# Questions tagged [trigonometric-sums]

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### Boundedness of sum of sin(sin(n))

Playing with desmos I have accidentally noticed that the sequence of partial sums $$\left\{ \sum_{n=1}^{N}\sin(\sin(n)) : N\geq 1 \right\}$$ is bounded. However, I did not succeed in proving this ...
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### A trigonometric equation: how hard could it be?

The following problem started out with a formulation in terms of complex numbers: let $\epsilon=e^{\frac{\pi i}3}$ and $z=e^{\frac{2\pi i}{3(2n-1)}}$. It's rather amusing that the following appears to ...
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### Upper and lower bounds on the number of solutions to the equation $\frac{\pi}{4} = \sum_{k=1}^{n} c_{k} \arctan \left(\frac{1}{x_{k}} \right)$

Background The Norwegian mathematician and astronomer Carl Størmer did important work on the equation $$\frac{\pi}{4} = \sum_{k=1}^{n} c_{k} \arctan \left(\frac{1}{x_{k}}\right), \label{1}\tag{1}$$ ...
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### A problem about the series $\sin(n^p)$ [closed]

Prove that when $p>0,$ the series $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty \sin(n^p)$$ is divergent
1 vote
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### Evaluating a sinusoidal series

Define the sequence of functions $$f_n(x)=\sum_{m=n}^\infty(-1)^m\frac{x^{2m}}{(2m+1)!} {m \choose n}$$ Is there a closed form expression for arbitrary $n$? It is clear that the result should assume ...
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### Integer solutions of $2\cos\left(\frac{p\pi}n\right)+2\cos\left(\frac{q\pi}n\right)+4\cos\left(\frac{p\pi}n\right)\cos\left(\frac{q\pi}n\right)=1$

I asked this question on MSE yesterday. Due to observations that I have made only after that, I feel that it may be a much harder problem than it looks like. So, I am posting the question here as well....
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### (Dis)continuity of periodic functions with non-summable Fourier series

Let $f : [0,2 \pi)^d \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be a square-integrable periodic function in $L^2( [0,2 \pi)^d )$ with $d \geq 1$. We assume moreover that the square-summable Fourier coefficients of $f$, ...
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### coordinate free foundations of trigonometry [closed]

What axioms for geometry and trigonometry would I have to chose in order to completely avoid coordinates in defining trig functions and showing the equivalence of their geometric (unit circle) and ...
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### Show that $(\sum_{k=1}^{n}x_{k}\cos{k})^2+(\sum_{k=1}^{n}x_{k}\sin{k})^2\le (2+\frac{n}{4})\sum_{k=1}^{n}x^2_{k}$

Let $x_{1},x_{2},\cdots,x_{n}>0$, show that $$\left(\sum_{k=1}^{n}x_{k}\cos{k}\right)^2+\left(\sum_{k=1}^{n}x_{k}\sin{k}\right)^2\le \left(2+\dfrac{n}{4}\right)\sum_{k=1}^{n}x^2_{k}$$ This ...
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### $\sin(\mu A)\cos(\mu B) + \sin(\mu C)\cos(\mu D) - \sin(\mu E)\cos(\mu F) \geq 0$ - Version 2.0

I recently asked this question here Inequality involving sine and cosine It turned out that with the conditions I required there, the inequality does not hold. I tried to add extra conditions now, ...
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### Proof of an inequality $s_m(n) \le f_m(n)$

For fixed $m = 0, 1, 2, ...$ $$f_m(k) = \prod_{j=1}^{m}(k+j).$$ Some examples of $f_m(k)$ are as following: $$f_0(k) = 1, \quad f_1(k) = (k+1), \quad f_2(k) = (k+1)(k+2).$$ The $s_m(n)$ is defined as ...
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### Inductive proof of $s(n)≤n+1$

I was able to conclude, numerically, the following: $$s(n) = \sum_{j=0}^n\frac{(-4)^j}{(2j+1)!}\left(\sum_{k=j}^n\frac{(k+1)(2k+1)(k+j)!}{(k-j)!}\right)x^{2j+2}\le n+1$$ for $x\in[0,1]$. For example ...
1 vote
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### Fejer-Jackson-like inequality with divisor sum

A question was recently asked about a generalization of the Fejer-Jackson inequality $$\sum_{k=1}^n \frac{\sin kx}{k}\gt 0 \quad \forall\: n\in\mathbb{Z}^+\: \text{and}\: 0\lt x\lt\pi$$ to ...
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### A uniform Riemann sum approximation of the integral of the Fejer kernels

Let $F_N(t)$ denote the Fejer kernel $$F_N(t):={1\over N+1}{\sin^2\big({(N+1)}{t\over2}\big)\over \sin^2\big( {t\over2}\big)}\ .$$ Consider Riemann sums approximation for $\int_{-\pi}^\pi F_N(t) dt$ ...
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### Finding closed form expression for the roots of $f(x) = \sum_{i=1}^K \frac{\alpha_i \gamma_i \sin(x-\theta_i)}{1+\gamma_i[1+\cos(x-\theta_i) ]}$

Let us define function $f:[0~ 2\pi] \rightarrow R$ as follows: \begin{align} f(x)\triangleq \sum_{i=1}^K \frac{\alpha_i \gamma_i \sin(x-\theta_i)}{1+\gamma_i[1+\cos(x-\theta_i) ]}, \end{align} ...
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### Lower $L^1$ norm estimates of null average trigonometric polynomials depending on the order of the polynomial

Let $p(x)=\sum_{k=1}^m [a_k\cos(n_kx)+b_k\sin(n_kx)]$ be a null average trigonometric polynomial (null average means that is $\int_\mathbb T p =0$ or, equivalently, there are no $a_0$ and $b_0$). ...
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### Delaying the first zero of a trigonometric series

Let $a_1,\ldots,a_n \in [0,1], \omega_1,\ldots,\omega_n \in (0,+\infty)$, and define, for every $t \ge 0$, $$f(t) := \sum_{i = 1}^n a_i \sin(\omega_i t).$$ I'm interested in trying to optimize the ...
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### Distribution of distances of successive zeros of $f(x)={\rm cos}(x)+{\rm cos}(\alpha x)+{\rm cos}(\beta x)$

Let $\alpha$ and $\beta$ be incommensurate real numbers. Consider the function $f(x)={\rm cos}(x)+{\rm cos}(\alpha x)+{\rm cos}(\beta x)$ and its positive zeros $x_k(\alpha,\beta)$. Fix $\alpha$ and ...
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### Closed formula for sine powers

I am looking for a closed formula for the expressions $$\sum_{k=1}^{n-1} \sin\left(\pi \frac{k}{n}\right)^m,$$ with $n \in \mathbb{N}$ and $m \in \mathbb{N}$ odd. Playing with these sums a bit, I ...
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### Something interesting about the quintic $x^5 + x^4 - 4 x^3 - 3 x^2 + 3 x + 1=0$ and its cousins
(Update): Courtesy of Myerson's and Elkies' answers, we find a second cyclic quintic for $\cos\frac{2\pi}{p}$ with $p=\text{1 mod 10}$ as, \frac{z^5}{\beta} = 10 z^3 - 20 n^2 z^2 + 5 (3 n^4 - 25 n^...