# Questions tagged [sobolev-spaces]

A Sobolev space is a vector space of functions equipped with a norm that is a combination of Lp-norms of the function itself and its derivatives up to a given order.

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### Approximation on $H^1_0(B)$ and cut-off functions

Let $u \in H^1_0(B)$, where $B$ is the unit ball in $\mathbb{R}^N$. Given $\epsilon > 0$, I need to show there exists a function $\chi_\epsilon \in C^\infty_0(\mathbb{R}^N)$ such that
$$
\| u - \...

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### Continuity of the set of critical points of a Morse function when the function varies

Let me first give the result I am looking for, then what I found up to now and some related questions.
Definition/Notation.
Denote $Y_k(f)$ the set of critical values $x$ of $f$ such that the index of ...

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### Radial functions in $H^1_0(B)$ and a Strauss type inequality

Let $B$ be the unit ball in $\mathbb{R}^N$. Denote by $\|\cdot\|$ the usual norm in $H^1_0(B)$. In (2) of the paper is said that
$$
|u(x)| \leq \frac{\|u\|}{|x|^{(N-2)/2}},
$$
for any radial function $...

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### Dense subspace of space of radial functions in $H^1_0(\Omega)$

Consider $\Omega\subset \mathbb{R}^N$ a bounded domain. By definition, the space of radial functions in $H^1_0(\Omega)$ is
$$
H^1_{0, \text{rad}}(\Omega) = \{u \in H^1_0(\Omega) : u = u \circ R, \...

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### Multivariate polynomial approximation

Let $f$ be a function on $[-1,1]^d$ with some smoothness property, for example, it is in the Sobolev space $W^{k,p}$.
Let $P_n$ is a space of polynomials with degree $n$. My question is what is the ...

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### $H^{s,\infty}$ via Triebel Lizorkin spaces

I know that
$F^s_{p,2} = H^{s,p}$
for $p \in (1, \infty)$, but what about $H^{s,1}$ and $H^{s,\infty}$? I know one extension for $F^0_{\infty,2}$ which should be BMO. But how do I get the $H^{s,\infty}...

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### Examples showing Rellich-Kondrakov theorem fails for domains with non-Lipschitz boundary?

The Rellich-Kondrakov theorem requires the domain to have Lipschitz boundary, but after searching in many places, I have not found an example to show that this is necessary.
Can anyone share an ...

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### For any $p, q \in [1,\infty]$ and $s \in (0,\infty)$, can we find some $f \in L^q - W^{s,p}$?

Sobolev inequalities show us when we can embed a Sobolev space into another.
However, I wonder if these inclusions are always proper.
More specifically, let $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ be a bounded ...

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### Multivariate polynomial approximation of functions in Sobolev space

I found a result of the estimation error of polynomial approximation in page
6 of https://scg.ece.ucsb.edu/publications/theses/ARajagopal_2019_Thesis.pdf
The statement is for $f \in W^{k, p}\left([-1,...

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### How can i show that the last equality in the text is true?

Suppose that $v$ is critical point of
$$
f(u)=\frac{1}{2} \int_D|\nabla u|^2-\frac{1}{p+1} \int_D|u|^{p+1}, \quad u \in H_{0, \text{rad}}^1(D),\quad D(r, d)=\left\{z \in R^N: r^2<|z|^2<(r+d)^2\...

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### Notation for weak derivatives

I remember that, as a student, I felt a bit uncomfortable because I had to use the same notation (say $f'$, $D^\alpha f$, $\frac{\partial f}{\partial x^j}$, $\nabla \cdot f$ etc...) for classical and ...

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### Dual of homogeneous Triebel-Lizorkin

Let $ p, q \in (1,\infty)$ and consider the homogeneous Triebel- Lizorkin space $\dot{F}^{s}_{p,q}$ to be the space of all tempered distributions (modulo polynomials) with
$$
[f]^{p}_{\dot{F}^{s}_{p,q}...

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### Regularity and decay of Fourier-like series on a manifold

Let $D$ be a first-order self-adjoint elliptic differential operator acting on sections of a vector bundle $S$ over a closed manifold $M$. Then it is well-known that the various eigenspaces $E_\lambda$...

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### Trace theorem for $L^2([0,1]; H^k(S^2))$

Consider a function $u$ in $L^2([0,1]; H^k(S^2))$ where $k$ is a positive integer.
Where would $u(0)$ live (or $u(r)$ for some fixed $r \in [0,1]$)? Is there a version of the trace theorem saying that ...

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### Does the complex interpolation space $(L^1(\mathbb{R}),W^{2,1}(\mathbb{R}))_{\frac{1}{2}}$ continuously embed into $L^\infty(\mathbb{R})$?

The complex interpolation space between $(L^p(\mathbb{R}),W^{2,p}(\mathbb{R}))_\theta$ with interpolation parameter $\theta=\frac{1}{2}$ is known to be $W^{1,p}(\mathbb{R})$ for $1<p<\infty$. As ...

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### Image of trace operator on $W^{2,1}(\mathbb{R}^2)$

It is known that for a domain $\Omega\subset \mathbb{R}^2$ with $C^1$ boundary $\partial\Omega$, that the trace operator is bounded and surjective from $T:W^{1,1}(\Omega)\to L^1(\partial\Omega)$.
For ...

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### Existence of an extension operator $E: W_0^{s,p}(\Omega)\rightarrow W^{s,p}(\mathbb{R}^d)$?

If $\Omega$ is an open Lipschitz domain with bounded boundary then their exists a continuous operator $E: W^{s,p}(\Omega) \rightarrow W^{s,p}(\mathbb{R}^d)$ where $s\in (0,1)$ such that $Eu=u$ on $\...

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### Bounding supremum norm in terms of gradient L2-norm using a Poincare-like inequality

Suppose $f$ is a Lipschitz continuous real-valued function over a bounded domain $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^d$ with smooth boundary, and let $\overline{f} := \frac{1}{|\Omega|}\int_\Omega f(x) dx$. Is ...

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### On the weak derivative of $|u|^{(p-2)/2}u$

Let $u$ be a function such that $|u|^{(p-2)/2}u$ is in $H^1_0(G)$, $G$ is open and $p>2$.
How can I show that
$$
D(|u|^{(p-2)/2}u)=p/2|u|^{(p-2)/2}D(u) \label{1}\tag{1}
$$
or how can I show that, ...

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### Does the union of fractional Sobolev spaces fills $L^p$?

Let $\Omega\subset \Bbb R^d$ be any open set. Recall that for $s\in (0,1)$, the fractional Sobolev space $W^{s,p}(\Omega)$ is the collection of function in $L^p(\Omega$ such that
\begin{align*}
\iint_{...

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### $L^\infty$ estimate for elliptic PDE with mixed boundary conditions

Take $\Omega$ to be a bounded smooth domain with boundary $\partial\Omega = \Gamma_1 \cup \Gamma_2$, where $\Gamma_1$ and $\Gamma_2$ are disjoint.
Consider the problem
$$\Delta u = f \quad\text{in $\...

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### Uniform convergence of differential quotients in $L^1$

I know that the question arose already in other contexts. However, I think this question might be different. If I have $f\in W^{1,1}$ then it is obvious that $\frac{f(x+t)-f(x)}{t}$ converges ...

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### Extension operator maps which fractional Sobolev space to $W^{p,s}(R)$

Let us assume we have the following extension operator:
$$
\operatorname{ext}_R^\sigma u=
\begin{cases}
u(x) & \text{if }x \in (0,T)\\
u(0) & \text{if }x \in(0,T)^c.
\end{cases}
$$ We ...

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### $L^p$ domination of mixed partial derivatives of the 3rd order by the unmixed ones?

Is it true that for each real $p>1$ there is some real $C_p$ such that for all smooth real-valued functions $u$ compactly supported on $S:=(0,1)^3$ one has
$$\|D_1D_2D_3u\|_p\le C_p(\|D_1^3u\|_p+\|...

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### $L^p$ domination of mixed partial derivatives by the unmixed ones?

Is it true that for each real $p\ge1$ there is some real $C_p$ such that for all smooth real-valued functions $u$ compactly supported on $S:=(0,1)^2$ one has
$$\|D_1D_2u\|_p\le C_p(\|D_1^2u\|_p+\|D_2^...

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### Fractional powers of Dirichlet-to-Neumann map to derive estimate for PDE

Assume $\Omega$ is an open, bounded subset of $\mathbb R^3$ with smooth boundary $\partial \Omega= \Gamma$. For $u \in
H^{1/2}(\Gamma)$, let $U \in H^1(\Omega)$ denote the weak solution of
the ...

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### Gauss transformation in fractional Sobolev space

Let $g_{\mu}(x) = \mu^{d/2}\exp(-\pi\mu|x|^2)$ for every $\mu > 0$. Prove that
$$
\int_{\mathbb R^{d}}\left|(-\Delta)^{\frac{s}{2}} u\right|^{2} \geq \int_{\mathbb R^{d}}\left|(-\Delta)^{\frac{s}{2}...

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### Is it possible to bound the L2 norm of the gradient of a divergent by the L2 norm of the Lapacian?

Is it possible to show for $u:\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^3\rightarrow \mathbb{R}^3$
that
$$\||\nabla(\nabla\cdot u)|\|_2^2\leq C\||\Delta u|\|_2^2?$$
Here $\||f|\|_2$ is the norm in $(L^2(\Omega))^3$ and ...

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### Any solution of an evolution problem tends to a steady state in $L^2$?

I have a general question. Suppose that we have the following simple evolution problem $\begin{cases} \dfrac{\partial u}{\partial t}-\Delta u=f(u), & (t,x)\in (0,\infty)\times\Omega\\ \dfrac{\...

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### Finding an element of Gelfand triple with a designated time derivative

Let $V$ be a real separable Banach space and $H$ be a real separable Hilbert space such that
\begin{equation}
V \subset H \subset V'
\end{equation}
where $V'$ is the dual of $V$ and the inclusions are ...

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### Prove J.L. Lions’s Lemma without using Fourier transform

When I read the book Linear and Nonlinear Functional Analysis with Applications, I came across J.L. Lions's Lemma (the book doesn't give a proof), which states
Let $\Omega \subset \mathbb R^n$ be a ...

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### Absolute continuity of $t \to \lVert u(t) \rVert^2_{H}$ and Gelfand triple : are they equivalent?

Let $V$ be a separable Banach space and $H$ be a separable Hilbert space such that
\begin{equation}
V \subset H \subset V'
\end{equation}
and the inclusion maps are continuous with dense images. Here $...

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### $L^{\infty}$ estimate for heat equation with $L^2$ initial data

Is there a way to show in a relatively simple manner that for a Lipschitz bounded, connected, open domain $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^N$ for any $f\in L^2(\Omega)$ the solution of the problem:
$$\begin{...

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### Does integration by parts formula hold in $H^1(0,T,L^2(\Omega))$?

Let $\Omega$ be an open set from $\mathbb{R}^N$. How can we prove that if $u,v\in H^1(0,T,L^2(\Omega))$ (in Bochner sense) then $(u\cdot v)'\in L^2(0,T,L^1(\Omega))$ with $(uv)'=u'v+v'u$ and the ...

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### Can functions with "big" discontinuities be in $H^1$?

How can I prove that the function:
$$u:\Omega\to\mathbb{R},\ u(x)=\begin{cases} 0, x\in\omega \\[3mm] v(x), x\in\Omega\setminus\omega\end{cases}$$ is not in $H^1(\Omega)$, knowing that $v\geq 1$ is ...

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### Embeddings of the maximal domain for the Laplacian

Let $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ be a bounded smooth domain and $n \geq 2$. Consider the subspace of $L^2$-functions whose distributional Laplacian is also an $L^2$-function:
$$D = \left\{ f \in L^2(\...

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### Can every $L^p$ function be written as the weak derivative of a Sobolev function?

Let $\mathbb B^n$ be the open unit ball in $\mathbb R^n$, and $g: \mathbb B^n \to \mathbb R^n$ a measurable function with $|g| \in L^p (\mathbb B^n)$. Does there exist some function $f$ in the Sobolev ...

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### On Talenti's proof of optimal constant in Sobolev inequality

I'm reading the paper by Giorgio Talenti on the best constant for the Sobolev inequality.
The main theorem states that for $u:\mathbb{R}^m\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ sufficiently smooth (eg. Lipschitz) ...

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### Weighted Lebesgue space with exponential weights: smoothing effect and properties

I am researching whether there are weighted Lebesgue spaces of the type
$$ \left\{ f\omega(x)\in L^p(\mathbb{R}^n):\|f\|_{L^p_\omega}=\int_{\mathbb{R}^n}|f|^p\omega^p(x)\,dx< \infty,\right\} $$
...

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### Constants in the entropy number of the Sobolev space

For a Sobolev space with $W^s(\Omega)$, where $\Omega\subset R^d$ is a compact space with smooth boundary, we know that the entropy number satisfies $e(\delta, W^s(\Omega, 1),\|\cdot\|_{L_\infty})\leq ...

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### $T$ trace, then $Tg(u)=g(T(u))$ for all $u$ on $W^{1,p}$

The trace operator $T$ is defined for bounded domain $U$ with $C^1$ boundaries as the linear, continuous operator
$T: W^{1,p}(U) \rightarrow L^p(\partial U)$
such that
$$
Tu=u\;\text{ on }\partial U
$$...

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### Show $v(x,t) \in L^2([0,T];H^2(\mathbb{R}))$ when $v(x,t)$ is a transformation of a $L^2([0,T];H^2(\mathbb{R}))$ function

Context: I am reading a paper on Long-Time Asymptotics of the thin film equations, in which the authors consider the strong solutions of the thin film equation in 1-D and transform them using a time-...

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### A function whose derivatives belong to $BMO(\mathbb{R}^n)$

I am reading the paper "Bounded Mean Oscillation and Sobolev Spaces" by Robert
s. Strichartz, Indiana University Mathematics Journal , 1980, Vol. 29, pp.
539-558. In this paper he defines ...

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### How to define the Sobolev quotient space $H^s(Γ)/{\mathbb R}$

Let $\Gamma$ be the boundary of a Lipschitz domain $\Omega\subset \mathbb R^3$. Denote by $H^s(\Gamma)$ the usual scalar Sobolev space for $s\in\mathbb R$. I want to know the definition of the ...

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### Fractional Bochner spaces $H^s((0,\infty); V)$

I'm looking for "intrinsic" definitions of fractional Bochner spaces such as $H^s((0,\infty); V)$ for a Banach space $V$ and exponent $s \in (0,1)$. I have seen these spaces being defined as ...

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### Derivative of a functional involving integral and level set

Let $\Omega$ be a bounded smooth domain. For $u\colon \Omega \to \mathbb{R}$, define the functional
$$F(u) = \int_{\{u=0\}}g(x) \; \mathrm{d}x$$
where eg. $u \in H^2(\Omega) \cap C^0(\bar\Omega)$ and ...

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### $H^s$-mild solution for Navier–Stokes : why do we restrict attention to the function spaces "without Fourier zero mode"? (Related to Terence Tao blog)

This question has been triggered by the Definition 32 and Remark 33 in the blog of Terence Tao.
There, every function space is restricted to ones without the Fourier zeroth mode. And the Remark 33 ...

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### Weighted version of the Gagliardo Nirenberg inequality

I'm searching for a weighted Gagliardo-Nirenberg inequality similar as in https://arxiv.org/pdf/1307.1363.pdf where the weight is a power of the last component. Is there an inequality of the form
$$
\...

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### If $t \to \lVert f(\cdot,t) \rVert_{L^2_x}^2$ is absolutely continuous, can we interchange the spatial integral and time derivative? (from MSE)

I originally posted this question on MSE. But it seems more nontrivial than expected, so I guess MO is a more appropriate place to ask.
I repeat the question for the sake of completeness:
Let $f(x,t) ...

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### $f\in C(B_1)\cap W^{1,2}(B_1\setminus \{f=0\})$ implies $f\in W^{1,2}(B_1)$?

In a paper I am writing I need to show that a certain real-valued function $f\in C^0(B_1)$ belongs to the Sobolev space $W^{1,2}(B_1)$ ($B_1$ is the unit ball). So far I have been able to show that ...