The calculus-of-variations tag has no usage guidance, but it has a tag wiki.

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### Question on Harmonic maps between Riemannian manifolds

In Theory of harmonic maps, main goal is to find minimum of Dirichlet energy function which is defined as follows:
$$E(f):=\int_M\|df\|dvol_g\qquad f:(M,g)\to(N,h).$$
In many Books such as Calculus ...

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98 views

### Calculus of variations when functional involves inverse of the function

Typically the Euler-Lagrange equations are defined for the functional
$$ J[u] = \int_a^b L(x,u,u') dx. $$
However, I was wondering if anyone knows if they can be solved when the expression involves ...

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### Currents with mean curvature

so let $T=\tau(M,\theta,\xi)$ a rectifiable current in $U\subset\mathbb{R}^{n+k}$, then $T$ has mean curvature vector $H$ if for every $X\in C^1_c(U\setminus\partial T,\mathbb{R}^{n+k})$ the variation ...

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### First variation on double integral [closed]

Currently I am trying to fully understand the paper of munk1921.
In the derivation of the minimum induced drag theorem it is at one point stated (p.378) that in order to minimize drag the following ...

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**1**answer

34 views

### Existence of stationary tangent cones

My question refers to Leon Simon's Book: Geometric Measure Theory, Chapter 42
So let $V\in G_n(U)$ a general Varifold and $\|\delta V\|$ the Total Variation measure. If the density ...

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### decomposition of codim 1 currents

Let $T$ be an codimension one rectifiable mass-minimizing current. If $\partial T\llcorner B_R(a)=0$, then it is possible to write $T$ as an infinite sum of oriented boundaries: $T\llcorner ...

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### Willmore functional

Let $(M^2,g)$ and $(\bar{M},\bar{g})$ be two Riemannian manifolds. Suppose that $\mathcal{W}$ is the Willmore functional on the set of immersion functions from $M^2$ to $\bar{M}$.
We know that ...

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54 views

### Extremal of an L^1 continuous functional on a compact bounded set

Please, I need a small help with a reference.
Lets say we do have a continuous functional $f$ on $L^1$ space and we want to prove the existence of extremals $f(\Omega)$, where $\Omega$ is compact and ...

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327 views

### Euler-Lagrange equations and Bellman's principle of optimality

One method to optimize the integral
$$\int_{\mathcal T} L(t,x,\dot{x}) \; dt $$
of a functional over a curve is the calculus of variations, which leads to ordinary differential equations: the ...

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### Invariant Lagrangians of a connection and its derivatives: how do they look like?

Let
$$
L=L(\Gamma,\partial\Gamma,\ldots,\partial^n\Gamma)
$$
be a Lagrangian depending on a linear symmetric connection $\Gamma$ on the tangent space of a manifold $M$ together with its derivatives up ...

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### Why can every twist map be realized as the time-1 map of a time-dependent Hamiltonian?

if have problems getting my head around the following claim made
by Moser in "Monotone twist mappings and the calculus of variations" and Gole in "Symplectic twist maps".
Setting:
Let $F : ...

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### An extension of Hadamard maximum determinant problem

Consider the Vandermonde product $\prod_{1\le j < k \le n} |z_j - z_k|$. It is well-known that under the constraint $|z_j| \le 1$ for all $j$, the product is maximized at a picket fence ...

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**1**answer

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### Generalized Lax-Milgram for Weak Formulation of 1D Linear Schrodinger

I am interested in the variational formulation of the 1D Schrodinger equation:
$i u_t- \beta u_{xx} = 0 $ and $u(x,0)=u_0(x)$ which upon integration by parts yields:
$i(u_t,v) + \beta (u_x,v_x) = 0$ ...

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### The space of loops as a Banach space [closed]

Let $S$ be the space of all loops in $\mathbb{R}^2$, i.e. all continuous mappings $\gamma:[0,1]\to \mathbb{R}^2$ such that $\gamma(0)=\gamma(1)$. Is there any canonical interpretation of $S$ as a ...

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### Almgren's mimeographed lectures notes on varifolds

I am trying to get some insights for the combinatorial argument of Pitts (in his PhD thesis 'Existence and regularity of minimal surfaces in Riemannian manifolds', Princeton University Press, 1981) to ...

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**1**answer

108 views

### Reference Request: Variational Problem

I want to solve approximately the following variational problem:
Given a function $c:[-1,1]^2\rightarrow [0,1]$, constants $p_1...p_n\in \mathbb{R}^+$, $\alpha_1...\alpha_n\in \mathbb{R}$, and ...

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136 views

### Total absolute variation of brownian motion, with different sampling rates

Let $(B_t)$ be a brownian motion on [0,1]. For the following, let $\omega$ be fixed.
Let's compute the total absolute variation when sampling period = $\delta$ is fixed:
$$V(\delta) = ...

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91 views

### Interchange of integral and infimum

Can anyone please suggest how to justify widely used formula for interchange of integral and infimum:
$
\inf_{u(t)\in U}\int_{t_0}^{t_1}g(t,u(t))dt=\int_{t_0}^{t_1}\inf_{u\in U}g(t,u)dt,
$
where $ ...

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### How can you compute the maximum volume of an envelope(used to enclose a letter)?

It's obvious that the volume of a envelope is 0 when flat and non-0 when you open it up. However, if you were to fill it with liquid, there must be some shape where it has a maximum volume. Is there a ...

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### a variational problem related to weighted logarithmic capacity

Consider the following multiple contour integral:
$$ \oint \ldots \oint \prod_{1 \le j < k \le n} (z_j - z_k) \prod_{j=1}^n \prod_{k=1}^n (1 - z_j x_k)^{-1} \prod_{j=1}^n z_j^{-\lambda_j + j - n ...

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### The term for problems “like” Brachistocrone?

Is there a commonly-accepted umbrella term for infinite-dimensional calculus problems where the goal is to compute an optimal geometric path between a pair of points? Three examples of this would be ...

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172 views

### Is there a reason for different nomenclature on Calculus of Variations?

While sightseeing aspects of Calculus of Variations, the following fact elludes me: there is a plethora of new definitions which seem redundant to me. This phenomenom happens, of course, with other ...

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### Numerical techniques for nonlinear, coupled integro-differential equations

The gist of the problem I have is I want to be able to find a numerical solution to these three coupled, rather unpleasant looking integro-differential equations
(1):
$$ \frac{d^2 x(t)}{dt^2} = ...

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### Well-posedness of gradient flows

For a convex lower-semicontinuous functional on a Hilbert space $I\colon H\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$, it is shown in Evans' PDE that the Hilbert-space-valued ODE
$$\begin{cases}\mathbf{u}'(t)\in-\partial ...

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**1**answer

98 views

### gradient descent in space of functions

Differential equations of the form
$$\frac{d}{dt}\vec{x} = - \nabla E(\vec{x})$$
can be analyzed using phase portrait method. In particular, if the function $E$ (we call it energy) has local minimums, ...

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382 views

### A continuous path between two Sobolev functions

Let $\Omega\subset \mathbb R^N$ be open bounded, smooth boundary. Let $u_1$, $u_2\in H^{1}(\Omega)$ such that $T[u_1]=T[u_2]=T[\omega]$ where $T$ stands for the trace operator and $\omega\in ...

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### Double Integral Equations

In my research I've come across a handful of double integral equations, and I'm nearly at a total loss for how to derive anything useful from such things.
I've been lead to believe that even single ...

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### Questions about the regularity of the “norm” associated to a convex set

Suppose $K\subset \mathbb{R} ^n$ is a closed convex set whose interior contains the origin. We can assign a gauge function to $K$ as $g_{K}(x):=\inf\{\lambda>0 \mid x\in\lambda K\}$. $g_K$ has all ...

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### What is the maximal convex hull in $\mathbb R^3$ of a tree with fixed total length?

Denote by $\mathcal T_n$ the set of all trees on $n$ nodes. For a tree $T\in\mathcal T_n$, we assign to each edge a non-negative length such that the sum of all lengths is 1. Denote by $v(T)$ the ...

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### Methods of variational calculus in analytic number theory

What methods of calculus of variations have been used in analytic number theory?
I mean do Hamilton-Jacobi theory of PDE found usage in analytic number theory, which raises yet another question has ...

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### Closed curve whose neighborhood is as large as possible

Let $C$ be a closed curve in the plane and let $N_\epsilon(C)$ be an $\epsilon$-neighborhood of $C$, like this:
(ignore the fact that the "curve" is polygonal in this picture, I drew it in MATLAB)
...

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### Minimisers and critical points of variational integrals

In the following we consider $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n\ (n\geq2)$ to be open, bounded and with Lipschitz boundary. Consider the following regular variational integral:
\begin{equation*}
...

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307 views

### electron configuration on manifolds

Let $M$ be a Riemannian manifold. For $k\geq 2$, suppose there are $k$ particles whose mass and volume can be regarded as zero and negatively charged with electricity equally. These $k$ particles move ...

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### Existence of at least one positive solution for semilinear biharmonic equation with critical exponent

Let $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^N$, $N\geq 5$. Now assume the biharmonic problem with singular term as follow
\begin{cases} \Delta^2u=\lambda \dfrac{u}{|x|^4}+u^{p} & ...

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### Fair surfaces - general mathematical theory

Fairness measures for surfaces are, in general, functionals containing more complicated terms thatn the usual bending energy, and may depend not only on the mean curvature but also on principal ...

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### Can Mumford-Shah functional be adapted to lower $L^1$ space?

The well know Mumford-Shah functional functional
$$
F(u)=\int_\Omega|\nabla u|^2+\mathcal H^{N-1}(S_u) \tag 1
$$
where $u\in SBV(\Omega)$ and $\nabla u$ is the absolutely continuous part of ...

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### Is this function $u\in SBV(\Omega)$ also belongs to $L^\infty(\Omega)$?

Some early discussion can be found here.
My question:
Let $\Omega\subset \mathbb R^N$ be open bounded with smooth boundary. Also $\mathcal H^{N-1}(\partial\Omega))<\infty$.
Let $u\in ...

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### Nonlinear optimization problem with inequality constraints

Consider a real valued function $g(x_i)=\frac{1}{a_1+ \frac{a_2}{x_i}}, \forall i=\{1,2,3,...,n\}$.
The objective function $H$ is
$H=\sum_{i=1}^{n}\frac {1}{g(x_i)-a_3x_i}$
The optimization ...

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### question about $TGV^2$ space

Let us just stay in $\mathbb R^1$. The space $TGV^k$ is defined as the function $u\in L^1(I)$ and
$$
TGV^k(u,I):=\sup\left\{\int_I u\,\phi^{(k)}\,d\mu, \,\phi\in ...

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### Is this has anything to do with Riesz representation?

The Riesz representation is very useful in study BV space. There is a lot of version of it and one of the good one can be found in this book, page 49.
Here I come up with a question which has similar ...

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**1**answer

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### Constrained optimal control problem

I am trying to solve an optimization problem which is probably reminiscent of optimal control theory but all of this is not exactly my field of expertize and I am a little bit lost in translation. If ...

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### How to modify a SBV convergence sequence to obtain uniform integrability?

Given $\Omega\subset \mathbb R^N$ is open bounded with smooth boundary. Assume $(u_n)\subset SBV(\Omega)$ a sequence of functions such that $u_n\to u_0$ weakly in $SBV$ for some function $u_0\in ...

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### Is it true that for dimension d=3, if $v\in H_0^1(\Omega)$ but $v\notin L_\infty(\Omega)$ then exponent of v or -v is not summable?

I have the following Question:
1) Is it true that
if $\Omega\subset\mathbb R^3$, $\Omega$ - bounded, $v\in H_0^1(\Omega)$ but $v\notin L_\infty(\Omega)$ implies $\int\limits_{\Omega}{e^vdx}=+\infty$ ...

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### How to modify a $H^1$ weak convergence sequence so that I have the $L^2$ equi-integrability of gradient?

Assume $u_n\to u$ weakly in $H^1(\Omega)$ where $\Omega\subset \mathbb R^N$ is open bounded Lipschitz boundary.
My goal is to find a new sequence $\bar u_n$ and a new function $\bar u$ such that
...

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### Which domain maximizes the energy of the Lebesgue measure?

This could be asked in more generality, but let me stick to a concrete case.
Usually one considers a fixed domain $E \subset \mathbb{C}$ and attaches to it the equilibrium probability measure ...

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### Morse index in variational calculus

Let $f(t,x,v)$ be a smooth function on $\mathbb{R}\times \mathbb{R}^n\times \mathbb{R}^n$, $\mathcal{C}_{x,y}$ be the set of smooth paths $c:[0,1]\to \mathbb{R}^n$ with $c(0)=x,c(1)=y$, $E(c)$ be a ...

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115 views

### Lagrangian flow preserves symplectic form

Let $X$ be a configuration space and $L: TX \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ a Lagrangian. Then I want to show that the Lagrangian flow $F^t(x(0),x'(0)) = (x(t),x'(t))$ preserves the symplectic form just like ...

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369 views

### Functional minimization problem

Is there a smooth solution to minimize this:
$$
\int_0^1{x \over {1+k^2f'(x)^2}}dx, f(0)=1, f(1)=0, f'(x)\leq 0, k^2>0.
$$
I could "solve" it using a numeric approximation (my algorithm converged ...

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599 views

### Rigorous justification that overdetermined systems do not have a solution

There is the following well known and very useful heuristic principle: Assume one has a natural map from the space of $k$-tuples of functions in $n$ variables into the space of $K$-tuples of functions ...

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406 views

### A priori estimates for a nonlinear elliptic problem singular on the boundary

Let us consider the following elliptic problem
$$
\begin{cases}
-\Delta u = \frac{u^p}{|x|^2} \mbox{ in } \Omega \\
u >0 \mbox{ in } \Omega \\
u = 0 \mbox{ on } \partial \Omega.
\end{cases}
$$
with ...