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Questions tagged [classical-mechanics]

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29
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5answers
8k views

Six yolks in a bowl: Why not optimal circle packing? [closed]

Making soufflé tonight, I wondered if the six yolks took on the optimal circle packing configuration. They do not. It is only with seven congruent circles that the optimal packing places one in the ...
6
votes
1answer
187 views

Navier-Stokes fluid dynamics, Einstein gravity and holography

There was some activity a while ago, like 10 years ago, string theoreists try to relate the fluid dynamics, for example, governed by Navier-Stokes equation, to the Einstein gravity, and its ...
0
votes
0answers
152 views

Towards recognizing St. Venant geometrical invariant

Using partial derivative notation we can express Gauss curvature $K$ in cartesian coordinates: $$\quad p= \partial w/ \partial x, q= \partial w/ \partial y; r=\frac{\partial ^2w}{{\partial {x} ^2} },...
8
votes
0answers
363 views

Determinant as a Hamiltonian

Are there two symplectic structures $\omega_1, \omega_2$ on $M_{2n}(\mathbb{R})$ such that the function $Det:M_{2n}(\mathbb{R})\to \mathbb{R}$ is completely integrable with respect to $\omega_{1}$...
22
votes
1answer
421 views

Tying knots via gravity-assisted spaceship trajectories

Q. Can every knot be realized as the trajectory of a spaceship weaving among a finite number of fixed planets, subject to gravity alone?           To make this more ...
4
votes
1answer
170 views

symplectic topology of (perturbed) KAM tori

Consider a real analytic $H_0:\mathbb{R}^n\to \mathbb{R}$ whose Hessian is everywhere non-degenerate as well as a real analytic $F:\mathbb{T}^n\times \mathbb{R}^n\to \mathbb{R}$. KAM theory studies ...
6
votes
0answers
72 views

Is there a convex three-dimensional body with constant width and only finitely-many equilibria? Or: do spheroform gömböcök exist?

Mathematical questions. The mathematical (and 'gravity'-free) formulation of the question in the title is given by the following questions: Q1. Does there exist $(a,b)\in\omega^2\setminus\{(0,0)\}$ ...
1
vote
0answers
139 views

How to make sense of the Euler Lagrange equations for an infinite action?

The Euler–Lagrange equation is an equation satisfied by a function $q$, which is a stationary point of the functional $S(\boldsymbol q) = \int_a^b L(t,q(t),\dot{q}(t))\, \mathrm{d}t$ Say we have an ...
3
votes
2answers
204 views

Can one obtain this ODE as an Euler-Lagrange equation?

Some of the second order ODE can be considered as Euler-Lagrange equations for an appropriate Lagrangian. However this is true not for arbitrary second order equation. But some of important equations ...
10
votes
1answer
264 views

Conjecture: Finitely many points where gravitational field due to N masses vanishes

Given a configuration $C$ of $N$ distinct fixed points of equal mass in the plane (eventually in space), let $f_C(N)$ denote the number of points $P$ for which the gravitational field at $P$ vanishes. ...
4
votes
2answers
164 views

A Stochastic Dynamical Billiard

Consider the following stochastic dynamical system. Fix $a > 0$, $b > 0$ and $v > 0$, and let $\mathbf{r}(t)=(x(t),y(t))$ be the position at time $t$ of a point which moves in the rectangle ...
1
vote
0answers
46 views

Optimal contour shape for variational problem over captured area

Let's assume we have a continuous and finite scalar function $f(x,y)$ over the $xy$ plane ($\mathbb{R}^{2}$) and this function is to be integrated over a bounded area (surface) $A\subset\mathbb{R}^{2}...
2
votes
0answers
111 views

Formulation of contour variational problem

I am having difficulty formulating a problem, which involves optimizing a contour shape, into a well-posed variational form that would give a reasonable answer. Within a bounded region on the $xy$ ...
13
votes
3answers
407 views

Random N-body problem

Suppose there are $N$ unit-mass particles whose initial positions are uniformly distributed in a unit-radius disk. Each particle is assigned a randomly oriented initial velocity vector $v_i$ of length ...
32
votes
3answers
3k views

Do bubbles between plates approximate Voronoi diagrams?

For example, soap bubbles:                   Image from UPenn: "A 2-dimensional foam of wet soap bubbles squashed between glass plates, after 10 hours ...
2
votes
1answer
190 views

Sampling point from the surface of an n-dimensional ellipsoid with uniform distribution

I am wondering if exist an efficient computational method for sampling points belonging to the surface of an ellipsoid in $n$-dimensional space with n even, I am thinking in the phase space of a ...
20
votes
4answers
10k views

Hamiltonian, Lagrangian and Newton formalism of mechanics

If my thinking is wrong please let me know. I have little knowledge on beyond-college physics. For research purposes, I read a few introductions to these three formalisms of classical mechanics [1,2,...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

Negative Definiteness of Hopf-Lax-Oleinik Semigroup

Denote by $H_{t}$ the Hopf-Lax semigroup, i.e.\begin{equation} H_{t}f(x)=\inf_{y\in\mathbb{R}}\left\lbrace f(y)+\frac{(x-y)^{2}}{2t}\right\rbrace.\end{equation} Is $H_{t}$ negative definite on bounded,...
1
vote
1answer
66 views

an example on kinematical theory in the book “A treatise on the analytical dynamics of particles and rigid bodies”

In page 3, Example 1 says "A lamina moves in any manner in its plane. Prove that the locus at any instant of points which are at inflexions of their paths is a circle, which touches the loci in the ...
8
votes
1answer
386 views

When does a Lagrangian dynamical system have an equivalent Hamiltonian description?

Let a Lagrangian dynamical system with $n$ degrees of freedom and configuration space $\mathbb{R}^n$ (i.e. phase space $\mathbb{R}^{2n}$), which is described by $L=L(q_{i},\dot{q}_{i},t)$, $i=1,2,......
2
votes
0answers
49 views

From Boundary to righthandside

I have a problem coming from linear elasticity in $(x,y,z)\in\mathbb{R}^2\times \mathbb{R}^+$, $t\in \mathbb R$: $$\left\{\begin{aligned}\partial_{tt} \sigma&=A(D_x,D_y,D_z) \sigma\\ \sigma\big|...
9
votes
1answer
310 views

Ping-pong progress through a quincunx

A quincunx or Galton board consists of staggered pegs from which ping-pong balls bounce and eventually display a binomial / normal distribution in catch-bins. I am wondering if the downward progress ...
21
votes
1answer
883 views

Why are Lagrangian submanifolds called Lagrangian?

Much of the terminology in symplectic geometry comes from classical mechanics: the symplectic manifold is modeled on a cotangent bundle $T^*N$ of some configuration space $N$ with local position ...
17
votes
2answers
411 views

Construction of an optimal electron cage

I will describe the question first in 2D, but my interest is in $\mathbb{R}^3$. An electron $x$ will shoot from the origin along an initial vector $v$. You know the speed $|v|$ but not the direction. ...
3
votes
0answers
81 views

Is there any connection between Lagrange points and the icosahedron?

Given the Newtonian two-body problem, one can ask if there are any orbits that allow a test particle to maintain a fixed configuration relative to the two bodies. In other words, in a frame that ...
1
vote
0answers
31 views

The isotropy group for the Euler-Lagrange vector-fields

Let $Q$ be a manifold, and let $X_{EL}$ be a second order vector-field on $TQ$ derived from the Euler-Lagrange equation, $$ \frac{d}{dt} \left( \frac{\partial L}{\partial \dot{q} } \right) - \frac{ \...
4
votes
0answers
227 views

A soft question on Gauge Equivalence in Integrable Systems

I have a question about two well-known spectral problems in Integrable Systems. These are the Dirac and the ZS-AKNS spectral problems. They are are known to be gauge equivalent (please see equations (...
1
vote
1answer
86 views

One problem about tower stability [closed]

Some years ago i asked myself a question that I still can not answer. Here it is: A given tower consists of finite homogeneous cubic blocks staying one on another and equal to each other. What is ...
4
votes
0answers
77 views

Dynamics of pairwise distances in the $n$-body problem

Disclaimer: I have asked this question on Physics SE a week ago, but got no answers. I know that some MO users are interested in the $n$-body problem, so I decided to cross post here as well. ...
0
votes
1answer
64 views

underdamped oscillation with quadratic decay

I know that for a 2nd order linear differential equation system, there are 3 possible scenarios: over-damped, critically damped and underdamped. For the underdamped case the solutions are of the form: ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Derivative of eigenvectors of a matrix with respect to its components

Suppose that $B$ is a real, positive-definitive symmetric ($3\times3$) matrix (more accurately, $B$ is a tensor) with distinct eigenvalues, and that we can write it as $$ B= \sum_{i=1}^3 \lambda_{i}(...
8
votes
2answers
273 views

Poisson structures on non-smooth manifolds with singularities

It's very known how we can describe a Poisson structure on a manifold $M$, where $M$ is a smooth manifold, but what about a Non-smooth manifold with singularities? In section $(2)$ of the paper The ...
7
votes
0answers
357 views

Question about theorem in Arnold's book on action-angles variables

I have a question about the action-angle theorem on p. 283 in Arnold's textbook on classical mechanics.(I added the link to this book in the last part of this question) If you don't have the book or ...
3
votes
1answer
198 views

Local symplectomorphisms become global ones?

It is widely known that a local diffeomorphism is not necessarily a global diffeomosphism and so on. Now, I stumbled over the question whether in some particular cases, as I will describe below, ...
27
votes
4answers
2k views

Stability of the Solar System

Is the Solar System stable? You can see this Wikipedia page. In May 2015 I was at the conference of Cedric Villani at Sharif university of technology with this title: "Of planets, stars and ...
2
votes
0answers
732 views

Proof of Arnold-Liouville theorem in classical mechanics [closed]

I am currently reading Arnold's book "Mathematical Methods of classical mechanics" on page 278 and I don't see through his arguments there at a point. Especially, I am talking about the part that ...
7
votes
0answers
136 views

Kinematics of rolling knots

It is well known that there are trefoil knots without tritangent planes, and with 3d printers one can print these beautiful objects and make them roll on planes. (An example:https://www.youtube.com/...
0
votes
1answer
154 views

Lagrangian flow preserves symplectic form

Let $X$ be a configuration space and $L: TX \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ a Lagrangian. Then I want to show that the Lagrangian flow $F^t(x(0),x'(0)) = (x(t),x'(t))$ preserves the symplectic form just like ...
5
votes
2answers
522 views

Momentum a cotangent vector

Apparently one identifies the configuration space in physics often with a manifold $M$. The tangent bundle $TM$ is then the space of all possible positions and velocities. Furthermore, many sources ...
3
votes
0answers
105 views

Motivation for the existence of periodic solutions [closed]

I have been reading the book Critical Point Theory and Hamiltonian System by Mawhin and Willem, as well as several other papers on the existence of periodic solutions for equations of the form $$\ddot{...
15
votes
2answers
5k views

*The* open problem in General Relativity?

Q. Is there a single, clear mathematical question that has emerged as the open problem in General Relativity? I ask this on the ~100th anniversary of Einstein's (4-page!) 1915 paper, "Die ...
3
votes
0answers
155 views

Dynamics of electrons on a sphere

Suppose one place $n$ electrons closely surrounding the north pole of a sphere, forming a perfect planar regular $n$-gon:           Q1. What will happen if the electrons ...
2
votes
1answer
239 views

Invariance of the Noether charge

The paper http://epubs.siam.org/doi/abs/10.1137/1023098 (Generalizations of Noether’s Theorem in Classical Mechanics, by Willy Sarlet and Frans Cantrijn) mentions "an interesting property of the ...
1
vote
0answers
109 views

Shortest rope to capture a sphere of diameter 1 [duplicate]

I have a perfect rigid sphere of diameter 1. I have infinite supply of rope. The rope is infinitely flexible and can be cut or glued without losing or adding length. The rope can be glued at any ...
15
votes
4answers
583 views

Orthogonal mud cracks and Maxwell's reciprocal figures

Is there a succinct mathematical/physical explanation of why mud cracks tend to meet orthogonally?                     Wikipedia image in this ...
4
votes
1answer
134 views

Stable equilibria of points on the 2-sphere

Suppose $n$ points lie on the sphere $S^2=\{x\in\mathbb{R}^3\mid \|x\|=1\}$ and are subjected to a repulsive acceleration that pushes away a point from each other point with an intensity proportional ...
2
votes
0answers
151 views

Nature of separatrix in Fokker--Planck Hamiltonian with two degrees of freedom

Background The semiclassical (weak noise, small $D$) limit of the Fokker--Planck equation $$\frac{\partial P}{\partial t}=D\frac{\partial^2 P}{\partial x^2}-\frac{\partial}{\partial x}(v(x) P)$$ can ...
3
votes
1answer
223 views

Weinstein's local classification of Lagrangian foliations

In the paper "Symplectic manifolds and their Lagrangian submanifolds", Weinstein showed that locally all the Lagrangian foliations are symplectomorhic to the fiber foliation of a cotangent bundle. I ...
3
votes
0answers
107 views

A taut string of equilateral triangles

Let $T$ be a unit edge-length equilateral triangle composed of three cylinders each of (small) radius $r>0$. (By "small" I mean approximately $< 0.1$.) Think of $T$ as a physical, rigid triangle,...
4
votes
1answer
316 views

Find a maximizing solution to an ODE which depends on a paramater function

(For the physical meaning of this problem see https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/122818/how-should-i-throttle-my-rocket-to-reach-highest-altitude). Given $g \in (0,\infty), k \in C^1( [0, \...