# Questions tagged [continuity]

The continuity tag has no usage guidance.

163
questions

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### Convergence in expectation of a discontinuous function

Consider a random variable $X\in \mathbb{R}^d$. Let ${\theta_m}$ be a sequence of real numbers that converge to $\theta$. Let $f(x,y)$ be a function that is not continuous. To be specific, fix, $x=a$, ...

3
votes

1
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146
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### Homeomorphic extension of a discrete function

Let $f : \{ 0,1 \} ^ {n} \rightarrow \{ 0,1 \} ^ {n}$ be a bijective map. Then is there a known computable way to extend it to a homeomorphism $g:[ 0,1 ] ^ {n} \rightarrow [ 0,1 ] ^ {n}?$

5
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183
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### On the continuity of a Set-Valued function (correspondence) [closed]

Let $f:\mathbb{R}^{n}\rightrightarrows \mathbb{R}^{m}$ be a set-valued function defined by
\begin{equation*}
f\left( x\right) =\left\{ y\in \mathbb{R}^{m}:g\left( x\right) +h\left(
x\right) ^{T}y\...

7
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1
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457
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### Non-homeomorphic connected one-dimensional Hausdorff spaces that have continuous bijections between them in both sides

I need to construct an example of two non-homeomorphic connected one-dimensional Hausdorff spaces that have continuous bijections between them in both sides. Spaces should have induced ("good&...

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2
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159
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### Asymptotics of the unique root of a polynomial equation defined as a sum of rational expressions

Let $\lambda_1\ge \ldots \ge \lambda_n \gt 0$. Define a function $F:\mathbb R_+ \to \mathbb R_+$ by
$$
F(t) = t^2\sum_{i=1}^n\frac{\lambda_i^2}{(\lambda_i + t)^2}.
$$
It is clear that $F$ is strictly ...

0
votes

1
answer

93
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### Constructing a Gaussian process on $[0, 1]$ such that the sample paths are $1$-Lipschitz continuous with high probability?

In the paper [1] the authors demonstrate that for a centered Gaussian process $\{X_t\}_{t \in [0, 1]}$, if there is a constant $C > 0$ such that
$$
\mathbb{E}[(X_t - X_s)^2] \leq C~(t- s)^2,
$$
...

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61
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### Under which conditions Mean Square Continuity implies Sample Continuity for Gaussian Processes?

First, let us give the setting.
Let $(\Omega, \Sigma, \mathbf{P})$ be a probability space, let $T$ be some interval of time, and let $X: T \times \Omega \rightarrow S$ be a stochastic process.
By Mean ...

0
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0
answers

75
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### How to show two equivalent projection in a C∗ algebra are not homotopic

Show that two equivalent projections need not be homotopic. HINT: Let $P=\begin{pmatrix} 1&0\\0&0\end{pmatrix}$ and $Q=\begin{pmatrix}
t&\sqrt{t(1-t)}\\\sqrt{t(1-t)}&1-t
\...

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117
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### Uniformly open map on a dense subset

Schauder's lemma asserts that you can always extend a uniformly continuous, uniformly open map from a dense subset of a complete metric space to a uniformly open map on the completion.
I think the ...

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55
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### On "canonical" extensions of functions from integers to reals

Although this is essentially a port of my MathSE question, I think the users there tend to not understand how to interpret the questions from a higher perspective (and often too literally). This is ...

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150
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### Continuous dependence of the (infinite) roots of a polynomial on its coefficients

I'm trying to show the continuous dependence of the roots of a polynomial on its coefficients when the root number can be infinite (e.g., $x-y$). I don't know much about algebraic geometry but after I ...

2
votes

1
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123
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### A characterization of continuity in terms of preservation of connected sets. Where to find the result?

There is a result that if $X$ is a locally connected space and $Y$ is a locally compact Hausdorff space, then a function $f \colon X \to Y$ is continuous if and only if $f$ has a closed graph and for ...

2
votes

1
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377
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### (Dis)prove : if every function with closed graph are continuous then the target space is compact

$(X, \tau_X) $ and $(Y, \tau_Y) $ be two topological spaces.
$\forall f\in Y^X$ with $\text{Gr}(f) $ is closed implies $f\in C(X, Y) $.
Question : Does this implies $(Y, \tau_Y) $ is compact?
...

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135
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### What can be said about cluster sets for power series of two variables?

I'm still trying to prove the continuity of a function $u$ which can be interpreted as the restriction of a power series of two variables, which I haven't managed to approach the right way yet. To ...

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294
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### Can a power series of several variables be discontinuous on a compact set if it converges in every point of this set?

Say we have a power series of two variables, with an associated function $f$ defined as
$$
\begin{split}
f(x, y) =\, & \sum_{n,m} a_{n,m}x^ny^m,\\
& a_{n,m} \geq 0 \quad \forall n, m \in\...

0
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83
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### From convergence pointwise to convergence of the supremum for semicontinuous functions

Let $K\subset\mathbb{R}$ a compact set, and $(f_n)_{n\geq 1}$ and $f$ upper semicontinuous functions over $K$ (taking hence values in $\mathbb{R}\cup\{-\infty,+\infty\}$) such that for all $x\in K$, ...

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45
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### Commutation between $\sup$ and $\lim$ for a decreasing sequence of functions

Let $S_d$ be the relative interior of the $d$-simplex:
$$S_d=\big\{x\in\mathbb{R}^d,\,\forall 1\leq i\leq d,\,x_i>0,\,\sum_{i=1}^d x_i=1\big\}$$
and $g\in\mathcal{C}^0(S_d,\mathbb{R})$ such that $\...

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72
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### Discontinuity of the Fourier transform of $ x \mapsto (1+ x^2)^{- \gamma/2}$ for $\gamma \leq 1$

Fix $\gamma > 0$. Let $\mathcal{F}$ be the Fourier transform and consider the function
$f(x) = (1+ x^2)^{- \gamma/2}$ for $x \in \mathbb{R}$. This function is in $\mathcal{S}'(\mathbb{R})$ and its ...

2
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### Continuous analogue for Szpilrajn Theorem: complete preorder extends a continuous preorder

A corollary of Szpilrahn Theorem states:
Any preorder on nonempty $X$ has a complete and transitive extension.
I am thinking about the "Szpilrahn Theorem" for continuous preorder on ...

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1
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133
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### Maps that preserve winding numbers

This question is a cross post from the Math StackExchange since it got no attention at all there: https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/4414601/maps-that-preserve-winding-numbers
I am looking for a ...

3
votes

1
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322
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### Is a convex, lower semicontinuous function that is bounded from below, actually continuous?

While thinking about convex functions, I managed to put together the following proof which I find a bit too good to be true. $X$ is a topological vector space that is also a Baire space.
Lemma: Let $f ...

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53
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### Is $g = \sum_{n \in \mathbb{Z}} f(\cdot - n)$ continuous if $f$ is vanishing, continuous, and integrable?

Let $f \in \mathcal{C}_0(\mathbb{R}) \cap L^1(\mathbb{R})$ be a continuous and integrable function such that $f(x) \rightarrow 0$ when $|x|\rightarrow \infty$.
The sequence of a functions $f_N = \sum_{...

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194
views

### Convolution of continuous compactly supported functions on étale groupoid is continuous

Let $G$ be an étale Hausdorff groupoid, i.e. a topological groupoid $G$ such that the source and range maps $s,r: G \to G$ are local homeomorphisms.
Consider the complex vector space $C_c(G)$ of ...

3
votes

2
answers

290
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### Smoothing a map $f:X\to \mathbb{R}$ while fixing it over a closed $C\subset X$

$\newcommand{\R}{\mathbb{R}}$I have a map $f\in C^0(X,\mathbb{R})$, where $X$ is a compact and Hausdorff topological space, which is a manifold outside of a compact subset $K\subset X$.
I would like ...

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299
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### Is $\mathbb{Q}$ the orbit of a continuous function that is computable when restricted to $\mathbb{Q}$?

In the previous post What is the smallest set of real continuous functions generating all rational numbers by iteration? I asked for the smallest set of continuous real functions that could generate $\...

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1
answer

96
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### Given an increasing function, need to construct a continuous increasing function equivalent to given function

Given an increasing function $f:[0,\infty)\to[0,\infty)$, we can define $$F(x)=\int_x^{x+1} f(t)dt,$$
which is continuous, increasing function satisfying $$f(x)\leq F(x)\leq f(x+1).$$
Question) For ...

2
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0
answers

84
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### Can a smooth function always fit between two non-smooth functions? [closed]

Suppose I have two continuous functions, $f$ and $g$, with $f(x)<g(x)$ for all $x$ in some closed domain. Is it always possible to find a (piecewise, if needed) smooth function $h$ such that $f(x)&...

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### Is $\mathbb{Q}$ the orbit of a rational function under iteration?

In this previous post I asked for the smallest set of continuous real functions that could generate $\mathbb Q$ by iteration starting from $0$. Surprisingly one continuous function suffices.
In the ...

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answers

66
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### Is there a finite set of polynomials generating all rational numbers by iteration?

In this previous post I asked for the smallest set of continuous real functions that could generate $\mathbb{Q}$ by iteration starting from 0. Surprisingly one continuous function suffices.
The ...

33
votes

2
answers

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### What is the smallest set of real continuous functions generating all rational numbers by iteration?

I recently came across this problem from USAMO 2005:
"A calculator is broken so that the only keys that still
work are the $\sin$, $\cos$, $\tan$, $\arcsin$, $\arccos$ and $\arctan$ buttons. The ...

2
votes

1
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171
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### Relationship between $C(X\times Y,Z)$ and $C(X,C(Y,Z))$

Let $X$, $Y$, and $Z$ be locally-compact, complete, and separable metric spaces and suppose that $X$ is compact; all non-empty.
Consider the spaces $C(X,C(Y,Z))$ and $C(X\times Y,Z)$ both equipped ...

2
votes

0
answers

92
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### Are a.e. derivatives of continuous $VBG_*$ functions Denjoy–Perron integrable?

I would like to ask a question pertaining to the Denjoy–Perron (Henstock–Kurzweil) theory of integration. It is simple enough that I have entertained the idea that perhaps an answer is known, but I ...

3
votes

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answers

166
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### Is the following generalization of piecewise continuity equivalent to any other common types of functions on metric spaces?

EDIT: I think what I have isn't precisely what I want... we should also require $x$ in condition (3) to be "not bad" in some sense, although I'm not quite sure what that should mean for my ...

0
votes

1
answer

236
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### Approximation of positive right-continuous function

Let $f:(0, +\infty)\to(0, +\infty) $ be a monotone decreasing, right-continuous function. Can we find a sequence $\{f_{n}\}_{n\in \mathbb{N}}$ of strictly monotone decreasing, continuous functions, ...

1
vote

0
answers

60
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### Integrating over correspondences

Consider two compact sets $X$ and $Y$, a function $f:Y\to \mathbb{R}$, and a closed, non-empty correspondence $A:X\twoheadrightarrow Y$. Define the function $G:X\to \mathbb{R}$ by
$$
G(x)=\int_{A(x)}f(...

1
vote

1
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1k
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### Norms in Sobolev space $W^{1,\infty}$

Let $n\in\mathbb{N}$ and consider the Sobolev space $W^{1,\infty}(\mathbb{R}^n)=\lbrace u\in L^{\infty}(\mathbb{R}^n):\partial_iu\in L^{\infty}(\mathbb{R}^n) \rbrace$. A function is in $W^{1,\infty}$ ...

3
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327
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### Functions with at most linear growth at infinity: is the constant itself continuous?

I am considering the family $\mathcal{F}$ of functions $f \colon \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ which have at most linear growth at infinity, that is there exists a constant $M_f$ such that
\begin{...

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votes

1
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188
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### strict convexity and Lipschitz continuity [closed]

Consider a continuously differentiable function $f: \mathbb{R}^n \mapsto \mathbb{R}$. If $f$ is strictly convex, does it imply that it is not Lipschitz on $\mathbb{R}^n$?
Because if $f$ is strictly ...

3
votes

1
answer

717
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### Function whose sets of discontinuities and zeros are the rationals

Question: Is there a real valued function $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ such that its set of discontinuities is $\mathbb{Q}$ and its set of zeros $\{x\in \mathbb{R}\mid f(x)=0\}$ is also $\mathbb{Q}$?
...

-1
votes

1
answer

108
views

### Sobolev injections [closed]

It is true to write that
$W^{1,\infty}(]0,\infty[) \hookrightarrow C([0,\infty[)$ et $W^{1,1}(]0,\infty[) \hookrightarrow C([0,\infty[)$ ?
Thanks

0
votes

1
answer

557
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### Is the pointwise supremum of a continuous function continuous?

Suppose $f(x , y)$ is continuous in both variables. For any $\epsilon > 0$ and some $y_0$, let $h_{\epsilon}(x) = \max_{y^{'}: \| y^{'} - y_0 \| \leq \epsilon} f(x , y^{'})$. It seems to me that $...

3
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1
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224
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### Is disintegration continuous?

Let $X,Y$ be Polish spaces and suppose that $X$ is compact. Denote by $\mathcal{Mes}(X,\mathcal{P}(X\times Y))$ the set of (Borel) measurable functions from $X$ to the set of Borel probability ...

2
votes

1
answer

150
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### Largest number N for which injective mapping $f: 2^N \to 2^8 \times 2^8 \times 2^8$ which is Lipschitz-1 CT with $K\leq 3$ exists

I have a function on $h: [0,1] \to [0,1]$ whose output is smooth (polynomial of low degree), and I need to discretize it but I need to save it with three 8 bit numbers. These three 8 bit numbers need ...

1
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0
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30
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### How to prove continuity in topological group action of ${\rm{GA}}_a(X)$ on $T(X)$, to make ${\rm{GA}}(X)$ a topological group?

The question comes from the following paragraph of a text on geometry in the context of affine geometry (Marcel Berger et al., "Geometry I", P56-57):
2.7.1.3. If we don't want to resort to ...

-2
votes

1
answer

318
views

### Is a function piecewise continuous if it has a left-limit and a right-limit at every point in its interval domain and equals at least one of these? [closed]

Suppose a real-valued function f, whose domain is an interval, has the property that
at every point in its domain it has a left-limit and a right-limit, and it equals at least one of these. Is it ...

5
votes

1
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282
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### Points of differentiability of squared distance from a point in metric spaces

I posted this same question on MSE with no answer.
Let $I:=(0, + \infty)$ and let $(X,d)$ be a complete and separable metric space. In this setting we say that $u : I \to X$ is absolutely continuous ...

3
votes

1
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68
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### Analyticity of $f = Q(a\Re (x + y))Q(b\Im (x + y))\log \left\{ {Q(a\Re (x + y))Q(b\Im (x + y))} \right\}$ in the complex plane?

Let I have the following function,
$f = Q(a\Re (x + y))Q(b\Im (x + y))\log \left\{ {Q(a\Re (x + y))Q(b\Im (x + y))} \right\}$
Where, $x,y \in C$, $a,b\in R$ and $- m \le \Re (x),\Re (y),\Im (x),\Im (y)...

1
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0
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827
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### Weak sequential continuity vs strong continuity

Let $E$ be a Banach space, $T:E\rightarrow E$ a non-linear operator.
$T$ is said to be Weakly Sequentially Continuous (shortly W.S.C) on $E,$ if for every $\left(x_{n}\right)_{n}\subseteq E$ with $x_{...

0
votes

2
answers

284
views

### Is the restriction map $C^1\ni f\mapsto\left.f\right|_K$ a continuous map?

Let $E$ be a $\mathbb R$-Banach space, $\Theta\subseteq C^{0,\:1}(E,E)$ be a $\mathbb R$-Banach space and $\iota$ be a continuous embedding of $\Theta$ into $C^1(E,E)$.
I would like to show that, ...

1
vote

0
answers

589
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### A weakly sequentially continuous operator which is not weakly continuous

I'm reading some papers where the condition of weak sequential continuity is crucial instead of the weak continuity.
So, let
$T$ an operator between a Banach space $X$ and itself.
$T$ is weakly ...