# Questions tagged [ap.analysis-of-pdes]

Partial differential equations (PDEs): Existence and uniqueness, regularity, boundary conditions, linear and non-linear operators, stability, soliton theory, integrable PDEs, conservation laws, qualitative dynamics.

4,216
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### On the linearized evolution equations in general relativity

The following puzzles me already for quite some time: In mathematical relativity, especially in the discussion of the Cauchy problem, one usually works in the so-called ADM-Formalism, in which one ...

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### A 4th-order linear PDE

I am interested in the following type of 4-th order linear PDE with 2 variables (x, t):
$x^3 f_{xxxt}+ f =0$
Does anyone know if this type of PDE already appeared in the literature? It looks quite ...

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### Fractional powers of Dirichlet-to-Neumann map to derive estimate for PDE

Assume $\Omega$ is an open, bounded subset of $\mathbb R^3$ with smooth boundary $\partial \Omega= \Gamma$. For $u \in
H^{1/2}(\Gamma)$, let $U \in H^1(\Omega)$ denote the weak solution of
the ...

3
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1
answer

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### Schroedinger operator in 2 dimensions with singular potential

Consider the Schroedinger operator
$$H = -\Delta + \frac{c}{\vert x \vert^2}$$
in two dimensions with $c >0$
This operator has a self-adjoint realization, since it is a positive symmetric operator ...

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1
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### Singular integral bounded by Dirichlet form?

We define for some fixed $L$
$$\Omega:=\{(x_1,x_2) \in ([-L,L]^2 \times [-L,L]^2) \setminus \{x_1=x_2\}\},$$
in particular $x_1,x_2 \in \mathbb R^2.$
Let $f \in C_c^{\infty}(\Omega)$, then I am ...

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### Energy of harmonic maps from $\mathbb R^2$ to $S^2$ is quantized

Assume that $U:\mathbb R^2\to S^2=\{y\in\mathbb R^3:|y|=1\}$ is a smooth solution of the equation $\Delta U+|\nabla U|^2U=0$ in $\mathbb R^2$ with $\int_{\mathbb R^2}|\nabla U|^2\,dx<+\infty$. ...

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### Using connection form for unknown frame field

I have a way to calculate the connection 1-form $\alpha$ associated to a compact simply connected parallelizable Riemannian surface $(M,g)$ (so, $M$ is topologically a disk) and a special orthonormal ...

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### Upper bound Hölder norm of the solution to the linear PDE $\partial_t u (t, x) = \Delta_x \{ |\sigma (x)|^2 u(t, x) \}$

Previously, I asked the same question for a non-linear PDE, but I have got no answer. Below, I consider the linear counterpart it.
We fix $T>0$ and let $\mathbb T := [0, T]$. Let $\sigma : \mathbb ...

7
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1
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### Conformal Killing fields satisfy a third order PDE

Let $(M,g)$ be a $n$-dimensional Riemannian manifold with smooth metric $g$.
Proposition 3.2 in the paper "The Boost Problem in General Relativity" by O'Murchadha and Chistodoulou claims ...

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### Finding correct bound on vorticity equation

In one of my short papers on Navier-Stokes problem I was able to show that the vorticity formula is bounded
\begin{equation}\label{Eq1}
\dfrac{1}{4}\dfrac{\partial}{\partial t} v_i \le |\textbf{v}|^2+ ...

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### Extension of eigenvalue and eigenprojection to its complex neighbourhood for constantly hyperbolic operator

I am reading a paper named The block structure condition for symmetric hyperbolic systems written by G. Metivier. There is a statement really has bothered me for a long time.
Consider the following ...

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### PDE: compactness vs blowup

There are, of course, plenty of approaches on how to solve a non-linear PDE. Two of them are the following:
Solve (easier) approximate problems, show some form of compactness for the approximate ...

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### Fourier integral operators and parametrix

Consider the classical wave equation in a bounded domain in $\mathbb{R}^n$, assuming vanishing of the function and its normal derivative on the boundary.
Question: Is there an expression for the ...

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### Question about the formula of Green function of Laplacian on sphere

I'm reading a paper which said that
the Green function for $\left(-\Delta_g\right)^m$ on $2m$-dimensional closed manifold is of the form
$$\tag{1}
G_y(x)=\frac{2}{\Lambda_1} \log \frac{1}{d_g(x, y)}+\...

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### Poincare inequality on the hemisphere

Background:
Let $\mathbb{S}^2_+$ be the hemisphere. Then we know that for $f:\mathbb{S}^2_+\to \mathbb{R}$ satisfying (when written in coordinates) $\int_{0}^{2\pi}\int_{0}^{\pi/2}f(r,\theta)\sin(r)dr ...

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### Quasimode construction on a compact Riemannian manifold

Let $M$ be a closed Riemannian manifold, $\Delta$ be the usual Laplace-Betrami operator on $M$ and $\gamma : [0, L] \to M$ be a stable elliptic periodic geodesic of length $L$. I have heard in several ...

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### Elliptic regularity on manifolds: Is this true?

Let $(M,g)$ be a Riemannian manifold (without boundary) and denote by $\Delta_{g}$ the Laplace-Beltrami operator (or any other elliptic operator if you wish). I was trying to find a reference for the ...

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2
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### Interpretation of the singular integral for the definition of fractional Laplacian in classical case $s=1$

Fractional Laplacian is often defined via next principal value integral (assume dimension one for the simplicity)
$$(-\Delta)^su(x):=c_sP.V.\int_\mathbb{R} \frac{u(x)-u(y)}{|x-y|^{1+2s}}\, dy.$$
This ...

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1
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### Existence of solution to nonlinear first order PDE with C^1 bounds

I'm looking for general existence of a PDE of the form
$$ f: U \times [0, \delta) \to \mathbb{R}$$
$$\frac{\partial f}{\partial t}(p,t) = F(f(p,t))$$
where $f(p,0)$ is prescribed and $F$ is non-linear ...

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### Some questions about the concept of stable solution of elliptic PDE

For $$
-\Delta u=f(u) \quad \text { in } \Omega,
$$
we call a solution is stable if
$$
Q_u(\varphi):=\int_{\Omega}|\nabla \varphi|^2 d x-\int_{\Omega} f^{\prime}(u) \varphi^2 d x \geq 0, \quad \forall ...

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### How to interpret the vector fields $F_p(x,u,Du)$ in a Lagrangian optimization problem

Let $\Omega$ be an open bounded subset of $\mathbb{R}^n$ with $C^1$ boundary. Let
$$
\begin{matrix}
F: \mathbb{R}^n \times \mathbb{R}^N \times \mathbb{R}^{nN} \to \mathbb{R},& \\
(x,z,p) \mapsto F(...

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### One more question on biharmonic functions

Let $w$ be a function $\mathbb R^n\to \mathbb R$ with the following properties:
$w$ is globally $\alpha$-Hölder continuous, $\alpha \in (0,1)$;
$w$ is biharmonic on $C=\{w>0\}$;
$w$ is subharmonic ...

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### $L^p$ estimates for critical heat equation on $\mathbb{R}^n$

Background:
Let $u:\mathbb{R}^n\times [0,T_+)\to \mathbb{R}$ be a solution to
$$\partial_t u = \Delta u + |u|^{p-1}u$$
where $p=2^{*}-1=\frac{2n}{n-2}-1=\frac{n+2}{n-2}$, $n\geq 3$ and $T_+>0$ ...

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103
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### Controlling convolutions with maximal functions

For $f\in L^1(\mathbb R^n),$ let $Mf$ be the (Edited: changed the type of maximal function) Stein spherical maximal function. Let $\varphi\in C_c^\infty.$ Then, can we have a pointwise estimate of the ...

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### Behaviour of higher order Laplacian in punctured domain

Bocher theorem characterize the behaviour of a positive harmonic function in punctured disc. More precisely if $\Omega$ is a domain in $\mathbb{R}^3$ and $U$ is a non negative solution of $\Delta u=0$ ...

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### Question on the modelling of (viscous) fluid in a bag with holes

Consider some fluid (as nice as possible) in a plastic bag with holes illustrated by the image below (of course no holes have been drawn in this picture)
What is the corresponding PDE to model the ...

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### Conservation law for generic linear hyperbolic PDEs?

Consider the wave equation:
$$
u_{tt} = \Delta u, \text{ on }U\times [0,T], u=0\text{ on }\partial U\times[0,T].
$$
To prove the only solution for the zero initial condition is zero, we only need to ...

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2
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### Intuition for Agmon-Douglis-Nirenberg ellipticity

First of all, I am sorry if this is a too basic question, but I stumbled over this notion of ellipticity only very recently.
I am trying to understand the definition of ellipticity of systems due to ...

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### criticality for nonlinear wave equations on manifolds

On $\mathbb{R}^{1+n}$, the initial value problem for the homogeneous wave equation
$$ \Box \phi = \partial_t^2 \phi - \Delta_{\mathbb{R}^n} \phi = 0, \\ (\phi, \partial_t \phi)|_{t=0} = (\phi_0, \...

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### Prove if the fractional Laplacian of a function is bounded

Take $s\in (0, 1)$. I am trying to understand if $(-\Delta)^s (\log(1+x^2))$ is bounded, that is if there exists $R>0$ such that $|(-\Delta)^s (\log(1+x^2))|\le R$.
Here $(-\Delta)^s$ is the ...

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### Elliptic PDEs in BSDEs and in optimal control

This soft/reference question is related to this MO post of a similar nature.
What are some examples of elliptic PDEs appearing in control and BSDEs?

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### Question on Cauchy problem on manifolds

Let $(M,g)$ be a globally-hyperbolic manifold, i.e. $M=\mathbb{R}\times\Sigma$ and $g=-\beta^2 \, dt^2+h_{t}$. Furthermore, let $E$ be a vector bundle over $M$ and $\square$ a normally-hyperbolic ...

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### Examples of symmetry-breaking solitons which retain a subgroup symmetry

There are many works on spontaneous symmetry breaking in the Nonlinear Schrödinger equation with asymmetric soliton solutions.
However, all symmetry breaking soliton examples I have seen go from the ...

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### Closed-form solution to hyperbolic PDE

Let $A\in C^{\infty}(\mathbb{R}^2)$ be Lebesgue integrable, and $c_1,c_2\in C^{\infty}(\mathbb{R})$ also be Lebesgue integrable. Consider the hyperbolic PDE
$$
\begin{cases}
\partial_{x,y}u & = A\...

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### Pohozaev type obstruction for higher order elliptic operators

I was reading about Pohazaev type obstructions: precisely, I mean the following kind of results. Let $h\in C^1(\mathbb{R}^n)$ and consider the following Dirichlet problem
$$
\begin{cases}
\Delta u + ...

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### What is the PDE corresponding to this weak formulation?

Consider a flow $(\mu_t)_{t\ge 0}$ such that
every $\mu_t$ is a probability on $\mathbb R_+$;
$\mu_0(dx) = \rho(x) \, dx$ with $\rho$ being a probability density (as nice as possible) on $\mathbb R_+$...

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### Upper bound Hölder norm of the solution to the non-linear PDE $\partial_t u (t, x) = \Delta_x \{ |\sigma (u (t, x))|^2 u(t, x) \}$

We fix $T>0$ and let $\mathbb T := [0, T]$. Let $\sigma : \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ belong to the Hölder space $C^{1, \alpha}_b (\mathbb R)$ for some $\alpha \in (0, 1)$. Let $u : \mathbb T \times \...

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### An integrable estimate of the Hölder constant of the map $x \mapsto \int_{\mathbb R^d} f(y) \partial_1 \partial_1 g_t (x-y) \, \mathrm d y$

Let $(g_t)_{t>0}$ be the Gaussian heat kernel on $\mathbb R^d$, i.e.,
$$
g_t (x) := (4\pi t)^{-\frac{d}{2}} e^{-\frac{|x|^2}{4t}},
\quad t>0, x \in \mathbb R^d.
$$
Let $f : \mathbb R^d \to \...

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### Elliptic PDEs in Finance

In mathematical finance, one often encounters parabolic PDEs typically through the Feynman-Kac representation theorem/formula. However, I'm curious are there interesting examples of Elliptic boundary ...

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### Reference request heat equation with moving interface

Let $T,\sigma_1,\sigma_2>0$, $\lambda:[0,T]\to\mathbb{R}$ a continuous function and consider the following Cauchy problem on $[0,T]\times \mathbb{R}$:
$$
\begin{cases}
u_t = \sigma_1^2u_{xx} ~~~~\...

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### Any solution of an evolution problem tends to a steady state in $L^2$?

I have a general question. Suppose that we have the following simple evolution problem $\begin{cases} \dfrac{\partial u}{\partial t}-\Delta u=f(u), & (t,x)\in (0,\infty)\times\Omega\\ \dfrac{\...

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### Mixture of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck operators

Consider a set of isotropic, multivariate Gaussian densities with different centers $\mu_i\in \mathbb{R}^d $, $i\in\{1, \ldots, K\}$, which are denoted $\phi_i(x)$. They all have the same variance ...

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### $L^{p}$ estimate for $\Delta|\nabla u|$ on a manifold with bounded Ricci curvature

This is a more advanced question than Estimates of $\Delta|\nabla u|$ for harmonic function $u$ .
The Bochner formula and refined Kato inequality tells us that on a Riemannian manifold $(M^{n},g)$, if ...

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### Non-linearity of viscosity solutions

I am interested in the following problem.
Let consider the solution of the non-linear PDE on $[0,T]\times\mathbb{R}$ satifying the following Cauchy problem:
$$
\begin{cases}
u_t = F(u_{xx}),\\
u(0,x) =...

4
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0
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### Exponential map for tangent space of space of distributions $\mathscr{P}_2(X)$

In Chapter 8 of the book Gradient Flows In Metric Spaces and in the Space of Probability Measures by Ambrosio et al., the tangent space to the space of distributions on $X$ (let's say $X=\mathbb{R}^d$)...

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### Estimates of $\Delta|\nabla u|$ for harmonic function $u$

The well-known Bochner formula and refined Kato inequality (for harmonic function) tells us that for a harmonic function $u$ in $B_{2}\subset\mathbb{R}^{n}$,
$$
\frac{1}{n}|\nabla^{2}u|^{2}\leqslant |\...

0
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0
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### Godunov splitting convergence research

The approximation of Godunov splitting on certain differential equations is known to be first order accurate. In 2011, a paper has also shown that it is first order accurate for nonlinear ordinary ...

2
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### On improving the regularity of solutions to nonlinear parabolic pde

There's a common reasoning i have seen in many papers/books that work with parabolic pde's (most specifically in the context of geometric flows) but I can't fully grasp it. This reasoning is that to ...

2
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0
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### Question about the ''crater'' in mountain-pass theorem while reading a paper of solving mean-field equation by mountain-pass theorem

Actually, I'm reading a paper which finds the saddle point of a functional, of course the unbounded below energy functional will suggest a potential saddle, but the structure of mountain pass is the ...

2
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### Functional of fully nonlinear equations

Let $\left(\mathcal{M}, g_0\right)$ be a compact Riemannian manifold of dimension $n>2$ and denote by 'Ric' and $R$ respectively the Ricci tensor and the scalar curvature. The $k$-Yamabe problem is ...