Questions tagged [trigonometric-sums]

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Trigonometric sum and residues

I am interested in the sum $$ \sum_{n=1}^k 2\biggl[\sin\biggl(\frac{n\pi}{2k+2}\biggr)\biggr]^{-2g} $$ where $k$, $g$ are integers. It is not too hard to show that this can also be expressed as $$ -1-...
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2 votes
1 answer
173 views

When does a random trigonometric sum approximate $1$?

I am looking for an upper bound $R=R_{n,\varepsilon}$ such that for given $\varepsilon>0$ and real numbers $\alpha_1, \dotsc, \alpha_n$ in, say, $[1,2]$, there is $x\in [1,R]$ such that $$ \frac 1n\...
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7 votes
0 answers
291 views

Multiple Fourier series

In the book by Elias M.Stein and Guido Weiss "Introduction to Fourier Analysis on Euclidean Spaces" one states in page 268 the following theorem: Theorem 1: The trigonometric series $$\...
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9 votes
1 answer
264 views

Infinite series with inverse trigonometric functions

Consider the infinite series $$ F(s)=\sum_{k=1}^\infty \frac{1}{k^{2s+1} \sin(k \pi \sqrt{2})} $$ Prudnikov Vol.1 , gives a result for this sum in 5.4.16.13 for s=1 $$ F(1)=-\frac{13 \pi^3}{360 \sqrt{...
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  • 91
5 votes
0 answers
308 views

Generalization of Pompeiu's theorem

Let us recall the statement of Pompeiu's theorem. Let $A_1A_2A_3$ be a regular triangle inscribed in a circle $\omega$. Let $X$ be an arbitrary point on the arc $A_1A_3$. Then $$|XA_1|-|XA_2|+|XA_3|=...
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4 votes
1 answer
192 views

Smallest regular $m$-gon covering a regular $n$-gon

I start by stating the problem, which is already hinted in the title of the question. I do believe it is a research-level question. Let us fix a regular $n$-gon with area $1$. What is the smallest ...
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2 votes
1 answer
198 views

$L_p$ norms of $0-1$ exponential sums

Consider $f_n(t)=\sum_{i=1}^{n}e^{ik_{i}t}$ with all $k_i$ some distinct integers for $t\in [-\pi,\pi)$. For $p>2$ I am interested in the maximum possible value of $$||f_n||_p,$$ where $f_n$ runs ...
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  • 2,256
6 votes
2 answers
291 views

Sum of $\sin$ when angles shrink by $1/n$

There are many identities known like $$\sum_{k=0}^{n-1} \sin (k \cdot \theta + \varphi) = \frac{\sin\left(n \cdot \frac{\theta}{2}\right)}{\sin\left(\frac{\theta}{2}\right)} \cdot \sin \left(\frac{2 \...
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1 vote
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278 views

What is the Jacobi-Anger expansion of $\sin^{[k]} (\theta) $?

Cross-post from MSE. The Jacobi-Anger expansion gives expressions for functional iterates of trigonometric functions in terms of Bessel functions. For instance, we have $$\sin(z \sin(\theta)) = 2 \...
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4 votes
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The cotangent sum $\sum_{k=0}^{n-1}(-1)^k\cot\Big(\frac{\pi}{4n}(2k+1)\Big)=n$

On the Wolfram Research Reference page for the cotangent function (https://functions.wolfram.com/ElementaryFunctions/Cot/23/01/), I saw the following partial sum formula $$\sum_{k=0}^{n-1}(-1)^k\cot\...
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4 votes
2 answers
315 views

The complex trigonometric function degenerates to the positive integer

For any integer $N \geq 2$, we have the identity: $$\frac{\ \prod _{n=1}^{N-1}\ \left(2+2\sum _{m=1}^{n\ }\cos \frac{\ m\pi \ }{N}\ \right)\ }{\prod _{n=1}^{N-1}\ \left(1+2\sum _{m=1}^{n\ }\cos \frac{\...
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11 votes
2 answers
862 views

A problem in additive combinatorics

$\color{red}{\mathrm{Problem:}}$ $n\geq3$ is a given positive integer, and $a_1 ,a_2, a_3, \ldots ,a_n$ are all given integers that aren't multiples of $n$ and $a_1 + \cdots + a_n$ is also not a ...
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2 votes
0 answers
353 views

For which values of $ x$ we have $\sum\limits_{n=0}^{\infty}x^{\tan(n!)-n!}$ converges?

The copy of this question is posted here I have tried to to determine values of real $x$ for which $\sum\limits_{n=0}^{\infty}x^{\tan(n!)-n!}$ converges but I can't , Presumably the set of values $\{ ...
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2 votes
0 answers
74 views

(Dis)continuity of periodic functions with non-summable Fourier series

Let $f : [0,2 \pi)^d \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be a square-integrable periodic function in $L^2( [0,2 \pi)^d )$ with $d \geq 1$. We assume moreover that the square-summable Fourier coefficients of $f$, ...
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  • 2,010
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1 answer
381 views

coordinate free foundations of trigonometry [closed]

What axioms for geometry and trigonometry would I have to chose in order to completely avoid coordinates in defining trig functions and showing the equivalence of their geometric (unit circle) and ...
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  • 147
16 votes
3 answers
820 views

Show that $(\sum_{k=1}^{n}x_{k}\cos{k})^2+(\sum_{k=1}^{n}x_{k}\sin{k})^2\le (2+\frac{n}{4})\sum_{k=1}^{n}x^2_{k}$

Let $x_{1},x_{2},\cdots,x_{n}>0$, show that $$\left(\sum_{k=1}^{n}x_{k}\cos{k}\right)^2+\left(\sum_{k=1}^{n}x_{k}\sin{k}\right)^2\le \left(2+\dfrac{n}{4}\right)\sum_{k=1}^{n}x^2_{k}$$ This ...
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11 votes
0 answers
2k views

A question on trig series

Assume $\{a_k\}_{k\ge1}$ is a real sequence such that $u(x) = \sum_{k\ge 1}a_k\sin(kx)$ is a smooth function, and for every $x \in [-\pi, \pi]$ $$\left(\sum_{k\ge 1}\frac{a_k}{k}\sin(kx)\right)\left(\...
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  • 883
8 votes
2 answers
876 views

Better trigonometrical inequalities for $\zeta(s)$?

The inequality $$3 + 4 \cos \theta + \cos 2 \theta \geq 0$$ plays a key role in the proof of the classical zero-free region of the Riemann zeta function. Are there other inequalities of the form $$\...
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1 vote
2 answers
375 views

Order of magnitude for trigonometric sum

Consider the following sum: $$ S_N = \sum_{ \substack{ k_1 + k_2 + k_3 =N \\ -(N-2) \leq k_1, k_2 , k_3 \leq N \\ k_1, k_2 , k_3 \neq 0 } } \frac{1}{k_1 k_2 k_3} \sin\left( \frac{k_1\pi}{N} \right) \...
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  • 333
0 votes
0 answers
116 views

$\sin(\mu A)\cos(\mu B) + \sin(\mu C)\cos(\mu D) - \sin(\mu E)\cos(\mu F) \geq 0$ - Version 2.0

I recently asked this question here Inequality involving sine and cosine It turned out that with the conditions I required there, the inequality does not hold. I tried to add extra conditions now, ...
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3 votes
1 answer
645 views

Inequality involving sine and cosine

I am trying to prove that given $A,B,C,D,E,F \in \big]0,\frac{\pi}{2}\big]$ fixed and $A+C \geq E$ and the following equation holds for $\mu = 1$: $$\sin(\mu A)\cos(\mu B) + \sin(\mu C)\cos(\mu D) - \...
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30 votes
3 answers
3k views

A conjectural trigonometric identity

Recently, I formulated the following conjecture which seems novel. Conjecture. For any positive odd integer $n$, we have the identity $$\sum_{j,k=0}^{n-1}\frac1{\cos 2\pi j/n+\cos 2\pi k/n}=\frac{n^2}...
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  • 12.8k
3 votes
1 answer
136 views

Trigonometric cancellation on the unit circle

Let $z \in \mathbb{C}$ with $|z|=1$ and $z\ne 1$. Now consider the sum $$S(N,p)=\sum_{k=0}^N k^p z^k,$$ for some positive integers $N,p$. An immediate upper bound on $|S(N,p)|$ is $$|S(N,p)|\le C_1(...
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  • 265
2 votes
0 answers
202 views

Finite sum involving root of unity

I have the following sum: $$\sum_{\sigma=1,\text{odd}}^{\frac{p}{2}-2}\frac{\sin \frac{r \sigma \pi}{p}}{\sin \frac{q \sigma \pi}{p}}$$ where $p\equiv2\pmod4$, $p$ and $q$ are coprime numbers such ...
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  • 21
6 votes
3 answers
397 views

The first zero-crossing of a combination of sines

Let $\{c_i\}_{i=1}^n$ be a sequence of real numbers such that $c_i \geq 0$ for each $i$ and $\sum_{i=1}^n c_i = 1$. Let $\omega_i \in [\delta, \Delta]$ for each $i$, where $\delta$ and $\Delta$ are ...
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  • 61
6 votes
1 answer
357 views

Asymptotic behavior of a certain trigonometric partial sum

Let $a<0$ and $b>0$ be real numbers such that $a<-2b$. Let $n>1$ be a positive integer and consider the following partial sum: $$ f(n) = \frac{1}{(n+1)^2}\sum_{i=1}^{n}\sum_{j=1}^{n} (-1)^{...
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  • 2,610
1 vote
1 answer
118 views

Proof of an inequality $s_m(n) \le f_m(n)$

For fixed $m = 0, 1, 2, ...$ $$f_m(k) = \prod_{j=1}^{m}(k+j).$$ Some examples of $f_m(k)$ are as following: $$f_0(k) = 1, \quad f_1(k) = (k+1), \quad f_2(k) = (k+1)(k+2).$$ The $s_m(n)$ is defined as ...
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3 votes
2 answers
220 views

Inductive proof of $s(n)≤n+1$

I was able to conclude, numerically, the following: $$s(n) = \sum_{j=0}^n\frac{(-4)^j}{(2j+1)!}\left(\sum_{k=j}^n\frac{(k+1)(2k+1)(k+j)!}{(k-j)!}\right)x^{2j+2}\le n+1$$ for $x\in[0,1]$. For example ...
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1 vote
0 answers
135 views

Fejer-Jackson-like inequality with divisor sum

A question was recently asked about a generalization of the Fejer-Jackson inequality $$\sum_{k=1}^n \frac{\sin kx}{k}\gt 0 \quad \forall\: n\in\mathbb{Z}^+\: \text{and}\: 0\lt x\lt\pi$$ to ...
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  • 105
4 votes
0 answers
234 views

A uniform Riemann sum approximation of the integral of the Fejer kernels

Let $F_N(t)$ denote the Fejer kernel $$F_N(t):={1\over N+1}{\sin^2\big({(N+1)}{t\over2}\big)\over \sin^2\big( {t\over2}\big)}\ .$$ Consider Riemann sums approximation for $\int_{-\pi}^\pi F_N(t) dt$ ...
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  • 136
0 votes
1 answer
201 views

Finding closed form expression for the roots of $f(x) = \sum_{i=1}^K \frac{\alpha_i \gamma_i \sin(x-\theta_i)}{1+\gamma_i[1+\cos(x-\theta_i) ]}$

Let us define function $f:[0~ 2\pi] \rightarrow R$ as follows: \begin{align} f(x)\triangleq \sum_{i=1}^K \frac{\alpha_i \gamma_i \sin(x-\theta_i)}{1+\gamma_i[1+\cos(x-\theta_i) ]}, \end{align} ...
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  • 105
2 votes
0 answers
103 views

Lower $L^1$ norm estimates of null average trigonometric polynomials depending on the order of the polynomial

Let $p(x)=\sum_{k=1}^m [a_k\cos(n_kx)+b_k\sin(n_kx)]$ be a null average trigonometric polynomial (null average means that is $\int_\mathbb T p =0$ or, equivalently, there are no $a_0$ and $b_0$). ...
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4 votes
1 answer
272 views

Identities for Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind

While calculating an integral in a quantum mechanical problem by two different methods, I came across the following identity $$\sum_{k=0}^n\sum_{m=0}^{2k}(-2)^m\binom{2(n-k)}{n-k}\binom{2k}{k}\binom{...
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5 votes
3 answers
612 views

positive sum of sines

This was asked but never answered at MSE. Let $f(x) = \sin(a_1x) + \sin(a_2x) + \cdots + \sin(a_nx)$, where the $a_i$'s represent distinct positive integers. Suppose also that $f(x)$ satisfies the ...
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  • 1,381
1 vote
0 answers
115 views

How to evaluate this sum of roots of unity with condition to zero

In evaluating the sum: $$\tag{1}\label{e1}\sum\limits_{j = 1 < h}^N {\left( {{e^{\frac{{i\pi }}{N}\left( {{s_1}j + {s_2}h} \right)}} - {e^{\frac{{i\pi }}{N}\left( {{s_1}h + {s_2}j} \right)}}} \...
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  • 59
5 votes
0 answers
73 views

Delaying the first zero of a trigonometric series

Let $a_1,\ldots,a_n \in [0,1], \omega_1,\ldots,\omega_n \in (0,+\infty)$, and define, for every $t \ge 0$, $$ f(t) := \sum_{i = 1}^n a_i \sin(\omega_i t). $$ I'm interested in trying to optimize the ...
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  • 412
6 votes
2 answers
2k views

Distribution of distances of successive zeros of $f(x)={\rm cos}(x)+{\rm cos}(\alpha x)+{\rm cos}(\beta x)$

Let $\alpha$ and $\beta$ be incommensurate real numbers. Consider the function $f(x)={\rm cos}(x)+{\rm cos}(\alpha x)+{\rm cos}(\beta x)$ and its positive zeros $x_k(\alpha,\beta)$. Fix $\alpha$ and ...
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  • 161
7 votes
2 answers
822 views

Closed formula for sine powers

I am looking for a closed formula for the expressions $$ \sum_{k=1}^{n-1} \sin\left(\pi \frac{k}{n}\right)^m,$$ with $n \in \mathbb{N}$ and $m \in \mathbb{N}$ odd. Playing with these sums a bit, I ...
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6 votes
3 answers
576 views

Something interesting about the quintic $x^5 + x^4 - 4 x^3 - 3 x^2 + 3 x + 1=0$ and its cousins

(Update): Courtesy of Myerson's and Elkies' answers, we find a second simple cyclic quintic for $\cos\frac{\pi}{p}$ with $p=10m+1$ as, $$F(z)=z^5 - 10 p z^3 + 20 n^2 p z^2 - 5 p (3 n^4 - 25 n^2 - 625) ...
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0 votes
0 answers
74 views

Can we solve for $c$ in the equation $\sum\limits_{i=0}^{N-1} \exp\left(-jc\sin\left(\frac{2\pi i}{N}-\frac{\pi k}{N}\right)\right)=0$?

This question was posted on stackexchange, but with no response. So, I thought it appropriate to post it here too. Let $N\geq 1$ and $0\leq k\leq N-1$ be fixed numbers, and $c>0$ be unknown. ...
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1 vote
0 answers
143 views

How to prove that the convergence of $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{\sec^a n}{n^c}$ implies that of $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{\csc^a n}{n^c}$

The most general thing I've gotten is that the absolute convergence of $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{\csc^a (n + x)}{n^c}$$ implies that of $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{\csc^a \left(\frac{m}{2} n + \...
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1 vote
1 answer
293 views

Is this function $\mathbb{Q}$ periodic?

Considering a function $f$ exponentially decreasing at infinity, is the following function $\mathbb{Q}$ periodic ? $$F(x)= \sum\limits_{q =1}^{\infty} \; \sum\limits_{n =1}^{\infty} \; \sum\...
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  • 1,031
6 votes
1 answer
376 views

Eigenvalues of partial Hankel matrices

I was wondering if there are closed formulas for the singularvalues of a partial Hankel matrix (by partial I mean $\ell<n$) \begin{align*} H= \begin{bmatrix} c_1 & c_2 & \ldots & c_\...
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  • 363
13 votes
1 answer
742 views

Summation of series involving $\sinh$ of a square root

Consider the following series: $$ S = \sum_{\text{odd } n} \sum_{\text{odd } m} \frac{(-1)^{(n+m)/2}}{nm} \frac{\sinh( \pi \sqrt{n^2 + m^2}/2)}{\sinh( \pi \sqrt{n^2 + m^2})} $$ From the physical ...
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1 vote
0 answers
36 views

Boundedness of partial products for a divergent trig product

I am looking at a discrete dynamical system and I wish to show that it is bounded. I know that the displacement after $n$ iterations is given by the product $$\Delta_n=\prod_{k=0}^n \left(1+\frac{2\...
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  • 11
2 votes
0 answers
167 views

Why hexagons? The maximal minimum of a sum of cosines on the plane with frequencies on the unit circle

We wish to maximize the minimum of a weighted sum of cosines in the plane, when the frequency components are on the unit circle. Formally: $$\max_{\{ a_i,\theta_i,\phi_i \}_{i=1}^{N} } \min_{(x,y) \...
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2 votes
1 answer
378 views

Maximal minimum for a sum of two (or more) cosines

Please prove (or disprove, and give the correct answer): $$2 =\mathrm{argmax}_{r\geq 1}\min_{x\in \mathbb{R}}\left[\cos\left(x\right)+\cos\left(rx\right)\right] $$ In other words, find $r \geq 1$, ...
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4 votes
2 answers
553 views

Non-standard Gauss sums

I have the following problem. Let $p$ be some prime. What is the value of \begin{equation} \sum_{k=1}^{p-1} \left(\frac{k+1}{p}\right) \omega_p^{kl}, \end{equation} where $\left(\frac{k+1}{p}\right)$ ...
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  • 145
5 votes
2 answers
261 views

About trigonometric series of the Lip $\alpha$ class

Assume we have a trigonometric series $$ f(x)=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} a_n\sin nx \in \text{Lip }\alpha, \, 0<\alpha <1. $$ Is there anything we can say about the series $$ g(x)=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} |...
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0 votes
0 answers
38 views

Linearizing a multifrequency signal

I have a component of a signal $$\sin (k\omega_1t + \ell\omega_2t)$$ with wavenumbers $k, \ell \in \mathbb{Z}$, frequencies $\omega_1, \omega_2 \in \mathbb{R^+}$ and time $t \in \mathbb{R^+}$. (This ...
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