# Questions tagged [real-analysis]

Real-valued functions of real variable, analytic properties of functions and sequences, limits, continuity, smoothness of these.

5,287
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### Help me find the antiderivative of $W(W(x))$ where $W$ denotes the Lambert W Function

Let $W$ denote the Lambert W Function. I must know the antiderivative of $W^2 = W(W(x))$.
I'm already convinced this function is not elementary. This does nothing to settle up my curiosity, as I ...

-3
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0
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75
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### Can we deduce $a_n\le Cn^2$ from $a_{n+1}\le Ca_n+Ca_n^{1/2}$? [closed]

Assume $\{a_n\}$ is a positive sequence satisfying $a_1\le C$ and $a_{n+1}\le C a_n+C a_n^{1/2}$. Can we deduce by induction $a_n\le Cn^2$? Here C's could be different constants.

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57
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### Construct a continuous function $f(x)$ periodic with period $2\pi$ such that the Fourier series of $f(x)$ is divergent at $x = 0$

The following question was asked on Math Stack Exchange by me 15 days ago. I used a bounty, but still no response.So I am posting the question here
Here is the link of the question here
problem ...

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0
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80
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### Ratio of l1/l2 norm over n dimensional vector

According to here
$$\frac{(|c_1|+|c_2|+\cdots+|c_n|)^2}{c_1^2+c_2^2+\cdots+c_n^2}\geq 1$$
The equality holds when for each $i\neq j\in[n]$, $|c_i||c_j|=0$.
Could we improve the lower bound by ...

4
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2
answers

215
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### A function that maps every perfect set to $\mathbb{R}$

It's known that some real functions map every nonempty open subset onto $\mathbb{R}$.
Is there any function from $\mathbb{R}$ to $\mathbb{R}$ that maps every nonempty perfect set onto $\mathbb{R}$?

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1
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99
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### Continuous extensions of tangent vector fields

Let $\Omega$ be an open subset of $S^2$ with $\bar{\Omega}\neq S^2$. Suppose a continuous tangent vector field $G$ is given on $\partial \Omega$ with $|G(y)|=1$ for all $y\in \partial \Omega$. Does ...

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1
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74
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### Continuous modification of tangent vector fields

Let $\Omega$ be an open subset of $S^2$, and assume that there exists a continuous tangent vector field $F(x)$ defined on $\bar{\Omega}\neq S^2$ with $|F(x)|=1$ for all $x\in \bar{\Omega}$. Suppose a ...

17
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2
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578
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### Etymology of “real numbers"

I would like to know why the real numbers are called “the real numbers.” I would also like to know the meaning of “real” in the phrase “real number.”
Further questions and clarifications:
I’d like to ...

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71
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### Function whose derivatives eventually vanish almost everywhere

As a takeaway of this post we have the following result.
P. Let $f:[0,1]\to\mathbb{R}$ be infinitely differentiable such that for all $x\in[0,1]$ the sequence $\{f^{(n)}(x)\}$ is eventually $0$. Then ...

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### Reference request: injectivity of CWT, density of dilations and translations in $L^p$

Recently, I encountered the notion of Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT), and I find it very intriguing (for a reference, see the wiki). I believe it offers a different and more general perspective on ...

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### decimal expansion and distance [closed]

If we have a infinite sequence of decreasing irrational numbers say $$\{\gamma_1,\gamma_2,\gamma_3,\cdots \}, ~~~~~ \text{s.t}~~~~~0< \gamma_i<1 $$
can we say $$\sum_{i=1}^{\infty}{\gamma_i}$$ ...

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60
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### Multiplication with dilations of nonzero measurable function is injective

Denote $f_s(x):=f(sx)$ as the dilation of a function $f$. I want to know whether the following statement is true:
Suppose $f$ and $g$ are measurable functions on $\mathbb{R}$, and $f$ is not almost ...

2
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108
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### Is $L^2([a,b]; L^2(S^2))$ the same as $L^2([a,b] \times S^2)$?

The space $L^2([a,b];L^2(S^2))$ is a Banach space with respect to the norm
$$\left\Vert f \right\Vert_1^2 = \int_{a}^b \left\Vert f(r) \right\Vert_{L^2(S^2)}^2 dr$$
The space $L^2([a,b]\times S^2)$ ...

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126
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### Antiderivatives via Taylor series and the FT of Calculus

If $f$ is a real function on an interval $[a,b]$ such that
$f$ is computationally tractable on $[a,b]$: you can calculate $f(x)$ to $n$ bits of precision using an algorithm which is polynomial in $n$ ...

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1
answer

83
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### Lipschitz function which is surjective on subset implies that the subset is dense

Let $f: \mathbb{R}^n \to \mathbb{R}^n$ be a Lipschitz-function. Suppose $A \subseteq \mathbb{R}^n$ is an $(n-1)$-connected subset such that $f(A) = \mathbb{R}^n$. I would like to show that $A\subseteq ...

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56
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### Sum of upper semi continuous and lower semi continuous functions

Let $X$ be a compact metric space. Assume that $f: X \to \mathbb{R}$ is upper-semi continuous and $g:X \to \mathbb{R}$ is lower semi-continuous. Assume that $\sup \{ f(x)+g(x) : x \in X \}$ is finite. ...

2
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1
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262
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### A strange functional inequality

Let $f,g \in C([-2,2],\mathbb R_+^*)$ even and concave real functions.
Is it true that
$$
\int_0^1 f\big(\cos(x^{-1})+\sin(x^{-1})\big) \cdot g\big(\cos(x^{-1})-\sin(x^{-1})\big) \mathrm{d}x\\ \leq f(...

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41
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### Are there probability densities $\rho, f_n$ such that $\lim_n \frac{[\rho * f_n]_\alpha}{\|\rho * f_n\|_\infty} = \infty$?

We fix $\alpha \in (0, 1)$. Let $[f]_\alpha$ be the best $\alpha$-Hölder constant of $f: \mathbb R^d \to \mathbb R^k \otimes \mathbb R^m$, i.e., $[f]_\alpha := \sup_{x \neq y} \frac{|f(x) - f(y)|}{|x-...

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### Lower bound the best $\alpha$-Hölder constant of a convolution

Let $\mathcal D_1$ be the set of bounded probability density functions on $\mathbb R^d$. This means $f \in \mathcal D_1$ if and only if $f$ is non-negative measurable such that $\int_{\mathbb R^d} f (...

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2
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### Is the difference between $\alpha$-Hölder constants of $f*\rho$ and $g*\rho$ controlled by $\|f-g\|_\infty$?

Let $\mathcal D_1$ be the set of bounded probability density functions on $\mathbb R^d$. This means $f \in \mathcal D_1$ if and only if $f$ is non-negative measurable such that $\int_{\mathbb R^d} f (...

2
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72
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### Limit of lacunar power series at $1^-$

I've asked this question on MSE but I didn't get a convincive answer so I'm trying here. Here is the question :
Let $\sigma:\mathbb{N}\longrightarrow\mathbb{N}$ be strictly increasing, and consider ...

2
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1
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127
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### Understanding the integral $\int_0^1\det(v(t),v'(t))dt$ where $v(t)$ is path in the plane

Let $v(t) : [0,1]\rightarrow\mathbb{C}^2$ be a smooth path, and let $v' := dv/dt$. I'd like to understand what the integral:
$$I(v) := \int_0^1 \det(v(t),v'(t))dt$$
tells us about $v$, where $\det(v(t)...

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0
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79
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### Characterization for the multipliers of Schwartz space

Is the following true?
A function $m:\mathbb R^n\to\mathbb C$ is a Schwartz multiplier (i.e. $[f\mapsto mf]:S(\mathbb R^n)\to S(\mathbb R^n)$ is bounded linear) iff the following:
For every $\alpha$ ...

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2
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344
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### Functions with asymmetrically decreasing Fourier transform?

$\def\ii{{\rm i}}\def\bbR{\mathbb R}\def\bbC{\mathbb C}\def\bbNo{\mathbb N_0}\def\Fou{\mathscr F}$Specifically, I would like to have a compactly supported continuous function $f=u+\ii\,v:\bbR\to\bbC$ ...

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53
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### Density of zero modes

Let $(M,g)$ be a compact smooth Riemannian manifold with a smooth boundary. Let $\{(\lambda_k,\phi_k)\}_{k\in\mathbb N}$ be the spectral data on $(M,g)$, namely an orthonormal basis for $L^2(M)$ ...

3
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335
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### Does $f(t) \le \int_0^t (t-s)^{-\frac{1}{2}} [f(s) + |f(s)|^{\beta}] \, \mathrm d s$ imply $f=0$?

Let $\beta \in (0, 1)$. We assume $f : [0, 1] \to [0, \infty)$ is a measurable and bounded function such that
$$
f(t) \le \int_0^t (t-s)^{-\frac{1}{2}} [f(s) + |f(s)|^{\beta}] \, \mathrm d s,
\quad \...

2
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1
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119
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### Grönwall-type inequality for $f(t) \le \alpha + \int_0^t (t-s)^{-\frac{1}{2}} [f(s) + |f(s)|^{\beta}] \, \mathrm d s$

Let $\alpha \in (0, \infty)$ and $\beta \in (0, 1]$. We assume $f : [0, 1] \to [0, \infty)$ is a measurable and bounded function such that
$$
f(t) \le \alpha + \int_0^t (t-s)^{-\frac{1}{2}} [f(s) + |f(...

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137
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### Example of a conditionally convergent series $\sum_{n=1}^\infty b_n$ such that $n^2(b_n-b_{n+1})$ is bounded

Let $(b_n)_{n \in \mathbb{N}}$ be a real sequence such that $(nb_n)$ is bounded. I know that if the series $\sum_{n=1}^\infty b_n$ is conditionally convergent, then $(n^2b_n)_n$ is not bounded. But, ...

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1
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103
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### How to understand the unique continuation result

Let $E$ be the closure of $C_c^{\infty}\left(\mathbb{R}^N\right)$ ($N \geqq 3)$ under the norm
$$
\|u\|_E=\left(\int_{\mathbb{R}^N}|\nabla u|^2\right)^{1 / 2}.
$$
Suppose $K(x) \in C^1\left(\mathbf{R}^...

6
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3
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589
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### Evaluating the infinite product $\prod_{k\geq 2}(1-\frac{1}{k^3})$

Does anyone know how to evaluate the infinite product
$$
\prod_{k = 2}^{\infty} \left( 1 - \frac{1}{k^3} \right)?
$$
I know that a generalized quadratic version has a nice closed form
$$
\frac{\sin(\...

2
votes

1
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93
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### On compactly supported functions with prescribed sparse coordinates

Let $\{\phi_n\}_{n=1}^{\infty}$ be an orthonormal basis for $L^2((0,1))$ consisting of Dirichlet eigenfunctions for the operator $-\partial^2_x + q(x)$ where $q \in C^{\infty}_c((0,1))$ is fixed. ...

4
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1
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154
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### Bound in terms of harmonic oscillator

I wonder if the following is true: Let $\alpha >0$ be a positive real number, do we have
$$\Vert H^{\alpha} \psi''\Vert \le \Vert H^{\alpha+1} \psi\Vert,$$
where $H = -\frac{d^2}{dx^2} + x^2$ is ...

1
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0
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### If a weighted Laplacian's eigenfunction is zero in an open set, when is it identically zero?

Let $m, s \in ([0, 1]^d \rightarrow \mathbb{R}_{\geq 0}$). Define a weighted Laplacian $\Delta_{m, s}f$ evaluated at $x \in [0, 1]^d$ to be:
$m(x) \cdot \text{div} ( s(x) \nabla f(x))$.
What ...

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### Convergence of convex compact bodies implies Hausdorff convergence

I am wondering about the following :
In $\mathbb{R}^n$, suppose you are given compact convex bodies $\left\{ C_k : k \geq 1 \right\}$ and $C$, such that:
(simple convergence) for every $x \in \mathbb{...

5
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1
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289
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### Does the Poincaré inequality hold on annular domains?

Does the following Poincaré inequality hold
$$\int_{B_{r_2}\setminus B_{r_1}} |f-\bar{f}|^2 dx \leq C(r_2-r_1)^2 \int_{B_{r_2}\setminus B_{r_1}} |\nabla f|^2 dx,$$
where $B_r$ denotes a ball of radius ...

0
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1
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85
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### A simple bilinear estimate

Let $2\leq p,q <\infty$ and fix $0<\alpha<1$ such that
$\frac{1}{p}+\frac{1}{q}\leq 2-\alpha$.
Suppose that $f\in L^{p}([0,1])$ and $g\in L^{q}([0,1])$.
What is the optimal value of $t=t(\...

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0
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129
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### Can this integral be solved analytically

I have an integral of the form
$$\int_{t_1}^{t_2} \frac{\sum_{i=1}^n a_i e^{b_i t}}{\sum_{i=1}^n c_i e^{d_i t}} dt$$
Where $a_i,b_i,c_i,d_i$ are $4n$ real constants, and $t_1,t_2$ are positives. Is ...

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### How should the "measure theoretic" Jacobians of a dynamical map be understood in Lai-Sang Young's "Recurrence Times and Rates of Mixing"

In Young's article: Recurrence Times and Rates of Mixing, she uses multiple times the notation $JF, JF^k, JF^R$ to mean the Jacobian of a dynamical map $F:\Delta\to\Delta$ w.r.t. a given reference ...

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1
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53
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### An expansion for 2d Euler equation

Let $R>0$ be a large constant, such that for any $x \in \Omega$, $\Omega \subset B_R(x)$. Consider the following problem in $\mathbb{R}^2$:
$$
-\varepsilon^2 \Delta u=1_{\{u>a\}} \text { in }\, ...

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61
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### How to distinguish birth and death bifurcations?

Let $f : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ have a degenerate critical point at $x = 0 \, ($ie, $f(0) = f'(0) = f''(0) = 0)$.
Perturbing $f$ locally around $0$ may cause multiple scenarios:
Birth: the ...

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0
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78
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### Verifying the Cauchy behavior of a sequence

Let me consider the iteration $x_{n+1}=Tx_n$ and $T$ is a self-map from a non-empty subset $K$ of a smooth Banach space $X$ to itself, satisfying $W(Tx, Ty) \leq W(x, y)$, where $W(x, y)=\Vert x \Vert^...

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0
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57
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### Reference request for equivalent Lipschitz smoothness conditions

For an open set $Z\subseteq\mathbb{R}^n$, let $f: Z\mapsto \mathbb{R}$ be a continuously differentiable function on $Z$, and let $L>0$ be fixed. Also, suppose that (a) $f$ is nonconvex and (b) $f$ ...

3
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2
answers

379
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### Monotonicity of matrix conjugation

Let $A$ and $B$ be positive-definite matrices such that $A \le B.$
By matrix monotonicity of the root, this also implies that $A^{\alpha} \le B^{\alpha}$ for $\alpha \in [0,1].$
I am now curious under ...

2
votes

1
answer

288
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### Fourier series but different waveform

Given a nondegenerate smooth simple closed convex curve $f: [0,2\pi]\to \mathbb C \setminus \{0\}$ with winding number (around origin) $1$, and $f$ have zero mean. Let $f_n: [0,2\pi]\to \mathbb C \...

2
votes

0
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112
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### A sequence linked to irrationality

Let $0 < c < 1$ be a real number and $ x \in \mathbb{R}$. We define the sequence $(u_n)_{n \in \mathbb{N}}$ by :
$$u_0 = x$$
$$ \mathrm{If}, u_n \le c, \mathrm{then}, u_{n + 1} = u_n + (1 - c) $$...

5
votes

1
answer

198
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### An asymmetric quadrilinear estimate

Fix $1<p<2$ and let $a_{i}=1-\frac{\theta_{i}}{p^{\prime}}$
where $\theta_{i}\in (0,1/2)$, $i=1,2,3,4$, and $p^{\prime}$ is the conjugate exponent of $p$. Note here that $0<a_{i}=1-\theta_{i}+...

1
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1
answer

88
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### Examining the Hilbert transform of functions over the positive real line

$\DeclareMathOperator\supp{supp}$Let $H:L^{2}(\mathbb{R})\to L^{2}(\mathbb{R})$ be the Hilbert transform. Let suppose we have a compaclty supported function $f \in L^{2}(\mathbb{R})$ such that $\supp(...

2
votes

2
answers

168
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### Is there a compactly supported differentiable function whose Fourier transform is not in L1?

In my MSE answer here, I discussed the example of compactly supported continuous function
$$g(x)=
\begin{cases}
\dfrac{\frac12 -x}{\log(x)},&0<x\leq1/2\\
0,&\text{otherwise}
\end{cases}$$
...

0
votes

1
answer

203
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### Does this property implies Lipschitz continuity?

Let $f:\mathbb{R}^{n} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be such that, for $x,y,z \in \mathbb{R}^{n}$, we have that
$$|f(z) - f(x)| \leq |f(z) - f(y)| \Rightarrow \|z-x\| \leq \|z-y\|$$
Can I say that this ...

0
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1
answer

46
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### Everywhere existence of marginals

Let $f\in L^1(\mathbb{R}^2)$ be a (joint) probability density function which satisfies $f(x,y)>0$ for all $(x,y)\in \mathbb{R^2}$.
What is a necessary and sufficient condition under which the ...