Approximation theory is concerned with how functions can best be approximated with simpler functions, and with quantitatively characterizing the errors introduced thereby.

**-3**

votes

**1**answer

108 views

### Approximate identity in $A=\{f\in C[0,1]: f(0)=0\}$ [on hold]

Suppose $A=\{f\in C[0,1]: f(0)=0\}$. I'd like to prove
1: $A$ is closed in $C[0, 1]$.
2: $A$ possesses a bounded left approximate identity.
I was able to prove that $A$ is closed in $C[0, 1]...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

67 views

### Extended Global approximation theorem

In Evans,
$\textbf{Theorem} $ (Global Approximation Theorem) Assume $U$ is bounded, and $\partial U$ is $C^1$. Suppose as well that $u \in W^{k,p}(U)$ for some $1\leq p < \infty$. Then, there ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

192 views

### Probability of at least two of $n$ independent events occurring subject to some conditions

Given a set of independent Bernoulli random variables $\{x_1, \dots, x_n\}$, let $p = \sum_{0<i\leq n}\Pr[x_i = 1]$ and $X=\sum_{0<i\leq n} x_i$. We know that for any $i$, we have $\Pr[x_i = 1]\...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

115 views

### For every table of interpolating nodes, there is a positive continuous function whose interpolating polynomials are not positive infinitely often

Fix an interval $[a,b]$. Is it true that for every table of interpolating nodes $\{x_{0,n},x_{1,n}...,x_{n,n}\}_{n=1}^{\infty}$, there exists a continuous function $f:[a,b]\to (0,\infty)$ such that ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

109 views

### For which $n$, can we find a sequence of $n+1$ distinct points s.t. the interpolating polynomial of every +ve continuous function is itself +ve

Fix an interval $[a,b]$. For which integers $n>1$, does there exist $n+1$ distinct points $\{x_0,x_1,...,x_n\}$ in $[a,b]$ such that for every continuous function $f:[a,b] \to (0,\infty)$, the ...

**23**

votes

**2**answers

369 views

### Does every positive continuous function have a non-negative interpolating polynomial of every degree?

Let $f:[a,b] \to (0,\infty)$ be a continuous function. Then is it necessarily true that for every $n\ge 1$, we can find $n+1$ distinct points $\{x_0,x_1,...,x_n\}$ in $[a,b]$ such that the ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

21 views

### Approximate sum of log terms from sum of terms?

Suppose I have a program that processes time series data and calculates the discounted cumulative sum of future reward, like so
$$ X_{t} = r_{t} + \gamma r_{t+1} + \gamma^2 r_{t+2} + ... +
\gamma^N ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

79 views

### Accurate estimate/lower bound for the l2 approximation error of trigonometric polynomial approximation

This is a restated version of my original very broad question.
Let $P$ be probability a measure on an interval $[a,b]$ ($-\infty<a<b<\infty$) that's dominated by Lebesgue measure. Let $\...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

127 views

### Approximate the following series on the euclidean grid

I had trouble in finding a closed form solution for the following series, so now I am trying to find a good approximation for it. The $\sqrt{i^2 + j^2}$ in the exponent comes from distances on the ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

156 views

### A min-max approximation

Let $n\ge 1$ be an integer, $\mathcal P_n$ be the vector space of all polynomial functions over $[a,b]$, of degree at most $n$.
My question is : Is it true that
$$\inf_{x_0,x_1,...,x_n\in[a,b], x_0&...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

81 views

### Chebyshev interpolation [closed]

Let's define the n-th degree Chebyshev polynomials by
$$ T_{n} (x)=\cos(n\arccos(x)).$$
Find a polynomial $P$ such that
$$\mid y- P (x) \mid$$
is minimal, using the first three Chebyshev ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

38 views

### Representability of smooth invertible Lipschitz functions by a finite composition of near-identity functions

Theorem 1 of this paper shows that
For every positve integer $K$ and for every nonempty bounded domain $\mathcal X \subseteq \mathbb R^d$, the restriction on $\mathcal X$ of any function $h: \...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

36 views

### On different norms of the interpolating operator

Let $[a,b]$ be an interval in real line . Given any function $f:[a,b]\to \mathbb R$ and set $A \subseteq [a,b]$ of size $n+1$, there exists a unique polynomial $p_{f,A,n}(x)$ of degree $n$ such that $...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

67 views

### Find $p$ s.t. there is a sequence of nodes in $[0,1]$ s.t. sequence of interpolating polynomials of every continuous function converges in $p$-norm

Let $[a,b]$ be an interval in real line . Given any function $f:[a,b]\to \mathbb R$ and set $A \subseteq [a,b]$ of size $n+1$, there exists a unique polynomial $p_{f,A,n}(x)$ of degree $n$ such that $...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

88 views

### Minimax Approximation to Sine Function on interval [-K, K]

Let $p_{n,K}(x)$ be the polynomial of degree $n$ that minimizes $\epsilon_{n,K} = ||p_{n,K}(x) - sin(x)||_\infty$ on the interval $[-K, K]$. Question: what is the asymptotic behavior of $\epsilon_{n,K}...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

114 views

### Does log-concave approximable distribution satisfy transportation-cost inequality?

Definition: Recall that a distribution $\mu$ on $\mathbb R^d$ is said to be log-convave with constant $c > 0$, if density $d\nu \propto e^{-V}dvol$ satisfying the curvature condition
$$
\...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

165 views

### Given any sequence of interpolating nodes, can we find a continuous function $f$ whose interpolating polynomials doesn't converge to $f$ point-wise

Let $[a,b]$ be an interval in real line . Given any function $f:[a,b]\to \mathbb R$ and set $A \subseteq [a,b]$ of size $n+1$, there exists a unique polynomial $p_{f,A,n}(x)$ of degree $n$ such that $...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

98 views

### Given a local metric which is $C^1$-close to another, can we extend it globally while preserving the approximation?

Let $M$ be a smooth closed manifold, and let $g_0$ be a Riemannian metric on $M$.
Let $U$ be a neighbourhood of $p \in M$, and suppose that we are given a metric $g$ on $U$, which satisfies $\| g-...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

150 views

### Is the kernel of a Fredholm operator stable under perturbation?

This is a follow-up of this question.
In a nutshell: Does the kernel of a bounded operator change "nicely" with the operator?
Let $(X,\| \cdot \|)$ be an infinite-dimensional normed vector space.
...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

22 views

### Approximate in $W_1$ sense, an empirical distribution with restriction of true distribution on a set

Let $\mu$ be a probability distribution on a metric space $X=(X,d)$ (to avoid unnecessary complications, assume the full filtration $2^X$) and let $x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_N$ be a sample of size $N$ drawn i....

**4**

votes

**2**answers

125 views

### Can we stay invertible while approximating linear maps in Sobolev spaces?

Let $\Omega \subseteq \mathbb{R}^n$ be an open bounded domain with a smooth boundary. Fix $1<p<n$.
Let $A \in W^{1,p}(\Omega;\text{End}(\mathbb{R}^n)) \cap C(\Omega;\text{End}(\mathbb{R}^n))$ ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

105 views

### Giving Uniform Bound on Differences of Sums of Converging Polynomials

The title does not quite capture the essence of the difficulty, please allow me to be more explicit here.
I thought of this question when I was trying out an open problem by Ovidiu Furdui(See problem ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

122 views

### Degree of 2-variable real polynomial that’s large on a square and small on a nearby “L”

I’d like to know what’s the minimum possible total degree of a real polynomial $p(x,y)$ such that:
(1) $p(x,y)\in [0,1]$ whenever $x,y\in [0,1]$ with either $x$ or $y$ at most $\epsilon$, and
(2) $p(...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

148 views

### Can a continuous map on a Hilbert manifold be approximated by a map which has infinitely many critical points?

It is well-known that a continuous map $f:M\to\mathbb{R}^n$ from a Hilbert manifold can be closely approximated by a smooth map $g:M\to\mathbb{R}^n$ which has no critical points.
But, can such a ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

168 views

### On effective constructions in the functional analysis of Volterra's integration operator

Let $V: L^2(0,1) \to L^2(0,1)$ be the Volterra integration operator: $V(f)(x) := \int_0^x f(t) \, dt$.
Is there a universal function $C(L,\varepsilon) < \infty$ such that the following uniform ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

44 views

### Approximating norms using numerical integration? [closed]

I have a sequence of functions $u_m$ in $H^1(\Omega)$, where $\Omega$ is Lipschitz such that $u_m(x)=\int_{|y|\le \epsilon} \, f_m(x,y) \, dy$, but the integral cannot be expressed in terms of ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

47 views

### What are the compact elements in the domain of functions on the Interval Domain, [D,D]?

Take the interval domain $D = \{[a,b]| a \le b, \in \mathbb{R}\}$, ordered by reverse inclusion.
Next, take the domain of functions $D' = \{f| f:D \rightarrow D \}$, ordered as follows $f \le g$ if $...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

56 views

### Continuity of solution to 2nd Order PDE w.r.t. the coefficients

I am considering the following 2nd order PDE :
On a domain $R$, for some $r > 0$,
\begin{equation*}
\frac{1}{2}\sum_{i, j = 1}^{K}\gamma_{i}\gamma_{j}U_{x_{i}x_{j}}(x) + \sum_{i = 1}^{K}\frac{\...

**0**

votes

**2**answers

52 views

### dense subalgebra in measurable functions set

Take $\mathcal M_D$ the space of measurable functions from a compact set $D\subseteq \mathbb R_n$ to ℂ.
I'm wondering if a Stone-Weierstrass-like theorem holds in this space, with the convergence in ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

152 views

### Intersection of Sobolev space with the space of continuous functions

While doing some problems, I came across the space $H=H^1(\Omega) \cap C(\Omega)$, where $\Omega$ is subset of $\mathbb{R^n}$. So far, by definition of these subspaces, We know that none of these are ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

76 views

### automorphisms of a measurable space can be approximated by continuous measure preserving maps?

Suppose first that $D=[0,1]$ is equipped with the usual Lebesgue measure, and that $\varphi$ is a measure-preserving transformation $\varphi:D\to D$ that is bijective and whose inverse is also measure ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

72 views

### Bounded polynomial having coefficients that are bounded linearly in degree and number of variables

Let $P(\mathbf{x})$ be a bounded multivariate polynomial of degree at most $d$ (for my purposes it can be either coordinate degree or total degree) over $[-1,1]^n$, and assume $|P(\mathbf{x})| \leq 1$....

**9**

votes

**1**answer

333 views

### Real polynomial bounded at inverse-integer points

Let $p$ be a real polynomial and $N$ be a positive integer. Suppose I tell you that $|p(\frac{1}{k})| \le 1$ for all $k\in\{1,\ldots,N\}$, and also that $p(\frac{1}{N})\le -\frac{1}{2}$ while $p(\...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

100 views

### Padé multipoint approximants of the exponential function

One says that a pair of polynomials $(P_m,Q_n)$ over $\mathbb C[z]$, with
$\text{deg }P_m=m$, $\text{deg }Q_n=n$, is a "multipoint Padé approximant of the exponential function" if $P_m(z)e^z-Q_n(z)$ ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

143 views

### Approximation of a continuous function by a smooth one on an open set

I'm interested in the following kind of theorems :
Let $M$ be a real analytic manifold and $U$ an open set of $M$. Let $f : U \to \mathbb{R}$ a continuous function. Then, there is a $C_{\infty}$ ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

42 views

### Bounding quantiles of the noncentral chi distribution

I need to bound the empirical quantiles for a noncentral chi distribution (not chi-squared) $\chi_\nu(\lambda)$, where $\nu$ is the number of degrees of freedom and $\lambda$ the non-centrality ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

172 views

### What are the possible $L^{\infty}$ closures of an integration-invariant linear subspace of $C([0,1],\mathbb{R})$?

Let $S \subset C([0,1],\mathbb{R})$ be an $\mathbb{R}$-linear subspace that is invariant under the $T := \int_0^x$ integration operation: if $g \in S$ then the function $f = Tg$ defined pointwise by $...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

22 views

### Role of polyhedral domain in convergence of finite element method

I am reading a paper by Diening and Kreuzer where they consider the convergence of finite element approximations for $p$-Laplace equation when using a certain algorithm.
In the paper, they assume ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

264 views

### approximating the $|x|$ function

I'm familiar with Newman's rational approximation of the absolute value function via rational functions. Are there other explicit functions that approximate $|x|$ with exponential error? I was under ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

230 views

### Normal approximation to the pointwise/Hadamard/Schur product of two multivariate Gaussian/normal random variables

Let $X \sim \mathcal{N}\left( {{\mu _x},\sigma _x^2} \right)$ and $Y \sim \mathcal{N}\left( {{\mu _y},\sigma _y^2} \right)$ be two univariate and independent Gaussian/normal random variables and let $...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

81 views

### Optimal $L^2$ bounds of cubic spline interpolation

Let $s(x)$ be the natural cubic spline interpolant of a function $f\in C^4$. There are known bounds on the $L^{\infty}$ error, $\|f^{(r)}(x) - s^{(r)} (x) \|_{\infty} $ for $r=0,1,2,3$. See Hall & ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

154 views

### Closure of polynomials of a function in $L^2$

Suppose $f \colon I \to \mathbb{R}$ is a function in, say, $L^\infty$, and $I \subset \mathbb{R}$ is a bounded interval. We may assume further regularity on $f$, such as Lipschitz continuity or strict ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

124 views

### Holes of a compact set in $\mathbb{R}^n$ that do not contain holes of a larger open set

Let $K$ be a compact subset of an arbitrary open set $\Omega\subset \mathbb{R}^n.$ It is said that a connected component $W$ of $\Omega\setminus K$ is $\Omega$-bounded if $\overline{W}$ is a compact ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

113 views

### Finding a tight upper bound of $\int_0^\infty e^{-a\sqrt{1-e^{-x}}-x^2/2} dx$ as a function of $a$, $a>0$

The integral converges as it is easily seen to be upper bounded by $\sqrt{\pi/2}$.
However, Laplace's method does not seem to work out as the maxima of the function $S(x) = -a\sqrt{1-e^{-x}}-x^2/2$ ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

52 views

### Approximation error of 1-Lipschitz function on cubical mesh

Let $\Omega = [0,1]^d$ and consider $f : \Omega \to R$ Lipschitz continuous with constant 1.
Consider the regular decomposition of $\Omega$ into $d$-dimensional cubes $\Omega_i$, $i=1 ... k^d$ with $...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

178 views

### Finding a tight upper bound of $\int_0^\infty e^{-x^2/2-a(1-e^{-x})}dx,\ a>0$, as a function of $a$

Is there a method to find a tight upper bound on the given integral? Note that the integral is upper bounded by $\sqrt{\pi/2}$, and thus converges. I first thought about applying Laplace's method. ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

196 views

### A good starting position for maximizing a function with Newton-Raphson / Halley's method

I'm attempting to find the maximum of this function:
\begin{align*}
h(\mathbf{t}) = -\left\{\sum_{i=1}^{n}\lambda_i e^{\boldsymbol{\theta}_i^\intercal \mathbf{t}}\right\} + \boldsymbol{\alpha}^\...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

33 views

### What are good ways to 'relax' a uniform approximation into independent saddle-point expressions once the uniform approach is no longer needed?

I am doing long-running project that involves asymptotic saddle-point estimation of integrals (for flavour, it's this sort of stuff) and I would like to ask if there are established ways in the ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

111 views

### Approximately complemented subspaces

Definition:
Suppose $E$ is a subspace of normed space $X$. Then $E$ is approximately complemented in $X$ if for any compact subset $K$ of $E$ and any $\epsilon>0$ there is a continuous linear ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

152 views

### Approximating a compact $C^1$ hypersurface without boundary

Can we approximate (arbitrarily closely) a compact $C^1$ hypersurface in Euclidean space without boundary with a polygonal hypersurface, such as a simplicial complex? To clarify, I want to have the $\...