m,j}k^j(n-k)^j$

This question is part of series of the questions, as follows:
Coefficients in the sum $\sum_{k=0}^{n-1}\sum_{j=0}^{m}A_{j,m}(n-k)^jk^j=n^{2m+1}$,
Coefficients $U_m(n,k)$ in the identity $n^{2m+1}=\...

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118 views

### A geometric property about certain polynomials in two variables

Assume that $p(x,y)$ is a polynomial in $\mathbb{R}[x, y]$ in the form $$ p=p_{2n}+ p_{2n-1}+\ldots +p_1+p_0$$
where $p_i$ is a homogenous polynomial of degree $i$. Moreover we assume that the last ...

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219 views

### Is there any Menelaus-type theorem for polynomials?

Consider $n+3$ polynomials of degree $n$, say $P_1(x) , ... P_{n+3}(x)$.
In addition, consider that there are distinct (it is not necessary that all of them be distinct) numbers $x_{ij}$ for $1 \...

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61 views

### Enumerating Bring radicals

This question here seems to ask only about finite collections of Bring radicals, what about infinite collections, is there a Turing machine, which would list all the necessary radicals one-by-one?

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169 views

### The determinant of a $4\times4$ matrix associated to some specific polynomial as follow

Let $f\in \mathbb{R}[x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4]$ defined by
$$f_a(x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4)=\prod_{1\leqslant i<j\leqslant4}(x_i-x_j)^{2a_{ij}}$$
where $a=(a_{12},a_{13},a_{14},a_{23},a_{24},a_{34})\in \mathbb{N}^6$.
...

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89 views

### Algebraic independence of certain values implies algebraic independence of functions?

It is quite general and elementary question.
Is it possible that some holomorphic functions $f_1,\cdots,f_m $ on a region $\Omega $ of $\mathbb C$ satisfies:
Whenever $(f_1(z), \cdots, f_m (z)) $ is ...

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101 views

### Is there an approximate formula for the discriminant of a sparse polynomial?

Consider integer polynomials $P \in \mathbb{Z}[X] \setminus \{0\}$ of a degree $D \geq 1$ and without multiple complex roots. Let me introduce a notation
$$
d(P) := \frac{1}{D} \log{|\mathrm{Disc}(P)|}...

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121 views

### Polynomial expansions via prime-base digits

Fix a prime number $p$. If $n$ is a positive integer, then denote
$$\text{$\omega_{p,k}(n):=\#$ of $k$'s in the $p$-ary expansion of $n$}$$
and the total sum of all its $p$-ary digits by
$$\Omega_p(...

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107 views

### Solving polynomial inequalities — efficient Positivstellensatz on a computer

I have about twenty five (multilinear) polynomials $f_1(\mathbf{x}), f_2(\mathbf{x}), \dots, f_{25}(\mathbf{x})$ all in fifteen variables and I would like to decide if there is a $\mathbf{y} \in [0,1]^...

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109 views

### Generating Function for x+x^2+x^4+x^8+

I am trying to find a closed form solution for the generating function $x+x^2+x^4+x^8+...=\sum_{i=1}^\infty x^{2^i}$. I began with the fact that the positive integers can be neatly partitioned into ...

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46 views

### Classes of curves with “determinant-like operation”

Consider a motivating example:
Let $E\in \mathbb{Q}[y][x]$ be of degree $n=2$ (in $x$) and separable when viewed as a member of $\mathbb{Q}[x,y]$. Therefore we can calculate it's roots in $\mathbb{Q}[...

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101 views

### Name of a polynomial basis

Does anybody know if the set of polynomials
$\{ 1,x,x^2+2,x^3+3x,x^4+4x^2+6,{x}^{5}+5\,{x}^{3}+10\,x,{x}^{6}+6\,{x}^{4}+15\,{x}^{2}+20,\ldots \}$
appear in the literature? I am curious what they are ...

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112 views

### On the linear factors of a polynomial obtained from the determinant of a matrix whose entries are related to Binomial expansion

Consider the polynomial ring $R=\mathbb C[x,y]$.
Consider the matrix $A=\begin{pmatrix} x^5+y^5&5x^5&10x^5&10x^5&5x^5\\5y^5&x^5+y^5 &5x^5&10x^5&10x^5 \\10y^5&5y^5&...

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82 views

### Polynomials passing through points with tangential conditions

In corollary here http://math.mit.edu/~lguth/Exposition/erdossurvey.pdf on polynomial methods it is said "(Parameter counting) If $S\subset\mathbb F^n$ is a finite set, then there is a non-zero ...

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116 views

### Which polynomials in the minors of a matrix are invariant under conjugation?

$\newcommand{\Cof}{\operatorname{cof}}$
This is a cross-post.
Let $1<k<n$ be a fixed integer. I am trying to understand "what can be said" about the $k$-degree minors of a linear map $T:V \to ...

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47 views

### Relationship bewteen Kazhdan-Lusztig Vogan polynomial and Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomial

Let $W^I=\{w\in W: w^{-1}\Phi_I^+\subseteq \Phi^+\}$, $W_I$ be the Weyl group generated by $I$ and $w_I$ be the longest element in $W_I$
Let $M(\lambda)$ be the Verma module with highest weight $\...

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121 views

### Descending chain of subalgebras of $k[x,y]$

Let $k$ be a field of characteristic zero.
Let $\{R_i\}_{i \in \mathbb{N}}$ be a descending chain of $k$-subalgebras of $k[x,y]$: $k[x,y]=:R_0 \supseteq R_1 \supseteq R_2 \supseteq \ldots$,
such that ...

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**1**answer

57 views

### About Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomial

Let $(W,S)$ be a Coxeter system. One can have the Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomial $P_{x,\ y}(q)$.
Does $P_{x,\ y}(q)=P_{x^{-1},\ y^{-1}}(q)$ for all $x,y\in W$?

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131 views

### Parabolic Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomial coincide?

Let $(W,S)$ be a Coxeter system. For any subset $I\subseteq S$, we can have the parabolic Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomial $P_{x,w}^I(q)$ with respect to $I$.
Now consider $I\subseteq J\subseteq S$. Both $(...

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170 views

### radical of a certain ideal of sixteen variable polynomial ring, generated by the entries of certain matrices

Consider the polynomial ring $R=\mathbb C[x_1,x_2,...,x_{16}]$, and set
$$X=\begin{pmatrix} x_1 &x_2&x_3 &x_4\\ x_5&x_6& x_7&x_8\\x_9&x_{10}&x_{11}&x_{12}\\x_{13}&...

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134 views

### Guess (or upper bound) the general formula for a double sequence

Let $t,s \geq 0$ be integers. We have the following recursive formula:
$$f(t+1,s) = f(t,s) + f(t,s-1) + \sum_{0\leq a,b,c \leq h(t):\\a+b+c = s-1}f(t,a)f(t,b)f(t,c),$$ where
$$h(t) = \frac{1}{2}3^t -\...

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353 views

### Estimating the derivative of a polynomial on the unit circle

Let $P(z)=\sum_{k=0}^na_kz^k $ be a polynomial of degree $n$ and $z_k (1\leq k\leq n)$'s be $n$th roots of $-1$. Then when $\theta=0$ the inequality
$$|P'(e^{i\theta})|\leq \frac{4}{n}\left|\sum_{k=...

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144 views

### Bound on sum of coefficients of polynomials w.r.t a weighted integral

Fix $k\in\mathbb{N}$ and assume $f(x)$ is a real polynomial of degree $n$ such that we have the normalization
$$\int_{-1}^1f(x)^2\,(1-x)^kdx=1.$$
I am interested in the optimal size of the sum of the ...

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125 views

### Extremal polynomial majorants of $\log{|f|}$: a multivariate extension of a theorem of Carneiro and Vaaler

Carneiro and Vaaler have proved, as an application of their work on Beurling-Selberg extremal majorants, that for any non-zero complex polynomial $f(z) \in \mathbb{C}[z]$, the infimum value of the ...

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465 views

### How can I distinguish a genuine solution of polynomial equations from a numerical near miss?

Cross-posted from MSE, where this question was asked over a year ago with no answers.
Suppose I have a large system of polynomial equations in a large number of real-valued variables.
\begin{align}
...

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50 views

### Best method to compute sum of divisors of bounded evaluation of a bivariate quadratic?

Given a bivariate quadratic polynomial $g(u,v)\in\mathbb Z[u,v]$ and an integer $n$. How fast can we compute $\sum_{i=-\ell}^{\ell}\sum_{j=-\ell'}^{\ell'}\sigma_0(g(i,j))\bmod2$ where $\sigma_0$ is ...

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67 views

### Intersection condition for polynomial ring and maximal ideals

In ring theory, there is interest in a condition known as the intersection condition. There is a brief comment in McConnell-Robson along these lines: Consider the ring $R = k[x,y]$ where $k$ is a ...

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26 views

### Algebraic connection of the quadratic Lyapunov function existence with the Hurwitz criterion for third order linear system

In what publication the following theorem is proved?
Let $a$,$b$, $c$ be real numbers and we choose a Lyapunov function for the system:
$$
\left\{
\begin{array}{cr}
\dot{x} = y \\
\dot{y} = z \...

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567 views

### Roots and relation between polynomials and their derivatives

This is probably easy but it might be interesting. Here goes $\dots$
Let $P\in\mathbb{R}[x]$ be a polynomial of degree $n>2$ and $P'=\frac{dP}{dx}$. If $x_1, x_2, \dots, x_n$ are the roots of $P(x)...

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498 views

### Counting real zeros of a polynomial

I recently came across a criteria to count the number of real zeros of a polynomial $P(x)$ with real coefficients. Unfortunately I cannot find the reference! The criteria is the following: Form the ...

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72 views

### Locating “Polynomial interpolation in several variables” by Alexander and Hirschowitz

I'm looking for a digital copy of the already classical paper "Polynomial interpolation in several variables" by Alexander and Hirschowitz, which in particular solves the problem of the generic Waring ...

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279 views

### Roots of lacunary polynomials over a finite field

If $P$ is a polynomial over the field $\mathbb F_q$ of degree at most $q-2$ with $k$ nonzero coefficients, then $P$ has at most $(1-1/k)(q-1)$ distinct nonzero roots.
Does this fact have any standard ...

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**1**answer

141 views

### Parity and number of squares taken by polynomials in a range?

I have a polynomial $f(x)=a^2x^2+bx+c\in\mathbb Z[x]$ with $f(x)$ not a constant times a square and $abc\neq0$ and I want to know how many $x$ between $-a$ and $a$ the polynomial is a perfect square. ...

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235 views

### Can a positive polynomial on sphere be represented as the sum of squares of spherical harmonics

Let $p\in {\mathbb{R}}[x_1,\ldots, x_d]$ be a homogenous polynomial degree $2n$. We know that if $p$ is positive on $[-\pi,\pi]^d$, $p$ is sum of squares polynomial, i.e. $p$ can be witten as sum of ...

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53 views

### Convex hull of piece-wise linear functions

Let $K>1$ be a positive integer. Consider a function class $$\mathcal{F}_K:=\Big\{\max_{1\leq k\leq K} a_k^\top x + b_k:\ ||a_k||\leq 1, |b_k|\leq 1, \forall 1\leq k\leq K \Big\}$$ on some compact ...

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145 views

### Reference request: A commutative variant of the Exterior Algebra

Consider $A = \mathbb{R}[t_1,\ldots,t_{k}]$, the ring of real $k$-variate polynomials in the indeterminates $t_1,\ldots,t_k$. For $y\in\mathbb{R}$, define the element $p(y) \in A$ through
$$
p(y) = ...

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209 views

### Three theorems on the number of nonzero coefficients of a polynomial

The number of positive real roots of a polynomial with real coefficients is strictly smaller than the number of nonzero coefficients of the polynomial. This is an immediate corollary of Descartes' ...

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44 views

### Can one polarize multihomogeneous polynomials?

Let for each $1 \leq i \leq l$ $V_i$ be a finite dimensional $k$-space, and
\begin{equation}
f : \times_{i=1}^l V_i \longrightarrow k
\end{equation}
a multihomogeneous polynomial map of degree $d_i$ ...

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74 views

### Finding a characteristic for which the zero-locus of an ideal is not empty

I have a set of polynomials $f_1, \dots, f_m \in \mathbb{Z}[x_1, \dots, x_n]$ and I am interested in finding if these polynomials have a common root inside either $\mathbb{C}[x_1, \dots, x_n]$ or $\...

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123 views

### A kind of exponential concavity for polynomials?

Is there $C > 0$ such that the inequality
$$
\prod_{n\in\mathbb{N}} p(n)^{a_n} \leq p\left(C\prod_{n\in\mathbb{N}} n^{a_n}\right)
$$
holds for all finitely supported sequences $(a_n)$ with $a_n\geq ...

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**1**answer

94 views

### Atoric equation

I'm looking for a general equation/function z = f(x, y, radius1, radius2, p1, p2) for an atoric surface. p1 and p2 could be either eccentricity or conic constant values. Can anyone help me with that?
...

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67 views

### Can we efficiently count modulo 2 the number of connected subgraphs of a planar graph?

Paper p.9 and Wikipedia
relate the Tutte polynomial of a graph to another polynomial.
If $(x-1)(y-1)=z$, $$T(G;x,y)=F_G(z,y)/H(G)$$
Where $F_G(z,y)=\sum_{A \subseteq E}z^{c(G_A)}(y-1)^{|A|} $
where ...

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335 views

### A question on symmetric matrices

$\newcommand{\R}{\mathbb{R}}$
The question is
Is there a constructive (say, parametric) description of the set (say $M_n$) of all symmetric matrices $A\in\R^{n\times n}$ such that all the diagonal ...

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394 views

### Random 3-manifolds in $R^4$

Consider following program:
Generate random 3-manifold embedded in $R^4$.
Perform its triangulation.
Put it to Regina and calculate what manifold it is.
Assuming that we have good algorithm for ...

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**1**answer

121 views

### Solutions to a system of homogeneous equations (inequalities)

Let $f_1,\ldots,f_r \in \mathbb{R}[x_1,\ldots,x_n]$ be $r$ homogeneous polynomials of the same odd degree $d$, where $d \in \{3,5,7,\ldots\}$.
For which values of $r,n,d$ there exists a real ...

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233 views

### Algebraic power series over $\mathbb{F}_2$ as roots of polynomials of special form

Let $F = \mathbb{F}_2$ be the field with two elements. I will denote the rings of polynomials and formal
power series over $F$ as $F[t]$ and $F[[t]]$ respectively. Suppose that $x \in F[[t]]$ is ...

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197 views

### Is there a converse of Abhyankar-Moh-Suzuki theorem?

The following question is the same as this question; I ask it here, since I have not got any comments there (I really apologize if I should have waited some more time before asking it here; it is just ...

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**1**answer

110 views

### Non-negativity condition for special quartic

I know that a necessary and sufficient condition for the positivity of a quartic polynomial of many variables is in general difficult. I have a somewhat special case, maybe here more can be said. Let $...