# Questions tagged [real-analysis]

Real-valued functions of real variable, analytic properties of functions and sequences, limits, continuity, smoothness of these.

288
questions

**15**

votes

**2**answers

582 views

### Kolmogorov superposition for smooth functions

Kolmogorov superposition theorem states that a continuous function $f(x_1,\ldots,x_n)$ can be written as
$$f(x_1,\ldots,x_n)=\sum_{q=0}^{2n}\Phi_q\left(\sum_{p=1}^{n}\phi_{q,p}(x_p)\right)$$
for ...

**187**

votes

**10**answers

24k views

### If $f$ is infinitely differentiable then $f$ coincides with a polynomial

Let $f$ be an infinitely differentiable function on $[0,1]$ and suppose that for each $x \in [0,1]$ there is an integer $n \in \mathbb{N}$ such that $f^{(n)}(x)=0$. Then does $f$ coincide on $[0,1]$ ...

**90**

votes

**9**answers

27k views

### solving $f(f(x))=g(x)$

This question is of course inspired by the question How to solve f(f(x))=cosx
and Joel David Hamkins' answer, which somehow gives a formal trick for solving equations of the form $f(f(x))=g(x)$ on a ...

**64**

votes

**15**answers

13k views

### f(f(x))=exp(x)-1 and other functions “just in the middle” between linear and exponential

The question is about the function f(x) so that f(f(x))=exp (x)-1.
The question is open ended and it was discussed quite recently in the comment thread in Aaronson's blog here http://scottaaronson....

**35**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Binomial again, and again

Let $\lceil a\rceil=$ the smallest integer $\geq a$, otherwise known as the ceiling function. When the arguments are real, interpret $\binom{a}b$ using the Euler's gamma function, $\Gamma$.
Recently, ...

**22**

votes

**3**answers

660 views

### Kasteleyn's formula for domino tilings generalized?

It seems a marvel when a bunch of irrational numbers "conspire" to become rational, even better an integer. An elementary example is $\prod_{j=1}^n4\cos^2\left(\pi j/(2n+1)\right)=1$.
Kasteleyn's ...

**19**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Why is there no Borel function mapping every countable set of reals outside itself?

A choice function maps every set (in its domain) to an element of itself. This question concerns existence of an anti-choice function defined on the family of countable sets of reals. In an answer to ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

308 views

### Meaning of Alberti rank-one theorem

Heuristically what does Alberti's rank-one theorem imply about the structure of a $\mathrm{BV}$ vector field $\boldsymbol{b}$?
Is it rigorously fair to say that the level lines of $\boldsymbol{b}$ ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

263 views

### $\sum_{k=1}^n\frac{\sin kx}{k^\alpha} >0\quad\text{for all}\ n=1,2,3,\ldots\ \text{and}\ 0<x<\pi, \text{and}\ \alpha \ge 1$

The Fejer-Jackson inequality as follows:
$$\sum_{k=1}^n\frac{\sin kx}k>0\quad\text{for all}\ n=1,2,3,\ldots\ \text{and}\ 0<x<\pi.$$
I conjecture that the inequality as follows holds:
$...

**186**

votes

**11**answers

53k views

### Have any long-suspected irrational numbers turned out to be rational?

The history of proving numbers irrational is full of interesting stories, from the ancient proofs for $\sqrt{2}$, to Lambert's irrationality proof for $\pi$, to Roger Apéry's surprise demonstration ...

**95**

votes

**5**answers

7k views

### integral of a “sin-omial” coefficients=binomial

I find the following averaged-integral amusing and intriguing, to say the least. Is there any proof?
For any pair of integers $n\geq k\geq0$, we have
$$\frac1{\pi}\int_0^{\pi}\frac{\sin^n(x)}{\...

**75**

votes

**20**answers

10k views

### Proofs of the uncountability of the reals.

Recently, I learnt in my analysis class the proof of the uncountability of the reals via the Nested Interval Theorem. At first, I was excited to see a variant proof (as it did not use the diagonal ...

**45**

votes

**4**answers

6k views

### Why could Mertens not prove the prime number theorem?

We know that
$$
\sum_{n \le x}\frac{1}{n\ln n} = \ln\ln x + c_1 + O(1/x)
$$
where $c_1$ is a constant. Again Mertens' theorem says that the primes $p$ satisfy
$$
\sum_{p \le x}\frac{1}{p} = \ln\ln ...

**40**

votes

**7**answers

8k views

### Are some numbers more irrational than others?

Some irrational numbers are transcendental, which makes them in some sense "more irrational" than algebraic numbers. There are also numbers, such as the golden ratio $\varphi$, which are poorly ...

**27**

votes

**5**answers

5k views

### Is there a natural measures on the space of measurable functions?

Given a set Ω and a σ-algebra F of subsets, is there some natural way to assign something like a "uniform" measure on the space of all measurable functions on this space? (I suppose first ...

**42**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Smooth functions for which $f(x)$ is rational if and only if $x$ is rational

A friend of mine introduced me to the following question: Does there exist a smooth function $f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$, ($f \in C^\infty$), such that $f$ maps rationals to rationals and ...

**29**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### is f a polynomial provided that it is “partially” smooth?

Let $f$ be a $C^\infty$ function on $(c,d)$ ,and
let $O=\cup_{n\in \mathbb{Z}^+} (a_n,b_n)$ where $(a_n,b_n)$ are disjoint open interval in $(c,d)$ and $O$ is dense in $(c,d)$.
Suppose for each $n\in ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

415 views

### “sinc-ing” integral

Let $a_1,\dots,a_n, b$ be positive real numbers.
*Question.** Is this true?
$$\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}\frac{\sin(bx+a_1x+\cdots+a_nx)}{x}\prod_{j=1}^n\frac{\sin(a_jx)}{a_jx}\,\,dx=\pi.$$
My ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

174 views

### Hausdorff dimension of the graph of a BV function

Let $u: \Omega\subset \mathbb{R}^N \to \mathbb{R}^M$ be a $BV$ function.
Is the Hausdorff dimension of the graph of $u$ equal to $N$? How can we prove it?
Update.
In an answer to this post, it ...

**120**

votes

**17**answers

27k views

### Why is differentiating mechanics and integration art?

It is often said that "Differentiation is mechanics, integration is art." We have more or less simple rules in one direction but not in the other (e.g. product rule/simple <-> integration by parts/...

**89**

votes

**32**answers

66k views

### Why do we teach calculus students the derivative as a limit?

I'm not teaching calculus right now, but I talk to someone who does, and the question that came up is why emphasize the $h \to 0$ definition of a derivative to calculus students?
Something a teacher ...

**62**

votes

**9**answers

12k views

### Why do functions in complex analysis behave so well? (as opposed to functions in real analysis)

Complex analytic functions show rigid behavior while real-valued smooth functions are flexible. Why is this the case?

**81**

votes

**4**answers

7k views

### Is the series $\sum_n|\sin n|^n/n$ convergent?

Problem. Is the series $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{|\sin(n)|^n}n$$convergent?
(The problem was posed on 22.06.2017 by Ph D students of H.Steinhaus Center of Wroclaw Polytechnica. The promised prize for ...

**27**

votes

**26**answers

42k views

### Text for an introductory Real Analysis course.

Any suggestions on a good text to use for teaching an introductory Real Analysis course? Specifically what have you found to be useful about the approach taken in specific texts?

**64**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Continuous maps which send intervals of $\mathbb{R}$ to convex subsets of $\mathbb{R}^2$

Let $f : \mathbb{R} \longrightarrow \mathbb{R}^2$ be a continuous map which sends any interval $I \subseteq \mathbb{R}$ to a convex subset $f(I)$ of $\mathbb{R}^2$. Is it true that there must be a ...

**55**

votes

**1**answer

3k views

### Every real function has a dense set on which its restriction is continuous

The title says it all: if $f\colon \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ is any real function, there exists a dense subset $D$ of $\mathbb{R}$ such that $f|_D$ is continuous.
Or so I'm told, but this leaves me ...

**42**

votes

**7**answers

3k views

### On an example of an eventually oscillating function

For $x\in(0,1)$, put
$$f(x):=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}(-1)^{n}x^{2^{n}}.$$
This function possesses interesting properties. It grows monotonically from $0$ up to certain point. Then it starts to oscillate ...

**36**

votes

**9**answers

29k views

### Is square of Delta function defined somewhere?

Hello, every one. I am wondering whether any one knows that whether the square of Dirac Delta function is defined some where?
In the beginning, this question might look strange. But by restricting ...

**43**

votes

**2**answers

6k views

### “Closed-form” functions with half-exponential growth

Let's call a function f:N→N half-exponential if there exist constants 1<c<d such that for all sufficiently large n,
cn < f(f(n)) < dn.
Then my question is this: can we prove that no ...

**36**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Square root of a positive $C^\infty$ function.

Suppose $f$ is a $C^\infty$ function from the reals to the reals that is never negative. Does it have a $C^\infty$ square root? Clearly the only problem points are those at which $f$ vanishes.

**23**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Analogues of Luzin's theorem

If $X$ is a compact metric space and $\mu$ is a Borel probability measure on $X$, then the space $C(X)$ of continuous real-valued functions on $X$ is a closed nowhere dense subset of $L^\infty(X,\mu)$,...

**22**

votes

**9**answers

4k views

### Function with range equal to whole reals on every open set

There is an example of a function that is unbounded on every open set. Just take $f(n/m) = m$ for coprime $n$ and $m$ and $f(irrational) = 0$.
I want to generalize this in a way to get a function ...

**20**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Is a real power series that maps rationals to rationals defined by a rational function?

Suppose that the function $p(x)$ is defined on an open subset $U$ of $\mathbb{R}$ by a power series with real coefficients. Suppose, further, that $p$ maps rationals to rationals. Must $p$ be defined ...

**23**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### $f^3,f^2$ are the cube and quadratic of f respectively and both infinite differentiable on $R$,how to show so is $f$

Let $f$ be a real function with domain R.
If $f^2$ and $f^3$ are both infinitely differentiable on R,
how to prove $f$ is infinitely differentiable on R?
I have been thinking about this problem for a ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Transcendentality of all irrationals in the Cantor set

Hi, I am a student researcher trying to prove that all irrationals within the Cantor set are transcendental. This is grounded, intuitively, in Cantor set members' being non-normal; since algebraic ...

**19**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### mixing convex and concave for convexity

Let $n\in\mathbb{N}$ and $0<x<1$ be a real number. Is the following a convex function of $x$?
$$G_n(x)=\log\left(\frac{(1+x^{4n+1})(1+x^{4n-1})(1+x^{2n})(1-x^{2n+1})}{(1+x^{2n+1})(1-x^{2n+2})}\...

**28**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Is pi = log_a(b) for some integers a, b > 1?

Are there integers $a, b > 1$ such that $\pi = \log_a(b)$?
Or equivalently: are there integers $a,b > 1$ such that $a^\pi = b$?
Note that the transcendence of $\pi$ makes this a problem - ...

**16**

votes

**3**answers

3k views

### Density of smooth functions under “Hölder metric”

This question came up when I was doing some reading into convolution squares of singular measures. Recall a function $f$ on the torus $T = [-1/2,1/2]$ is said to be $\alpha$-Hölder (for $0 < \alpha ...

**4**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Non-zero smooth functions vanishing on a Cantor set

It is easy to give examples of continuous functions $f:[0,1]\to \mathbb R_+\cup\{0\}$ non-zero but vanishing on a Cantor set (ex: Can Cantor set be the zero set of a continuous function?). It is ...

**18**

votes

**2**answers

4k views

### Is this statement which relates the Fourier transform of a function to its singularities correct?

I am working on a problem, which would possibly relate the Fourier transform/series with the jump singularities of the function where the function itself or one of its derivatives jump. ((some kind of ...

**16**

votes

**1**answer

771 views

### Density of polynomials in $C^k(\overline\Omega)$

Let $\Omega$ be an open and bounded subset of $\mathbb{R}^2$ and let $C^k(\Omega)$, $1\leq k<\infty$, be the space of functions $f$ with continuous derivatives of order $\leq k$ in $\Omega$, ...

**14**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### What's a natural candidate for an analytic function that interpolates the tower function?

I know that there are analytic functions whose composition with itself is the exponential function, the so-called functional square root of the exponential function, with the additional property that ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

371 views

### What is the dual space of $L^p$(conservative vector fields on a bounded set)?

First, some background: I wanted to prove that, if $f$ is a measurable function such that $\nabla f\in L^p_\text{loc}(\mathbb R^n)$, then $f\in L^p_\text{loc}(\mathbb R^n)$, $p\in(1,\infty)$. This is ...

**6**

votes

**3**answers

362 views

### Distance function to $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ differentiable at $y\notin\Omega$ implies $\exists$ unique closest point

I am trying to show the following two statements are true:
(1) For any nonempty set $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$, the set $B$ consisting of points $y\notin\Omega$ where there is not a unique closest ...

**22**

votes

**4**answers

811 views

### Is this a known question about the expression of a function on $\Bbb R^2$ as an infinite sum of products?

The question below was posted on Mathematics Stack Exchange. It received no answer, and I do not expect any direct answer to it here. However, the question seems to me a natural one. Thus I wonder ...

**14**

votes

**1**answer

401 views

### Are all well behaved “mean” functions on $\mathbb{R}^+$ equivalent?

Given a set $S$, a function $M: S\times S \rightarrow S$ is a mean if it satisfies the properties:
$M(a,a)=a\qquad$ (identity)
$M(a,b)=M(b,a)\qquad$ (commutativity).
and possibly
$M(M(a,b),M(a,c))=...

**13**

votes

**0**answers

299 views

### Is there a continuous map $f:\mathbb R^\omega\to\mathbb R^\omega$ with dense countable preimage $f^{-1}(\mathbb Q^\omega)$?

Let $\mathbb Q^\omega_0:=\{(x_i)_{i\in\omega}\in\mathbb Q^\omega:\exists n\in\omega\;\forall m\ge n\;\;x_m=0\}$ and observe that $\mathbb Q^\omega_0$ is a countable dense set in $\mathbb R^\omega$ (...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

625 views

### Continuous functions of three variables as superpositions of two variable functions

Could we always locally represent a continuous function $F(x,y,z)$ in the form of $g\left(f(x,y),z\right)$ for suitable continuous functions $f$, $g$ of two variables? I am aware of Vladimir Arnold's ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Has anyone seen this series?

I come across the following infinite series.
$$
\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{t^n}{n!\: n^{a}}, \quad\text{for $t>0$ and $a>0$}.
$$
In particular, I am interested in the case where $a=1/4$.
...

**11**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Seeking a Geometric Proof of a Generalized Alternating Series' Convergence

Let $z \in \mathbb{C} \backslash \lbrace 1 \rbrace$ with $|z| = 1$. We consider the following infinite series, which necessarily converges:
$$S(z) := \sum_{n = 1}^{\infty}\frac{z^n}{n}$$
Note that $S(...