# Questions tagged [perturbation-theory]

The perturbation-theory tag has no usage guidance.

103
questions

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### How to get perturbation bounds of singular vectors

Let an adjacency matrix $A={A^\top}\in {\mathbb{R}^{n \times n}}$ (a binary matrix) of a simple undirected graph and its degree matrix $D$ be given.
When adding $Q$ edges into the graph, which is ...

2
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0
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110
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### Linear elliptic problems: Are gradient estimates preserved after perturbation?

(This question is a duplicate from here)
We start with the linear elliptic PDE
$$
-\operatorname{div}(A\nabla u)=f \quad\text{in}\ \Omega,\\
u=0 \quad\text{on}\ \partial\Omega
$$
We assume that $\...

1
vote

0
answers

92
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### Schrödinger equation approximation – continuity of eigenvalues with respect to potential

The question has been crossposted from Stackexchange after receiving no answers.
Setup: the time-independent Schrödinger equation (eigenvalue problem):
$(-\frac{\hbar^2}{2m}\Delta +V)\psi = E\psi$
(On ...

6
votes

3
answers

636
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### How do I solve the following definite integral (preferably by an asymptotic method)?

$$ \int_{1}^{\infty} \frac{\sin^2 (\mu \sqrt{x^2 -1})}{(x+1)^{\frac{9}{2}} (x-1)^{\frac{3}{2}}} \,dx $$
Note: $\mu$ here is an extremely small constant.
I have tried:
Estimating the integral by ...

0
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0
answers

68
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### Stability of a special singular perturbation problem

Let $f:\mathbb{R}^n\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ be a lower bounded smooth function, i.e., $\inf_{x\in\mathbb{R}^n} f(x)>-\infty$. Consider the following singular perturbation problem:
$$\begin{cases}\dot{...

4
votes

1
answer

100
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### Uniform decay of operator norm for smooth family of operators

Let $\mathscr{H}$ be a Hilbert space and let $\mathbb{R} \to B(\mathscr{H}), r \mapsto S_r$ be a continuous (or smooth) family of operators, where $B(\mathscr{H})$ is the space of bounded operators on ...

0
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### Hopf normal form of 2D system – How to calculate parameter $\beta$?

In the Scholarpedia article on the Hopf bifurcation, it is discussed that any generic (nondegeneracy and transversality) 2D system exhibiting a Hopf bifurcation has a locally topologically equivalent ...

7
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2
answers

207
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### Finding $\theta$ such that at least one eigenvalue of $A(\theta)$ is real

Is there a known method to find a set of $\theta$ such that at least one eigenvalue of $A(\theta)$ is purely real?
Assume $A(\theta)$ is a real square matrix whose elements are linear functions of a ...

0
votes

1
answer

166
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### Local differentiability of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a real symmetric matrix

Let $A(x)\in\mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$ be a real symmetric matrix depending on the point $x\in\mathbb{R}^n$, where the eigenvalues are not necessarily simple. Can we say that for all $x$ there exists an ...

0
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120
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### Could variable be still function in x and y after performing Reynolds averaging over area

All,
Let $S(x,y,t)$ be a variable function in $x$, $y$, and $t$. After
performing Reynold averaging over area $\frac{1}{A}\int S(x,y,t) dA$, could $S$ still be a function in $x$, and $y$?
Equations (1-...

4
votes

1
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215
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### Asymptotics of integral representation of distribution

I initially posted this question at MSE (here), but I have gotten no response, so I figured I would ask it to this community.
Background: I am studying the PDE $$\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,i\partial_t \...

2
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0
answers

124
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### Choosing the derivative of a flow

I am looking for something like the Franks' Lemma for flows. The celebrated Franks' Lemma states that: Let $f:M \rightarrow M$ be a $C^1$ diffeomorphism and $S=\{p_1,...,p_k\}$ be a finite set of ...

5
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80
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### Is there an infinite combinatorics of common transseries expansions?

By now there is a rich understanding of generating functions in combinatorics, and the way that operations in power series are 'shadows' of richer constructions on combinatorial objects. This lifting ...

0
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38
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### Small perturbation to a commuting family of hermitian matrices will hurt the nice properties?

Let $A_1, \dotsc A_N$ be a collection of finite Hermitian matrices that commute with one another and all have the matrix $2$-norm as $1$. Here $N$ is large but fixed.
Then, they are simultaneously ...

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111
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### Perturbation theory for $UV^*$ in singular value decomposition

There is a fair amount of research into perturbation theory for singular value decompositions (e.g. Liu et al's 'First-Order Perturbation Analysis of Singular Vectors
in Singular Value Decomposition' ...

2
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1
answer

71
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### Bounding eigenvalue/eigenspace perturbations for hermitian matrices

Let $H$ be a Hermitian $n \times n$ matrix. Let $V$ be another such matrix.
For real $t$, let us consider the one-parameter family
$$ H(t) = H + t V$$
of Hermitian matrices.
Kato's perturbation theory ...

2
votes

0
answers

125
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### Is there a generalisation of this perturbation result about rank-one modifications of diagonal matrices?

In Theorem 1 of [1] we have the following result: Let $D$ be a real $n \times n$ diagonal matrix and consider the rank-one modification $C = D + \rho z z^T$, where $\rho > 0$ is a real scalar and $...

2
votes

2
answers

255
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### Solution of parabolic partial differential equation using singular perturbation method

Consider the following parabolic partial differential equation (PDE)
\begin{align}
\label{eq:42}
\left(\cos\psi \frac{\partial}{\partial r} + \frac{\gamma}{r} \sin\psi \frac{\partial}{\partial \psi} + ...

0
votes

1
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199
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### Essential spectrum under perturbation

Given a Banach space $X$ and a bounded linear operator $T$ on $X$.
It's well known that the essential spectrum of $T$ is invariant under additive compact perturbation.
My question is about minimal ...

1
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1
answer

279
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### Eigenvalue perturbation under sparse perturbations

Let $A \in \{0,1\}^{n \times n}$ be an irreducible matrix whose entries are in $\{0,1\}$, and let $\lambda_1(A)$ be the eigenvalue with the largest magnitude. By Perron–Frobenius theorem, we know that ...

5
votes

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115
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### Is Sun's spectral variation bound for normal matrices optimal?

In On the variation of the spectrum of a normal matrix, Sun proves the following result (Corollary 1.2):
Let $A$ be an $n$-square normal matrix and $B$ an arbitrary $n$-square matrix. Then $$ \min_{\...

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132
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### Seeking a precedent – two-stage Gaussian integration?

Sometimes, by iteration, linear algebra can be used to solve non-linear equations. For example, consider the system
$$Ax=a \qquad B(x)y=b(x), $$
where $a$ is a vector with scalar entries, $A$ is a ...

1
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2
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794
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### Lipschitz continuity of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of Hermitian matrices

It is well-known that the eigenvalues (in decreasing order) of a Hermitian matrix $A$ are Lipschitz continuous functions of $A$.
Do there exist orthonormal eigenvectors that vary in a Lipschitz ...

3
votes

2
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219
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### Proof (or reference) about $\lambda_i(A+\epsilon e_je_j^*) = \lambda_i(A) + \epsilon |v_{i,j}|^2 + O(\epsilon^2).$

I'm looking for a proof (or a reference in a textbook) about the fact that
$$
\lambda_i(A+\epsilon e_je_j^*) =_{\epsilon \to 0} \lambda_i(A) + \epsilon |v_{i,j}|^2 + O(\epsilon^2),
$$
where $A$ is a ...

0
votes

1
answer

154
views

### Reference for action-angle coordinates [closed]

Does anyone know a good reference to start studying Action-Angle coordinates?
Thank you in advance !

0
votes

1
answer

93
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### Perturbative approach starting from a probability distribution approximated form

I approximate a probability distribution $P_x(x)$ with a $P_x^{app}(x)$,
such that $P_x(x)-P_x^{app}(x) = O(\epsilon)$ uniformly in x, where epsilon is a small positive quantity.
Consider the generic ...

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0
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43
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### Stability in coefficients for the rescaled radiative tranport equation

One form of the radiative transport equation is as follows:
$$ v\cdot \nabla_x u + \left(\epsilon \sigma_a(x) + \frac{1}{\epsilon}\sigma_s(x)\right) u - \frac{1}{\epsilon}\sigma_a(x)\int_{S^{n-1}} p(v,...

1
vote

1
answer

87
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### Sum of positive self-adjoint operator and an imaginary "potential": literature request

To keep things simple, let us consider the following: $L$ is a positive, unbounded S.A. operator on $L_2(\mathbb{R},f(x))$, where $f(x)$ is a Gaussian. Assume that we know the spectrum and ...

0
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### Is a basis that almost diagonalizes a matrix 'close' to its eigenbasis?

Let $A\in\mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$ be diagonalisable (over $\mathbb{C}$) with pairwise distinct eigenvalues $\lambda_1,\ldots,\lambda_n\in\mathbb{C}$, and suppose that
$$\tag{1}S^{-1}\cdot A\cdot S = \...

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1
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### Why should I look at the resolvent formalism and think it is a useful tool for spectral theory?

Wikipedia calls resolvent formalism a useful tool for relating complex analysis to studying the spectra of a linear operator on a Banach space. Sure, I believe you because I've seen results that use ...

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0
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### Perturbation in the equation $u_t=\epsilon Pu$, where $P$ is an elliptic partial differential operator

Let $Pu=\sum_{ij} \partial_j(a_{ij}(x) \partial_{i} u)$ be an elliptic operator. Consider the equation
$$
(u=u_\epsilon)\\
\partial_t u=\epsilon Pu \text{ in } \mathbb R^+ \times \Omega,\\
u(0,x)=u_0(...

0
votes

2
answers

192
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### Convergence of the eigenvector matrix for an analytic perturbation of a singular matrix

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ matrix of all ones. Consider the analytic perturbation of $A$ as $$\tilde{A} = A + \epsilon H_1 + \epsilon^2 H_2 + \epsilon^3 H_3 + ... $$ All matrices are symmetric. Assume $...

3
votes

0
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179
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### How to prove the following linearized operator is positive?

In $L^2(\mathbb{R}^d)$, let $Q$ be the solution to
\begin{equation}
-\Delta Q+\alpha^2 Q = |Q|^{2\sigma} Q,
\end{equation}
and $Q$ satisfies that it is positive, radial, and exponentially decaying (...

1
vote

1
answer

143
views

### Perturbation of the value of a general-sum game at a equilibirium

Consider a general-sum game with $N$ players. Let $u_i(a_1, \ldots, a_N)\colon \prod_{i=1}^N A_i \rightarrow \mathbb{R} $ be the payoff of the player $i\in \{ 1, \ldots, N \}$ when each player takes ...

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0
answers

57
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### Two-variable singular perturbation analysis

I am having difficulty with a two-variable singular perturbation analysis on a set of ODE's. The key difficulty is also present in the following, embarrassingly simple problem:
If $x\sim \mathcal{O}(...

6
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0
answers

220
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### Poking into a Lie group with your finger

I consider this as a differential geometry problem. I have asked some
of my classmates who are more interested in that, and also looked into
some literature, but none of what I've found seems to help.
...

9
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2
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873
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### Can we perturb a map $\mathbb{R}^n \to \mathbb{R}^n$ to have high rank?

Let $\mathbb{D}^n$ be the closed $n$-dimensional unit ball, and let $f:\mathbb{D}^n \to \mathbb{R}^n$ be smooth.
Suppose that $df$ is invertible outside a set of Hausdorff dimension $\le n-1$, and ...

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### A toy model in 0-d QFT

Questions
For any positive integer $r$, compute $$(\frac{d}{dY})^r e^{(Y^2)}| _{Y=0}.$$ The answer should directly relates to a counting problem about Feynman diagrams.
Is there a tutorial for how ...

5
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1
answer

202
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### Can we perturb the Dirichlet boundary conditions to make harmonic maps locally invertible?

While analyzing a variational problem, I came to the following question:
Let $\mathbb D^n \subseteq \mathbb{R}^n$ be the closed $n$-dimensional unit ball, and let $f: \mathbb D^n \to \mathbb{R}^n$ ...

0
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0
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81
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### Coexistence of different solutions in a nonlinear matrix differential equation

I've faced a system of first-order nonlinear matrix differential equation, and I have tried to use perturbation method to approach the solutions.
The differential equation has the form:
\begin{...

7
votes

1
answer

467
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### Understanding Gillman's proof of the Chernoff bound for expander graphs

My question is about the proof of Claim 1 in this paper: Gillman (1993).
At the end of the proof, the author says:
The matrix product $U^\top\sqrt{D^{-1}}(P+(\mathrm{e}^x-1)B(0)-\mu I)\sqrt{D}U$, ...

1
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0
answers

46
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### Perturbations of the eigen/singular directions

Let $A = U_A \Sigma_A V_A^\top$ and $B = U_B \Sigma_B V_B^\top$, and $A+B = U \Sigma V^\top$ be the respective singular vector decompositions.
Is there some known relationship of the form
$$\| U_A ...

2
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1
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626
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### $C^1$ perturbation of diffeomorphism is diffeomorphism?

if $f \in $ diff($M$), where $M$ is manifold, if $C^1$ perturbation $f_{\epsilon} $ of $f$ s.t. $||f_{\epsilon}-f||_{C^1} < \epsilon $.
Can we prove $f_{\epsilon} \in $ diff($M$) if $\epsilon$ is ...

1
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0
answers

100
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### stochastical stable

Given dynamic $f: S^1 \to S^1$ with Lebegue measure $dm$ on $S^1$. Assume it has unique SRB probability measure $\frac{d\mu_f}{dm} dm $. Given left shift space $([-\epsilon, \epsilon]^{\otimes \...

2
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answers

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### Determinant of a rank r perturbation

In the following paper:
Restricted Rank Modification of the Symmetric Eigenvalue Problem: Theoretical Considerations
on page 79, Golub et al. have the following set of equations:
$f(\lambda) = \...

3
votes

1
answer

413
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### Is the kernel of a Fredholm operator stable under perturbation?

This is a follow-up of this question.
In a nutshell: Does the kernel of a bounded operator change "nicely" with the operator?
Let $(X,\| \cdot \|)$ be an infinite-dimensional normed vector space.
...

3
votes

1
answer

92
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### Bounds on $\|(P+\Delta)^n - P^n\|_F$ for stochastic matrices

Let us suppose that $P$ is a stochastic matrix (non-negative matrix with $P \mathbf{1} = \mathbf{1}$).
Let $\Delta$ such that $P + \Delta$ is a stochastic matrix (which means $P + \Delta$ is non-...

5
votes

1
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280
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### Analytic families of compact self-adjoint operators: eigenvalue extension

Suppose that $A(t), t \in \mathbb{R}$, is an analytic family of compact self-adjoint operators on a Hilbert space. The Kato-Rellich theorem says that every non-zero eigenvalue of $A(t)$ splits into ...

2
votes

1
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268
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### Eigenvalue Argument Perturbation

Given two square matrices $A$ and $B$. There are quite some results on the distance between the eigenvalues, e.g.,
$$
| \lambda_A - \lambda_B | \leq \| A - B \|_F,
$$
where $A$ and $B$ are Hermitian ...

5
votes

3
answers

695
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### Perturbation of a stochastic differential equation

Suppose we have the following two stochastic differential equations for $x_0$ and $x$ respectively
\begin{align}
dx_0 &= -k_0(t)(x_0-1)dt+\eta_0(t) x_0\,dB \tag1\\
dx &= -(k_0(t)+\epsilon ...