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Questions in which polynomials (single or several variables) play a key role. It is typically important that this tag is combined with other tags; polynomials appear in very different contexts. Please, use at least one of the top-level tags, such as nt.number-theory, co.combinatorics, ac.commutative-...

11
votes
1answer
192 views

Roots of lacunary polynomials over a finite field

If $P$ is a polynomial over the field $\mathbb F_q$ of degree at most $q-2$ with $k$ nonzero coefficients, then $P$ has at most $(1-1/k)(q-1)$ distinct nonzero roots. Does this fact have any standard ...
0
votes
1answer
129 views

Parity and number of squares taken by polynomials in a range?

I have a polynomial $f(x)=a^2x^2+bx+c\in\mathbb Z[x]$ with $f(x)$ not a constant times a square and $abc\neq0$ and I want to know how many $x$ between $-a$ and $a$ the polynomial is a perfect square. ...
7
votes
1answer
219 views

Can a positive polynomial on sphere be represented as the sum of squares of spherical harmonics

Let $p\in {\mathbb{R}}[x_1,\ldots, x_d]$ be a homogenous polynomial degree $2n$. We know that if $p$ is positive on $[-\pi,\pi]^d$, $p$ is sum of squares polynomial, i.e. $p$ can be witten as sum of ...
2
votes
0answers
48 views

Convex hull of piece-wise linear functions

Let $K>1$ be a positive integer. Consider a function class $$\mathcal{F}_K:=\Big\{\max_{1\leq k\leq K} a_k^\top x + b_k:\ ||a_k||\leq 1, |b_k|\leq 1, \forall 1\leq k\leq K \Big\}$$ on some compact ...
5
votes
0answers
128 views

Reference request: A commutative variant of the Exterior Algebra

Consider $A = \mathbb{R}[t_1,\ldots,t_{k}]$, the ring of real $k$-variate polynomials in the indeterminates $t_1,\ldots,t_k$. For $y\in\mathbb{R}$, define the element $p(y) \in A$ through $$ p(y) = ...
9
votes
1answer
183 views

Three theorems on the number of nonzero coefficients of a polynomial

The number of positive real roots of a polynomial with real coefficients is strictly smaller than the number of nonzero coefficients of the polynomial. This is an immediate corollary of Descartes' ...
0
votes
0answers
42 views

Can one polarize multihomogeneous polynomials?

Let for each $1 \leq i \leq l$ $V_i$ be a finite dimensional $k$-space, and \begin{equation} f : \times_{i=1}^l V_i \longrightarrow k \end{equation} a multihomogeneous polynomial map of degree $d_i$ ...
1
vote
1answer
73 views

Finding a characteristic for which the zero-locus of an ideal is not empty

I have a set of polynomials $f_1, \dots, f_m \in \mathbb{Z}[x_1, \dots, x_n]$ and I am interested in finding if these polynomials have a common root inside either $\mathbb{C}[x_1, \dots, x_n]$ or $\...
4
votes
2answers
117 views

A kind of exponential concavity for polynomials?

Is there $C > 0$ such that the inequality $$ \prod_{n\in\mathbb{N}} p(n)^{a_n} \leq p\left(C\prod_{n\in\mathbb{N}} n^{a_n}\right) $$ holds for all finitely supported sequences $(a_n)$ with $a_n\geq ...
3
votes
1answer
93 views

Atoric equation

I'm looking for a general equation/function z = f(x, y, radius1, radius2, p1, p2) for an atoric surface. p1 and p2 could be either eccentricity or conic constant values. Can anyone help me with that? ...
1
vote
0answers
66 views

Can we efficiently count modulo 2 the number of connected subgraphs of a planar graph?

Paper p.9 and Wikipedia relate the Tutte polynomial of a graph to another polynomial. If $(x-1)(y-1)=z$, $$T(G;x,y)=F_G(z,y)/H(G)$$ Where $F_G(z,y)=\sum_{A \subseteq E}z^{c(G_A)}(y-1)^{|A|} $ where ...
6
votes
1answer
333 views

A question on symmetric matrices

$\newcommand{\R}{\mathbb{R}}$ The question is Is there a constructive (say, parametric) description of the set (say $M_n$) of all symmetric matrices $A\in\R^{n\times n}$ such that all the diagonal ...
7
votes
1answer
297 views

Random 3-manifolds in $R^4$

Consider following program: Generate random 3-manifold embedded in $R^4$. Perform its triangulation. Put it to Regina and calculate what manifold it is. Assuming that we have good algorithm for ...
3
votes
1answer
120 views

Solutions to a system of homogeneous equations (inequalities)

Let $f_1,\ldots,f_r \in \mathbb{R}[x_1,\ldots,x_n]$ be $r$ homogeneous polynomials of the same odd degree $d$, where $d \in \{3,5,7,\ldots\}$. For which values of $r,n,d$ there exists a real ...
7
votes
2answers
225 views

Algebraic power series over $\mathbb{F}_2$ as roots of polynomials of special form

Let $F = \mathbb{F}_2$ be the field with two elements. I will denote the rings of polynomials and formal power series over $F$ as $F[t]$ and $F[[t]]$ respectively. Suppose that $x \in F[[t]]$ is ...
4
votes
0answers
193 views

Is there a converse of Abhyankar-Moh-Suzuki theorem?

The following question is the same as this question; I ask it here, since I have not got any comments there (I really apologize if I should have waited some more time before asking it here; it is just ...
2
votes
1answer
110 views

Non-negativity condition for special quartic

I know that a necessary and sufficient condition for the positivity of a quartic polynomial of many variables is in general difficult. I have a somewhat special case, maybe here more can be said. Let $...
0
votes
0answers
143 views

Coefficients $U_m(n,k)$ in the identity $n^{2m+1}=\sum\limits_{0\leq k \leq m}(-1)^{m-k}U_m(n,k)\cdot n^k$

Review the main result of mathoverflow.net/questions/297900, that is the identity \begin{equation}\label{f1} n^{2m+1}=\sum\limits_{1\leq k \leq n}\sum\limits_{j\geq0}A_{m,j}k^j(n-k)^j, \end{equation} ...
2
votes
0answers
88 views

Growth estimates for polynomials with natural coefficients

Suppose $p(x)$ is a degree $m$ polynomial whose coefficients are natural numbers. Suppose further that we have $p(1)=n$, $p(2)\leq nm$ and $p(3)=n^2$, and assume that $m\leq \log n$. So $p$ only grows ...
5
votes
1answer
125 views

Finding a particular matrix factor

Consider the following Laurent polynomial matrix-valued function in the variable $x\in\mathbb{C}$ $$ A(x) = \begin{bmatrix} 0 & x \\ x^{-1} & 0\end{bmatrix}. $$ I'm interested in finding a ...
1
vote
1answer
155 views

do you recognize this polynomial with double factorials?

I've got a polynomial (which comes from solutions of the heat conduction PDE) which seems so simple I'm wondering if anyone recognizes it $$f_{m}=x^{m-1} +(m-1)x^{m-3}+(m-1)(m-3)x^{m-5} +(m-1)(m-3)(m-...
4
votes
1answer
143 views

$L^1$ norm of Littlewood polynomials on the unit circle

A Littlewood polynomial is a polynomial with coefficients from $\{ 1, -1\}$ and the set of Littlewood polynomials with degree $n$ is denoted by $\cal{L}_n$. I'm interested in a "good" lower bound on ...
6
votes
1answer
226 views

An Optimization Problem with Complex Variables, regarding Eigenvalues of Circulant Matrices

Let $S$ be a finite subset of the complex unit circle and $1 \in S$. For each $n \in \mathbb N $, define $f_n\colon S^{n-1}\to\mathbb R$ by $$f_n(x) := \sum_{w^{n}=1}|x_1w+ x_2w^2\cdots+x_{n-1}w^{n-1}...
1
vote
0answers
75 views

Questions about polynomial systems with parameter

We fix $n \geq 1$. Let $f$ be a continuous function $f : \mathbb R_+^* \to \mathbb R^n$. Suppose that we have $n$ polynomials in $n+1$ variables $$\begin{aligned} P_1(Y, X_1, \dots, X_n)\\ P_2(Y, ...
1
vote
0answers
85 views

What can be said about $\{\deg(f),\deg(g),\deg(h)\}$, such that $k[f,g,h]=k[t]$?

Let $f=f(t),g=g(t),h=h(t) \in k[t]$, $k$ is a field of characteristic zero. Denote $\deg(f)=a$, $\deg(g)=b$, $\deg(h)=c$. Assume that $a \geq 2, b \geq 2, c \geq 2$. Assume that $k[f,g] \neq k[t]$, $...
3
votes
2answers
114 views

Factoring certain Hessians of real homogeneous bivariate polynomials

For any homogeneous polynomial $f \in \mathbb R [x,y]$, define the homogeneous polynomial $$H(f) := \partial_yf^2\partial_x\partial_xf-2\partial_xf\partial_yf\;\partial_x\partial_yf+\partial_xf^2\...
0
votes
0answers
60 views

Bounded polynomial having coefficients that are bounded linearly in degree and number of variables

Let $P(\mathbf{x})$ be a bounded multivariate polynomial of degree at most $d$ (for my purposes it can be either coordinate degree or total degree) over $[-1,1]^n$, and assume $|P(\mathbf{x})| \leq 1$....
7
votes
1answer
404 views

Prove that these are polynomials

Define the functions $$F_n(q)=\frac1{(1-q)^{2n}}\sum_{k=0}^n(-q)^k\frac{2k+1}{n+k+1}\binom{2n}{n-k} \prod_{j=0,\,j\neq k}^n\frac{1+q^{2j+1}}{1+q}.$$ The numbers $\frac{2k+1}{n+k+1}\binom{2n}{n-k}$ ...
1
vote
1answer
115 views

Dimension of $S$-units over $\mathbb{C}[x]$

Let $S=\{s_1,\ldots,s_n\}$ be a finite set of complex numbers. Consider the set of polynomials $$U=\{\,(x+s_1)^{k_1}\cdots(x+s_n)^{k_n}:\, 0\leq k_1+\cdots+k_n\leq H\}.$$ I am curious as to what is ...
2
votes
0answers
23 views

Lacunary fully reducible polynomial over a finite field

The following problem is motivated by this MO question on rich directions determined by a set of a finite plane. Problem Does there exist a constant $C$ such that for all odd primes $p$ there is a ...
7
votes
1answer
240 views

Real-rootedness of some polynomials

Denote the unsigned Stirling numbers of the first kind by $s(n,j)$. Question. Is it true that the polynomials $$P_n(x)=\sum_{j\geq0}s(n,j)\binom{x}j$$ have only real roots? Note. Obviously, ...
3
votes
0answers
58 views

Structure of $k[X,Y,X^a/Y^b]$, name for such rings

Rings of the form $k[X,Y,\frac{X^a}{Y^b}]$, where $k$ is a finite field and $a$ and $b$ are relatively prime natural numbers, are showing up as residue rings in a problem I'm studying, and I'm ...
9
votes
1answer
290 views

Real polynomial bounded at inverse-integer points

Let $p$ be a real polynomial and $N$ be a positive integer. Suppose I tell you that $|p(\frac{1}{k})| \le 1$ for all $k\in\{1,\ldots,N\}$, and also that $p(\frac{1}{N})\le -\frac{1}{2}$ while $p(\...
7
votes
0answers
150 views

Positivity of certain polynomial coefficients

Consider the rational functions (in fact, polynomials) $$F_n(q)=\frac1{(1-q)^{2n}}\sum_{k=0}^n(-q)^k\frac{2k+1}{n+k+1}\binom{2n}{n-k} \prod_{j=0,\,j\neq k}^n\frac{1+q^{2j+1}}{1+q}.$$ The numbers $\...
7
votes
0answers
131 views

Nonzero subdeterminants conjecture: has anybody seen this anywhere?

I already posted this question on Mathematics StackExchange. A user there suggested that I rather post it on mathoverflow, since it is a research question. So here it is. Let $m\geq2$, $n\geq1$ be ...
2
votes
0answers
142 views

Real-rooted polynomials with coefficient constraints

My question is whether there exists $(a_0, a_1, \ldots, a_{2n-1}) \in \mathbb{R}_{+}^{2n}$ such that (1). $a_{2k} + a_{2k+1} = \binom{3n-1}{3k} + \binom{3n-1}{3k+1} + \binom{3n-1}{3k+2}$ for all $0 \...
2
votes
1answer
209 views

Lüroth theorem for $k \subset k(f,g) \subseteq k(x)$

Let $k$ be a field of characteristic zero (I do not mind to assume that $k=\mathbb{C}$, if things are easier in this case). Lüroth theorem says that a field $L$, $k \subset L \subset k(x)$ containing ...
8
votes
1answer
190 views

Patterns in roots of integer-coefficient polynomials

Below are shown two displays of all the roots of polynomials $$c_n x^n + c_{n-1} x^{n-1} + \cdots + c_1 x + c_0 \;=\; 0$$ with each coefficient $c_i$ an integer $|c_i| \le M$ (including $c_i=0$). No ...
2
votes
1answer
179 views

Linear difference inequality

It is well known how to find a solution for the following linear difference equation $$h_{m} = h_{m-1} + a \cdot h_{m-2}$$ Finding the roots $r_1$ and $r_2$ of $r^2 - r - a$, we have that the ...
5
votes
1answer
123 views

When is a linear combination of the elementary symmetric polynomials reducible?

Let $n\ge 2$ and consider the polynomial ring $\mathbb F [X_1,...,X_n]$, where $\mathbb F$ is a field. Let $e_j:=e_j(X_1,...,X_n)$ be the elementary symmetric polynomial of degree $j$ in $X_1,...,X_n$...
7
votes
2answers
136 views

How different can the constituents of an Ehrhart quasi-polynomial be?

Consider a $d$-dimensional convex rational polytope $P\subset\mathbb{Q}^d\subset\mathbb{R}^d$. Then, it's a standard fact that in general the function counting the number of lattice points inside the ...
4
votes
2answers
62 views

Univariate polynomial interpolation with restricted degrees

Let $D=\{d_1, d_2, \ldots, d_n\}$ be an integer set. I'd like to know if I can interpolate any collection of $n$ points $(x_1, y_1), (x_2, y_2), \ldots, (x_{n}, y_{n})$ by a polynomial whose degree ...
2
votes
1answer
284 views

Polynomials with no multiple root

Let $a,d$ be polynomials of $\mathbb Z[X]$ with $\deg a>\deg d\ge0$ and $P$ be a polynomial of $\mathbb Z[X]$. Consider an infinite sequence of integers $(\lambda_n)_n$. Can one assert there exists ...
3
votes
1answer
73 views

Locally nilpotent derivation on $A[X,Y]$ whose kernel is $A$; where $A$ is an affine $k$ domain, $char k=0$

Let $k$ be a field of characteristic zero and $A$ be a $k$-algebra. A derivation on $A$ is a $k$-linear map $D: A \to A$ such that $D(ab)=aD(b)+bD(a), \forall a,b \in A$. A derivation is called ...
0
votes
0answers
45 views

Change of polynomial eigenvalues between polynomials

Given the polynomial eigenvalue problem $$ p_t(z) = det ( P(z) + Q(t) ) = 0, $$ where $P(z) = \sum_{i=0}^k P_i z^i$ with $P_i \in \mathbb{C}^{n \times n}$ and $Q(t) \in \mathbb{C}^{n \times n}$. The ...
1
vote
0answers
106 views

Factorially closed, finitely generated $k$-sub-algebra of $k[X_1,X_2,X_3]$ , where $k$ is algebraically closed field of positive characteristic

Let $S$ be a sub-ring of a commutative ring with unity $R$. Then $S$ is called factorially closed in $R$ if $a,b \in R$ and $ab \in S\setminus \{0\} \implies a,b \in S$. Let $k$ be an algebraically ...
2
votes
2answers
397 views

These polynomials are always either even or odd [duplicate]

The falling factorials are $(x)_n=x(x-1)\cdots(x-n+1)$ with $(x)_0:=1$. Define the forward shift $E$ and the discrete derivative $\delta=E-1$, respectively, by $$Ef(x)=f(x+1) \qquad \text{and} \qquad \...
3
votes
1answer
124 views

Cancellation problem for Laurent polynomial rings and power series rings

Throughout, let $k$ be an algebraically closed field. For two $k$-algebras $A,B$ let us write $A \cong_k B$ to mean that $A,B$ are isomorphic as $k$-algebras. It is known that if $A$ is an integral ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Factorially closed, finitely generated $k$-sub-algebra $A$ of $k[X_1,…,X_n]$, where $n>3$, $k$ is algebraically closed of char $0$, $trdeg_k A=n-1$

Let $S$ be a sub-ring of a commuttaive ring with unity $R$. Then $S$ is called factorially closed in $R$ if $a,b \in R$ and $ab \in S \implies a,b \in S$. My question is : Let $k$ be an algebraically ...
4
votes
1answer
259 views

Two bivariate polynomials (or rational functions) that generate $\mathbb{C}(x,y)$

Let $f=f(x,y),g=g(x,y) \in \mathbb{C}[x,y]$, each of degree $\geq 1$, and $f,g$ are algebraically independent over $\mathbb{C}$ (= their Jacobian $\in \mathbb{C}[x,y]-\{0\}$). (1) Is there a ...