# Questions tagged [determinacy]

The determinacy tag has no usage guidance.

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### Cardinal arithmetic under determinacy

Work in a reasonable theory of determinacy such as $\mathsf{ZF+DC+AD}$. Which of the following identities are true for arbitrary infinite sets?
$|A^2|=|A^3|$ (motivated by an MSE question that asks ...

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### Determinacy and Woodin cardinals

I am looking for a reference for the following result:
Theorem Assume $\kappa$ is a Woodin cardinal. Then after forcing with the Levy collapse $\mathbb{P}=Col(\omega, \kappa)$, the $\Sigma^1_2$-...

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### Periodicity in the cumulative hierarchy

Under Reinhardt cardinals in ZF, the cumulative hierarchy exhibits a periodicity in that for large enough $λ$, certain properties of $V_λ$ depend on whether $λ$ is even vs odd. See Periodicity in the ...

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### Uniformization and functions on Turing degrees

Assuming Martin's Conjecture on functions between Turing degrees, is AD + DC consistent with existence of an $f:\mathcal{D}_t → \mathcal{D}_t$ of rank $Θ$ ?
$\mathcal{D}_t$ is the set of Turing ...

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### From HODs to corresponding models of AD

If $M$ is HOD of a model $N$ of $\text{AD}^+ + V=L(P(ℝ))$, what kind of forcing construction in $M$ gives back such an $N$?
HODs for $\text{AD}^+ + V=L(P(ℝ))$ are conjectured (and under anti-large ...

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### Complexity of transfinite 5-in-a-row and other games

Suppose that 5-in-a-row is played on an infinite board, and after an infinite number of moves, if no one won yet and there is an empty square, the game just continues. At limit steps, it is the first ...

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### Closure of a pointclass under universal real quantification

Let us assume $\mathsf{AD}^+$ and let $\Gamma$ be a pointclass such that $P(\mathbb{R})\cap L(\Gamma)=\Gamma$ and $L(\Gamma)\models\mathsf{AD}_\mathbb{R}+\mathsf{DC}$. Since the cofinality of $o(\...

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### How much Dependent Choice is provable in $Z_2$? And what about Projective Determinacy?

So, second order arithmetic, $Z_2$, is capable of proving quite a few things. One thing which would be of use is dependent choice for $\mathbb{R}$.
Basically, dependent choice on $\mathbb{R}$ says ...

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### Strengthening Determinacy in constructive set theory?

Recall how games work. Let $X$ be a set (the "game space") and $\alpha$ an ordinal (the "game clock"). Alice and Bob take turns naming elements of $X$. We write them down in order ...

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### How much of second-order arithmetic do you need for $\mathbf{\Sigma}^1_1$-determinacy to give you countable transitive models of $\mathsf{ZFC}$?

This is in some sense a follow-up to this question.
The answer there says that over $\mathsf{Z}_2$ (second-order arithmetic), (boldface) $\mathbf{\Sigma}^1_1$-determinacy is enough to entail the ...

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### How much determinacy do you need for second order arithmetic to be as strong as ZFC?

From Wikipedia (I couldn't find the original source):
$\text{ZFC} + \{\text{there are $n$ Woodin cardinals: $n$ is a natural number}\}$ is conservative over $\text{Z}_2$ with projective determinacy.
...

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### Is determinacy of (some) very long open games consistent?

For $\varphi$ a first-order sentence in the language of set theory and $\kappa$ an ordinal, let $G_\varphi^{\kappa}$ be the game of length $\kappa$ in which players $1$ and $2$ alternately play ...

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### Is this determinacy principle consistent?

Let $\mathsf{ODet}_{\omega_1}(L(\mathbb{R}))$ be the following principle ("determinacy for simple open length-$\omega_1$ games"):
If $\kappa$ is any ordinal and $X\subseteq \kappa^{<\...

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### Large cardinals in ZF + DC + AD

The Axiom of Dependent Choice (DC) is often considered to be an "intuitive and non-controversial" version of choice used in the proofs of many theorems in Analysis. Similarly, the Axiom of ...

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### Upper-bounding determinacy

While the converse of Borel determinacy ("If a set of reals is determined, then it is Borel") is boringly disprovable, I'm curious if there is a sense in which something like it is ...

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### Can these alternating series games be undetermined?

To each pair $(S,\mathcal{X})$ where $S=(s_i)_{i\in\mathbb{N}}$ is a decreasing sequence of positive real numbers and $\mathcal{X}\subseteq\mathbb{R}$, we can associate the alternation game $A_S(\...

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### What is the complexity of the winning condition in infinite Hex? In particular, is infinite Hex a Borel game?

Consider the game of infinite Hex, where two players Red and Blue alternately place their stones on the infinite hex grid, each aiming to create a winning configuration.
Red wins after infinite play, ...

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### Another determinacy-related cardinal characteristic

This question is a kind of "dual" to an earlier one of mine.
Although I don't know a reference for this, it's easy to show the following result:
Suppose $G$ is a game in which neither ...

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### Does determinacy imply unravellability for the Borel sets (over a weak base theory)?

As far as I know, the only way we currently know how to prove Borel determinacy in $\mathsf{ZFC}$ is to go through unravelability (a rather technical property whose definition can be found in Martin's ...

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### Is this cardinal characteristic trivial? (Number of strategies needed to guarantee at least one win)

(Previously asked at MSE.)
Let the determinacy number, $\mathfrak{g}$ (for "game"), be the smallest cardinal such that for every (two-player, perfect-information, length-$\omega$) game on $\...

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### Is any choice axiom other than WISC inherited by Grothendieck topoi?

It is well known that even if one works with say ZFC as a base theory, Grothendieck topoi do not in general satisfy even fairly weak axioms like countable choice or small violations of choice and one ...

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### Weakening of open determinacy for uncountably long games

For a cardinal $\kappa$ I'll use the phrase "$(\kappa,\kappa)$-game" to mean "two-player, perfect-information, deterministic game on $\kappa$ of length $\kappa$."
Say that a ...

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### A game of harmonic series(s)

Given a set $A\subseteq\mathbb{R}_{>0}$, consider the following (two-player, perfect-information, length-$\omega$) game $H_A$:
Players $1$ and $2$ alternately play strictly increasing natural ...

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### Strong determinacy principles

It seems to be a well-known result that $\mathrm{AD}_{\omega_1}$ and $\mathrm{AD}_{\mathscr{P}(\mathbb{R})}$ (determinacy of $\omega$-length games with moves in $\omega_1$ or $\mathscr{P}(\mathbb{R})$,...

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### Existence of a winning strategy in the $\boldsymbol{\Delta}_2^0$ game

Consider the following infinite perfect information game with two players (the name I gave in the title of the post it totally made up): at each round $i \in \omega$, player $\mathrm{I}$ picks a ...

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### Uniformization under AD

Can the following uniformization statement be proved by $ZF+AD+DC$?
For any binary relation $R\subseteq \mathbb{R}^2$ with the property that $\forall x (\{y\mid R(x,y)\}\mbox{ is at most countable ...

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### Analytic sets and Turing determinacy

I wonder whether the following question have a positive answer within $ZFC$.
Question If $\{A_n\}_{n\in \omega}$ is a sequence of analytic sets so that $\bigcup_n A_n=2^{\omega}$, then there must be ...

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### I can't believe it's not Replacement!

(I feel like I might have to apologise in advance for this question, but oh well..)
I just rediscovered a comment from Asaf K here on MO that states that full Replacement is not needed for Borel ...

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### Determinacy of symmetric games

Is it consistent that for all ordinals $α$ and $λ$ and infinite regular cardinals $κ$, games on $V_λ$ with game length $κα$ and $\mathrm{OD}(\mathrm{On}^κ)$ payoff that depends only on the set of all ...

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### What sets can be unraveled?

A set $X\subseteq\omega^\omega$ is unravelable iff there is a possibly larger set $A$ and a clopen set $Y\subseteq A^\omega$ (with respect to the product topology coming from the discrete topology on $...

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### Can a generic $\mathbb{R}$ have a new cardinality?

This question was asked and bountied at MSE, without success.
My main question is whether, starting with a model of determinacy, a "generic $\mathbb{R}$" could be different in cardinality ...

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### Comparing generic versions of $\mathbb{R}$

This question was previously asked and bountied at MSE, unsuccessfully.
I'm currently interested in the behavior of cardinalities in generic extensions of models of $\mathsf{ZF+\neg AC}$, and ...

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### Is there a minimal inner model for determinacy?

Assume $\sf ZF+AD$. Is there some inner model $M$ containing all the ordinals such that $M\models\sf ZF+AD$ as well?
What if we require $\omega_1$ and/or $\omega_2$ to be computed correctly?
Can we ...

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### Pointwise definable models of determinacy

Suppose that the Axiom of Determinacy (AD) holds in $L(ℝ)$, and for some statement φ, $α$ is minimal such that $L_α(ℝ)⊨φ$. Do definable (in $L_α(ℝ)$) elements of $L_α(ℝ)$ form an elementary ...

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### Aronszajn Trees when AC fails

This question may be easy and indicative of my ignorance about the failure of the axiom of choice. If so, I apologize. Below assume $\mathsf{DC}$ but not $\mathsf{AC}$. Suppose we have a partial order ...

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### An analytic game and Ramsey's theorem

Let $$P=\{(l_n, m_n)_{n=1}^t: l_n, m_n,t\in\mathbb{N}, l_1<\ldots <l_t, m_1<\ldots <m_t\}$$ and suppose that $T$ is some subset of $P$. Suppose that $T$ also has the following properties: ...

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### Forcing absoluteness in the setting of second-order arithmetic

There are some results about (set-size) forcing absoluteness for first-order properties in $L(\mathbb{R})$ and for $\mathbf{\Pi}^1_{\infty}$ properties when one works over $\mathsf{ZFC}$. My question ...

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### Strength of $Δ^1_{2n}$ determinacy

According to Lightface mice with finitely many Woodin cardinals from optimal determinacy hypotheses by Yizheng Zhu, theorem 1.1, over $\mathbf{Σ^1_{2n+1}}$ determinacy, $Δ^1_{2n+2}$ determinacy is ...

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### Strong partition property + DC + existence of non-principal ultrafilter on $\omega$

It was mentioned after Theorem 30.27 in Kanamori's Higher Infinite that Woodin constructed a model of $DC$ + there exists unboundedly many many $\kappa<\Theta$ such that $\kappa \to (\kappa)^\...

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### The Rise and Fall of Dictators & How it Depends on Our Choice

This question is loosely inspired by the following paper of Shelah on Arrow property in which he answered a question of Gil Kalai affirmatively.
Shelah, Saharon, On the Arrow property. Adv. in Appl. ...

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### Is $Z_3+{\rm AD}$ equiconsistent with $\text{ZFC+AD}^{L(\mathbb{R})}$

Let $Z_2$ and $Z_3$ be second and third order arithmetics respectively.
In $Z_2$'s language, $\text{AD}$ (the axiom of determinacy) and $\text{PD}$ (projective determinacy) are stated the same way (...

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### The Axiom of Determinacy and the Banach-Mazur game

The Wikipedia article on the Axiom of Determinacy (AD) claims:
Equivalent to the axiom of determinacy is the statement that for every subspace X of the real numbers, the Banach–Mazur game BM(X) is ...

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### A bi-modal logic related to determinacy

The short version of my question is as follows. There is a natural (I hope!) way to associate a bimodal theory to a game (two-player, perfect-information, length-$\omega$, on $\omega$); are there "...

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### Can the Turing degrees be linearly ordered?

Assuming the axiom of choice, every set can be linearly (indeed, well-) ordered. However, without choice this can fail, as witnessed most drastically by the consistency of amorphous sets. More ...

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### Strong limit cardinals in AD

In this question, I will be working in ZF.
Let $h(\kappa)$ for a cardinal $\kappa$ (not necessarily an ordinal) be the smallest ordinal $\alpha$ such that there is no surjection from a set of size $\...

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### Determinacy and polynomial time degrees

Is there a function $f:2^{<ℕ}→\{0,1\}$ such that for all $X∈{2^ℕ}$ with $X_{2i+1}=f(X_0,...,X_i)$ all hyperarithmetical properties of the polynomial time degree of $X$ are independent of $X$?
The ...

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### Under ZF + DC + AD, is it known what the properties are of the Hartogs number for $\mathcal{P}(\kappa)$ for some $\kappa>\aleph_0$?

It is a well-known result by Woodin that the Hartogs number $h(\mathbb{R})$ (more commonly known as $\Theta$) is a Woodin cardinal (in HOD) assuming ZF + AD + DC. This is equivalent to $h(\mathcal{P}(\...

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### Undetermined copy/diagonalize games without CH

This question was the motivation behind an earlier question of mine; having thought about it some more, that question seems nontrivial and the connection is actually pretty tenuous anyways, so I've ...

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### Does determinacy in $L(\mathbb{R})$ implies projective determinacy (in $V$)?

Does $AD^{L(\mathbb{R})}$ directly implies projective determinacy? At least it certainely implies $PD$'s consistency.

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### Does ZF+AD settle the original Suslin hypothesis?

Everyone knows that the real line $\langle\mathbb{R},<\rangle$ is
the unique endless complete dense linear order with a countable
dense set. Suslin's
hypothesis is
the question whether we can ...