# Questions tagged [continuity]

The continuity tag has no usage guidance.

145
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### Continuous analogue for Szpilrajn Theorem: complete preorder extends a continuous preorder

A corollary of Szpilrahn Theorem states:
Any preorder on nonempty $X$ has a complete and transitive extension.
I am thinking about the "Szpilrahn Theorem" for continuous preorder on ...

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### Maps that preserve winding numbers

This question is a cross post from the Math StackExchange since it got no attention at all there: https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/4414601/maps-that-preserve-winding-numbers
I am looking for a ...

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### Is a convex, lower semicontinuous function that is bounded from below, actually continuous?

While thinking about convex functions, I managed to put together the following proof which I find a bit too good to be true. $X$ is a topological vector space that is also a Baire space.
Lemma: Let $f ...

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### Is $g = \sum_{n \in \mathbb{Z}} f(\cdot - n)$ continuous if $f$ is vanishing, continuous, and integrable?

Let $f \in \mathcal{C}_0(\mathbb{R}) \cap L^1(\mathbb{R})$ be a continuous and integrable function such that $f(x) \rightarrow 0$ when $|x|\rightarrow \infty$.
The sequence of a functions $f_N = \sum_{...

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### Convolution of continuous compactly supported functions on étale groupoid is continuous

Let $G$ be an étale Hausdorff groupoid, i.e. a topological groupoid $G$ such that the source and range maps $s,r: G \to G$ are local homeomorphisms.
Consider the complex vector space $C_c(G)$ of ...

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### Smoothing a map $f:X\to \mathbb{R}$ while fixing it over a closed $C\subset X$

$\newcommand{\R}{\mathbb{R}}$I have a map $f\in C^0(X,\mathbb{R})$, where $X$ is a compact and Hausdorff topological space, which is a manifold outside of a compact subset $K\subset X$.
I would like ...

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### Is $\mathbb{Q}$ the orbit of a continuous function that is computable when restricted to $\mathbb{Q}$?

In the previous post What is the smallest set of real continuous functions generating all rational numbers by iteration? I asked for the smallest set of continuous real functions that could generate $\...

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### Given an increasing function, need to construct a continuous increasing function equivalent to given function

Given an increasing function $f:[0,\infty)\to[0,\infty)$, we can define $$F(x)=\int_x^{x+1} f(t)dt,$$
which is continuous, increasing function satisfying $$f(x)\leq F(x)\leq f(x+1).$$
Question) For ...

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### Can a smooth function always fit between two non-smooth functions? [closed]

Suppose I have two continuous functions, $f$ and $g$, with $f(x)<g(x)$ for all $x$ in some closed domain. Is it always possible to find a (piecewise, if needed) smooth function $h$ such that $f(x)&...

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### Is $\mathbb{Q}$ the orbit of a rational function under iteration?

In this previous post I asked for the smallest set of continuous real functions that could generate $\mathbb Q$ by iteration starting from $0$. Surprisingly one continuous function suffices.
In the ...

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### Is there a finite set of polynomials generating all rational numbers by iteration?

In this previous post I asked for the smallest set of continuous real functions that could generate $\mathbb{Q}$ by iteration starting from 0. Surprisingly one continuous function suffices.
The ...

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### What is the smallest set of real continuous functions generating all rational numbers by iteration?

I recently came across this problem from USAMO 2005:
"A calculator is broken so that the only keys that still
work are the $\sin$, $\cos$, $\tan$, $\arcsin$, $\arccos$ and $\arctan$ buttons. The ...

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### Relationship between $C(X\times Y,Z)$ and $C(X,C(Y,Z))$

Let $X$, $Y$, and $Z$ be locally-compact, complete, and separable metric spaces and suppose that $X$ is compact; all non-empty.
Consider the spaces $C(X,C(Y,Z))$ and $C(X\times Y,Z)$ both equipped ...

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### Are a.e. derivatives of continuous $VBG_*$ functions Denjoy–Perron integrable?

I would like to ask a question pertaining to the Denjoy–Perron (Henstock–Kurzweil) theory of integration. It is simple enough that I have entertained the idea that perhaps an answer is known, but I ...

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### Is the following generalization of piecewise continuity equivalent to any other common types of functions on metric spaces?

EDIT: I think what I have isn't precisely what I want... we should also require $x$ in condition (3) to be "not bad" in some sense, although I'm not quite sure what that should mean for my ...

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### Approximation of positive right-continuous function

Let $f:(0, +\infty)\to(0, +\infty) $ be a monotone decreasing, right-continuous function. Can we find a sequence $\{f_{n}\}_{n\in \mathbb{N}}$ of strictly monotone decreasing, continuous functions, ...

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### Integrating over correspondences

Consider two compact sets $X$ and $Y$, a function $f:Y\to \mathbb{R}$, and a closed, non-empty correspondence $A:X\twoheadrightarrow Y$. Define the function $G:X\to \mathbb{R}$ by
$$
G(x)=\int_{A(x)}f(...

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419
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### Norms in Sobolev space $W^{1,\infty}$

Let $n\in\mathbb{N}$ and consider the Sobolev space $W^{1,\infty}(\mathbb{R}^n)=\lbrace u\in L^{\infty}(\mathbb{R}^n):\partial_iu\in L^{\infty}(\mathbb{R}^n) \rbrace$. A function is in $W^{1,\infty}$ ...

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### Functions with at most linear growth at infinity: is the constant itself continuous?

I am considering the family $\mathcal{F}$ of functions $f \colon \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ which have at most linear growth at infinity, that is there exists a constant $M_f$ such that
\begin{...

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### strict convexity and Lipschitz continuity [closed]

Consider a continuously differentiable function $f: \mathbb{R}^n \mapsto \mathbb{R}$. If $f$ is strictly convex, does it imply that it is not Lipschitz on $\mathbb{R}^n$?
Because if $f$ is strictly ...

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### Function whose sets of discontinuities and zeros are the rationals

Question: Is there a real valued function $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ such that its set of discontinuities is $\mathbb{Q}$ and its set of zeros $\{x\in \mathbb{R}\mid f(x)=0\}$ is also $\mathbb{Q}$?
...

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### Sobolev injections [closed]

It is true to write that
$W^{1,\infty}(]0,\infty[) \hookrightarrow C([0,\infty[)$ et $W^{1,1}(]0,\infty[) \hookrightarrow C([0,\infty[)$ ?
Thanks

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339
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### Is the pointwise supremum of a continuous function continuous?

Suppose $f(x , y)$ is continuous in both variables. For any $\epsilon > 0$ and some $y_0$, let $h_{\epsilon}(x) = \max_{y^{'}: \| y^{'} - y_0 \| \leq \epsilon} f(x , y^{'})$. It seems to me that $...

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### Is disintegration continuous?

Let $X,Y$ be Polish spaces and suppose that $X$ is compact. Denote by $\mathcal{Mes}(X,\mathcal{P}(X\times Y))$ the set of (Borel) measurable functions from $X$ to the set of Borel probability ...

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### Largest number N for which injective mapping $f: 2^N \to 2^8 \times 2^8 \times 2^8$ which is Lipschitz-1 CT with $K\leq 3$ exists

I have a function on $h: [0,1] \to [0,1]$ whose output is smooth (polynomial of low degree), and I need to discretize it but I need to save it with three 8 bit numbers. These three 8 bit numbers need ...

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### How to prove continuity in topological group action of ${\rm{GA}}_a(X)$ on $T(X)$, to make ${\rm{GA}}(X)$ a topological group?

The question comes from the following paragraph of a text on geometry in the context of affine geometry (Marcel Berger et al., "Geometry I", P56-57):
2.7.1.3. If we don't want to resort to ...

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### Is a function piecewise continuous if it has a left-limit and a right-limit at every point in its interval domain and equals at least one of these? [closed]

Suppose a real-valued function f, whose domain is an interval, has the property that
at every point in its domain it has a left-limit and a right-limit, and it equals at least one of these. Is it ...

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### Points of differentiability of squared distance from a point in metric spaces

Here the link to the same question I posted on MSE with no answer.
Let $(X,d)$ be a complete and separable metric space and let $I:=(0, + \infty)$. I recall the definition of absolutely continuous ...

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### Analyticity of $f = Q(a\Re (x + y))Q(b\Im (x + y))\log \left\{ {Q(a\Re (x + y))Q(b\Im (x + y))} \right\}$ in the complex plane?

Let I have the following function,
$f = Q(a\Re (x + y))Q(b\Im (x + y))\log \left\{ {Q(a\Re (x + y))Q(b\Im (x + y))} \right\}$
Where, $x,y \in C$, $a,b\in R$ and $- m \le \Re (x),\Re (y),\Im (x),\Im (y)...

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### Weak sequential continuity vs strong continuity

Let $E$ be a Banach space, $T:E\rightarrow E$ a non-linear operator.
$T$ is said to be Weakly Sequentially Continuous (shortly W.S.C) on $E,$ if for every $\left(x_{n}\right)_{n}\subseteq E$ with $x_{...

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### Is the restriction map $C^1\ni f\mapsto\left.f\right|_K$ a continuous map?

Let $E$ be a $\mathbb R$-Banach space, $\Theta\subseteq C^{0,\:1}(E,E)$ be a $\mathbb R$-Banach space and $\iota$ be a continuous embedding of $\Theta$ into $C^1(E,E)$.
I would like to show that, ...

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### A weakly sequentially continuous operator which is not weakly continuous

I'm reading some papers where the condition of weak sequential continuity is crucial instead of the weak continuity.
So, let
$T$ an operator between a Banach space $X$ and itself.
$T$ is weakly ...

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### A functional equation in two complex variables

Let $X$ be a compact metric space, or just $X=\mathbb T$, the unit circle, if it helps. We consider only continuous, complex-valued functions on $X$.
Let $\varepsilon >0$. Is there $\delta > ...

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### When is the periodisation of a function continuous?

Consider a function $f\in\mathcal{C}_0(\mathbb{R})$, where $\mathcal{C}_0(\mathbb{R})$ denotes the space of bounded continuous functions vanishing at infinity. I am interested in the $T$-periodisation ...

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### Does a generalization of Tietze's extension theorem hold for set-valued functions?

Let $X$ be a normal topological space. Tietze's extension theorem says that if $A \subset X$ is closed, then a continuous function $f: A \to \mathbb R^n$ can be extended to a continuous function whose ...

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### A subcontinuous function, which is not continuous

Let $E$ be a Banach space and $T: E\rightarrow E$ be a mapping. $T$ is said to be subcontinuous if for any sequences $(u_n)_{n\in\mathbb{N}}$ in $E$ that converge strongly to $u$ the sequence $(T(u_n)...

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### Infinite composition of continuous functions

Let $f_n:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be a sequence of functions and define $F_n:= f_n\circ \dots\circ f_1$. Then $F_n$ is continuous. However, the pointwise limit need not be (consider Mateusz'...

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### Baffling proof using function convexity

Let the function $f: \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be convex, differentiable with derivative $f_x$ and Lipschitz continuous with constant $L$. Then, for $a,b,c,d \in \mathbb{R}$ such that $a \ge ...

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### Polynomial constraints on the values of continuous functions $\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$

Denote by $S$ the set of closed points in $X=\mathrm{Spec}\:\mathbb{R}[x_\alpha]$ ($\alpha \in \mathbb{Q}$) that have $\mathbb{R}$ as their residue field. There is an injective map from the set of ...

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### (Dis)continuity of periodic functions with non-summable Fourier series

Let $f : [0,2 \pi)^d \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be a square-integrable periodic function in $L^2( [0,2 \pi)^d )$ with $d \geq 1$.
We assume moreover that the square-summable Fourier coefficients of $f$, ...

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### Continuity of $r\mapsto\int_{\Sigma\cap B_r(x)}f^2d\mu$

Let $\Sigma$ be an embedded smooth surface in $\mathbb{R}^3$, and let $f:\Sigma\to\mathbb{R}$ be a smooth function. Suppose $f$ is square-integrable on $\Sigma$, with
\begin{align}
0<\int_{\Sigma}f^...

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### Smoothness of the radius of convergence

Let $(x\mapsto a_n(x))_n$ be a sequence of smooth functions defined on some fixed interval $I$. Consider the power series $\sum_{n\geq 0}a_n(x)t^n$ and denote by $R(x)$ its radius of convergence. Does ...

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### Sufficient and necessary condition for the continuity of an improper integral

Let $f(\cdot) \in \mathscr{C}\left( \mathcal{D}; \mathbb{R} \right)$ where $\mathcal{D} \subseteq \mathbb{R}$ is open with $0 \in \mathcal{D}$ and
$$ f(0) = 0, \quad \forall x \in \mathcal{D}\...

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### Does convergence in law to absolutely continuous limit imply convergence in convex distance?

Let $(X_n)$ be a sequence of $\mathbb{R}^d$-valued random variables converging in distribution to some limiting random variable $X$ whose CDF is absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue ...

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### Functions that are almost (left-) continuous almost everywhere

Denote the Lebesgue measure on $[0, T]$ as $\lambda(\cdot)$. Call a measurable function $f : [0, T] \to \mathbb{R}$ almost left-continuous almost everywhere if there exists an $A \subseteq [0, T]$ ...

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### Continuity of solution of a parabolic PDE w.r.t. system parameters

If we have a system of PDE of the form:
$$\begin{cases} \dfrac{\partial y}{\partial t}(t,x)=D\Delta y+F(t,x,f(x),y) ,\ (t,x)\in (0,T)\times\Omega\\ \dfrac{\partial y}{\partial \nu}(t,x)=0,\ (t,x)\in (...

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### Several definitions of Approximate continuity of real functions

I found the definition of approximate continuity stated as follows:
A function $f:\mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ is approximately continuous at $x_0$ iff there exists a set $A\in \mathcal L$ such that $x_0\...

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### On a continuous function as a substitute of the prime-counting function in the second Hardy–Littlewood conjecture satisfying certain asymptotics

It it well-known that the prime-counting function $\pi(x)$ satisfies the prime number theorem and that were in the literature two related conjectures to this arithmetic function, these are: the ...

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### Topologies and Borel $\sigma$-fields on disjoint unions

Consider a set of functions $\mathcal{F}$ on $E$ where $E \subset\mathbb{R}^k$ - e.g. the class of $L_1$ functions on $[0,1]$ - and endow it with a suitable metric $d$ that makes it Polish.
Consider ...

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### Supremum of continuous functions and essential supremum of continuous functions

Suppose that $(X,d)$ is a Polish metric space and $A$ is a set of continuous bounded functions $f:X\to \mathbb{R}$.
Suppose that $\mu:X\to[0,1]$ is a Borel probability measure.
Define
$$\sup A:X\to ...