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Approximation theory is concerned with how functions can best be approximated with simpler functions, and with quantitatively characterizing the errors introduced thereby.

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108 views

Approximate identity in $A=\{f\in C[0,1]: f(0)=0\}$ [on hold]

Suppose $A=\{f\in C[0,1]: f(0)=0\}$. I'd like to prove 1: $A$ is closed in $C[0, 1]$. 2: $A$ possesses a bounded left approximate identity. I was able to prove that $A$ is closed in $C[0, 1]...
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1answer
67 views

Extended Global approximation theorem

In Evans, $\textbf{Theorem} $ (Global Approximation Theorem) Assume $U$ is bounded, and $\partial U$ is $C^1$. Suppose as well that $u \in W^{k,p}(U)$ for some $1\leq p < \infty$. Then, there ...
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2answers
192 views

Probability of at least two of $n$ independent events occurring subject to some conditions

Given a set of independent Bernoulli random variables $\{x_1, \dots, x_n\}$, let $p = \sum_{0<i\leq n}\Pr[x_i = 1]$ and $X=\sum_{0<i\leq n} x_i$. We know that for any $i$, we have $\Pr[x_i = 1]\...
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1answer
115 views

For every table of interpolating nodes, there is a positive continuous function whose interpolating polynomials are not positive infinitely often

Fix an interval $[a,b]$. Is it true that for every table of interpolating nodes $\{x_{0,n},x_{1,n}...,x_{n,n}\}_{n=1}^{\infty}$, there exists a continuous function $f:[a,b]\to (0,\infty)$ such that ...
1
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1answer
109 views

For which $n$, can we find a sequence of $n+1$ distinct points s.t. the interpolating polynomial of every +ve continuous function is itself +ve

Fix an interval $[a,b]$. For which integers $n>1$, does there exist $n+1$ distinct points $\{x_0,x_1,...,x_n\}$ in $[a,b]$ such that for every continuous function $f:[a,b] \to (0,\infty)$, the ...
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2answers
369 views

Does every positive continuous function have a non-negative interpolating polynomial of every degree?

Let $f:[a,b] \to (0,\infty)$ be a continuous function. Then is it necessarily true that for every $n\ge 1$, we can find $n+1$ distinct points $\{x_0,x_1,...,x_n\}$ in $[a,b]$ such that the ...
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0answers
21 views

Approximate sum of log terms from sum of terms?

Suppose I have a program that processes time series data and calculates the discounted cumulative sum of future reward, like so $$ X_{t} = r_{t} + \gamma r_{t+1} + \gamma^2 r_{t+2} + ... + \gamma^N ...
1
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1answer
79 views

Accurate estimate/lower bound for the l2 approximation error of trigonometric polynomial approximation

This is a restated version of my original very broad question. Let $P$ be probability a measure on an interval $[a,b]$ ($-\infty<a<b<\infty$) that's dominated by Lebesgue measure. Let $\...
1
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1answer
127 views

Approximate the following series on the euclidean grid

I had trouble in finding a closed form solution for the following series, so now I am trying to find a good approximation for it. The $\sqrt{i^2 + j^2}$ in the exponent comes from distances on the ...
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2answers
156 views

A min-max approximation

Let $n\ge 1$ be an integer, $\mathcal P_n$ be the vector space of all polynomial functions over $[a,b]$, of degree at most $n$. My question is : Is it true that $$\inf_{x_0,x_1,...,x_n\in[a,b], x_0&...
0
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1answer
81 views

Chebyshev interpolation [closed]

Let's define the n-th degree Chebyshev polynomials by $$ T_{n} (x)=\cos(n\arccos(x)).$$ Find a polynomial $P$ such that $$\mid y- P (x) \mid$$ is minimal, using the first three Chebyshev ...
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0answers
38 views

Representability of smooth invertible Lipschitz functions by a finite composition of near-identity functions

Theorem 1 of this paper shows that For every positve integer $K$ and for every nonempty bounded domain $\mathcal X \subseteq \mathbb R^d$, the restriction on $\mathcal X$ of any function $h: \...
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0answers
36 views

On different norms of the interpolating operator

Let $[a,b]$ be an interval in real line . Given any function $f:[a,b]\to \mathbb R$ and set $A \subseteq [a,b]$ of size $n+1$, there exists a unique polynomial $p_{f,A,n}(x)$ of degree $n$ such that $...
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1answer
67 views

Find $p$ s.t. there is a sequence of nodes in $[0,1]$ s.t. sequence of interpolating polynomials of every continuous function converges in $p$-norm

Let $[a,b]$ be an interval in real line . Given any function $f:[a,b]\to \mathbb R$ and set $A \subseteq [a,b]$ of size $n+1$, there exists a unique polynomial $p_{f,A,n}(x)$ of degree $n$ such that $...
2
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1answer
88 views

Minimax Approximation to Sine Function on interval [-K, K]

Let $p_{n,K}(x)$ be the polynomial of degree $n$ that minimizes $\epsilon_{n,K} = ||p_{n,K}(x) - sin(x)||_\infty$ on the interval $[-K, K]$. Question: what is the asymptotic behavior of $\epsilon_{n,K}...
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1answer
114 views

Does log-concave approximable distribution satisfy transportation-cost inequality?

Definition: Recall that a distribution $\mu$ on $\mathbb R^d$ is said to be log-convave with constant $c > 0$, if density $d\nu \propto e^{-V}dvol$ satisfying the curvature condition $$ \...
3
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1answer
165 views

Given any sequence of interpolating nodes, can we find a continuous function $f$ whose interpolating polynomials doesn't converge to $f$ point-wise

Let $[a,b]$ be an interval in real line . Given any function $f:[a,b]\to \mathbb R$ and set $A \subseteq [a,b]$ of size $n+1$, there exists a unique polynomial $p_{f,A,n}(x)$ of degree $n$ such that $...
3
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1answer
98 views

Given a local metric which is $C^1$-close to another, can we extend it globally while preserving the approximation?

Let $M$ be a smooth closed manifold, and let $g_0$ be a Riemannian metric on $M$. Let $U$ be a neighbourhood of $p \in M$, and suppose that we are given a metric $g$ on $U$, which satisfies $\| g-...
3
votes
1answer
150 views

Is the kernel of a Fredholm operator stable under perturbation?

This is a follow-up of this question. In a nutshell: Does the kernel of a bounded operator change "nicely" with the operator? Let $(X,\| \cdot \|)$ be an infinite-dimensional normed vector space. ...
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0answers
22 views

Approximate in $W_1$ sense, an empirical distribution with restriction of true distribution on a set

Let $\mu$ be a probability distribution on a metric space $X=(X,d)$ (to avoid unnecessary complications, assume the full filtration $2^X$) and let $x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_N$ be a sample of size $N$ drawn i....
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2answers
125 views

Can we stay invertible while approximating linear maps in Sobolev spaces?

Let $\Omega \subseteq \mathbb{R}^n$ be an open bounded domain with a smooth boundary. Fix $1<p<n$. Let $A \in W^{1,p}(\Omega;\text{End}(\mathbb{R}^n)) \cap C(\Omega;\text{End}(\mathbb{R}^n))$ ...
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1answer
105 views

Giving Uniform Bound on Differences of Sums of Converging Polynomials

The title does not quite capture the essence of the difficulty, please allow me to be more explicit here. I thought of this question when I was trying out an open problem by Ovidiu Furdui(See problem ...
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122 views

Degree of 2-variable real polynomial that’s large on a square and small on a nearby “L”

I’d like to know what’s the minimum possible total degree of a real polynomial $p(x,y)$ such that: (1) $p(x,y)\in [0,1]$ whenever $x,y\in [0,1]$ with either $x$ or $y$ at most $\epsilon$, and (2) $p(...
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1answer
148 views

Can a continuous map on a Hilbert manifold be approximated by a map which has infinitely many critical points?

It is well-known that a continuous map $f:M\to\mathbb{R}^n$ from a Hilbert manifold can be closely approximated by a smooth map $g:M\to\mathbb{R}^n$ which has no critical points. But, can such a ...
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0answers
168 views

On effective constructions in the functional analysis of Volterra's integration operator

Let $V: L^2(0,1) \to L^2(0,1)$ be the Volterra integration operator: $V(f)(x) := \int_0^x f(t) \, dt$. Is there a universal function $C(L,\varepsilon) < \infty$ such that the following uniform ...
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0answers
44 views

Approximating norms using numerical integration? [closed]

I have a sequence of functions $u_m$ in $H^1(\Omega)$, where $\Omega$ is Lipschitz such that $u_m(x)=\int_{|y|\le \epsilon} \, f_m(x,y) \, dy$, but the integral cannot be expressed in terms of ...
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0answers
47 views

What are the compact elements in the domain of functions on the Interval Domain, [D,D]?

Take the interval domain $D = \{[a,b]| a \le b, \in \mathbb{R}\}$, ordered by reverse inclusion. Next, take the domain of functions $D' = \{f| f:D \rightarrow D \}$, ordered as follows $f \le g$ if $...
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0answers
56 views

Continuity of solution to 2nd Order PDE w.r.t. the coefficients

I am considering the following 2nd order PDE : On a domain $R$, for some $r > 0$, \begin{equation*} \frac{1}{2}\sum_{i, j = 1}^{K}\gamma_{i}\gamma_{j}U_{x_{i}x_{j}}(x) + \sum_{i = 1}^{K}\frac{\...
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2answers
52 views

dense subalgebra in measurable functions set

Take $\mathcal M_D$ the space of measurable functions from a compact set $D\subseteq \mathbb R_n$ to ℂ. I'm wondering if a Stone-Weierstrass-like theorem holds in this space, with the convergence in ...
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152 views

Intersection of Sobolev space with the space of continuous functions

While doing some problems, I came across the space $H=H^1(\Omega) \cap C(\Omega)$, where $\Omega$ is subset of $\mathbb{R^n}$. So far, by definition of these subspaces, We know that none of these are ...
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1answer
76 views

automorphisms of a measurable space can be approximated by continuous measure preserving maps?

Suppose first that $D=[0,1]$ is equipped with the usual Lebesgue measure, and that $\varphi$ is a measure-preserving transformation $\varphi:D\to D$ that is bijective and whose inverse is also measure ...
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0answers
72 views

Bounded polynomial having coefficients that are bounded linearly in degree and number of variables

Let $P(\mathbf{x})$ be a bounded multivariate polynomial of degree at most $d$ (for my purposes it can be either coordinate degree or total degree) over $[-1,1]^n$, and assume $|P(\mathbf{x})| \leq 1$....
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1answer
333 views

Real polynomial bounded at inverse-integer points

Let $p$ be a real polynomial and $N$ be a positive integer. Suppose I tell you that $|p(\frac{1}{k})| \le 1$ for all $k\in\{1,\ldots,N\}$, and also that $p(\frac{1}{N})\le -\frac{1}{2}$ while $p(\...
5
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1answer
100 views

Padé multipoint approximants of the exponential function

One says that a pair of polynomials $(P_m,Q_n)$ over $\mathbb C[z]$, with $\text{deg }P_m=m$, $\text{deg }Q_n=n$, is a "multipoint Padé approximant of the exponential function" if $P_m(z)e^z-Q_n(z)$ ...
0
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1answer
143 views

Approximation of a continuous function by a smooth one on an open set

I'm interested in the following kind of theorems : Let $M$ be a real analytic manifold and $U$ an open set of $M$. Let $f : U \to \mathbb{R}$ a continuous function. Then, there is a $C_{\infty}$ ...
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0answers
42 views

Bounding quantiles of the noncentral chi distribution

I need to bound the empirical quantiles for a noncentral chi distribution (not chi-squared) $\chi_\nu(\lambda)$, where $\nu$ is the number of degrees of freedom and $\lambda$ the non-centrality ...
5
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0answers
172 views

What are the possible $L^{\infty}$ closures of an integration-invariant linear subspace of $C([0,1],\mathbb{R})$?

Let $S \subset C([0,1],\mathbb{R})$ be an $\mathbb{R}$-linear subspace that is invariant under the $T := \int_0^x$ integration operation: if $g \in S$ then the function $f = Tg$ defined pointwise by $...
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0answers
22 views

Role of polyhedral domain in convergence of finite element method

I am reading a paper by Diening and Kreuzer where they consider the convergence of finite element approximations for $p$-Laplace equation when using a certain algorithm. In the paper, they assume ...
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264 views

approximating the $|x|$ function

I'm familiar with Newman's rational approximation of the absolute value function via rational functions. Are there other explicit functions that approximate $|x|$ with exponential error? I was under ...
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1answer
230 views

Normal approximation to the pointwise/Hadamard/Schur product of two multivariate Gaussian/normal random variables

Let $X \sim \mathcal{N}\left( {{\mu _x},\sigma _x^2} \right)$ and $Y \sim \mathcal{N}\left( {{\mu _y},\sigma _y^2} \right)$ be two univariate and independent Gaussian/normal random variables and let $...
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1answer
81 views

Optimal $L^2$ bounds of cubic spline interpolation

Let $s(x)$ be the natural cubic spline interpolant of a function $f\in C^4$. There are known bounds on the $L^{\infty}$ error, $\|f^{(r)}(x) - s^{(r)} (x) \|_{\infty} $ for $r=0,1,2,3$. See Hall & ...
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1answer
154 views

Closure of polynomials of a function in $L^2$

Suppose $f \colon I \to \mathbb{R}$ is a function in, say, $L^\infty$, and $I \subset \mathbb{R}$ is a bounded interval. We may assume further regularity on $f$, such as Lipschitz continuity or strict ...
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1answer
124 views

Holes of a compact set in $\mathbb{R}^n$ that do not contain holes of a larger open set

Let $K$ be a compact subset of an arbitrary open set $\Omega\subset \mathbb{R}^n.$ It is said that a connected component $W$ of $\Omega\setminus K$ is $\Omega$-bounded if $\overline{W}$ is a compact ...
3
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1answer
113 views

Finding a tight upper bound of $\int_0^\infty e^{-a\sqrt{1-e^{-x}}-x^2/2} dx$ as a function of $a$, $a>0$

The integral converges as it is easily seen to be upper bounded by $\sqrt{\pi/2}$. However, Laplace's method does not seem to work out as the maxima of the function $S(x) = -a\sqrt{1-e^{-x}}-x^2/2$ ...
2
votes
1answer
52 views

Approximation error of 1-Lipschitz function on cubical mesh

Let $\Omega = [0,1]^d$ and consider $f : \Omega \to R$ Lipschitz continuous with constant 1. Consider the regular decomposition of $\Omega$ into $d$-dimensional cubes $\Omega_i$, $i=1 ... k^d$ with $...
3
votes
2answers
178 views

Finding a tight upper bound of $\int_0^\infty e^{-x^2/2-a(1-e^{-x})}dx,\ a>0$, as a function of $a$

Is there a method to find a tight upper bound on the given integral? Note that the integral is upper bounded by $\sqrt{\pi/2}$, and thus converges. I first thought about applying Laplace's method. ...
2
votes
1answer
196 views

A good starting position for maximizing a function with Newton-Raphson / Halley's method

I'm attempting to find the maximum of this function: \begin{align*} h(\mathbf{t}) = -\left\{\sum_{i=1}^{n}\lambda_i e^{\boldsymbol{\theta}_i^\intercal \mathbf{t}}\right\} + \boldsymbol{\alpha}^\...
3
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0answers
33 views

What are good ways to 'relax' a uniform approximation into independent saddle-point expressions once the uniform approach is no longer needed?

I am doing long-running project that involves asymptotic saddle-point estimation of integrals (for flavour, it's this sort of stuff) and I would like to ask if there are established ways in the ...
2
votes
2answers
111 views

Approximately complemented subspaces

Definition: Suppose $E$ is a subspace of normed space $X$. Then $E$ is approximately complemented in $X$ if for any compact subset $K$ of $E$ and any $\epsilon>0$ there is a continuous linear ...
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1answer
152 views

Approximating a compact $C^1$ hypersurface without boundary

Can we approximate (arbitrarily closely) a compact $C^1$ hypersurface in Euclidean space without boundary with a polygonal hypersurface, such as a simplicial complex? To clarify, I want to have the $\...