Questions tagged [inverse-problems]

Inverse problems involve for example reconstruction of an object based on physical measurements and finding a best model/parameters out of a family given observed data. Typically the corresponding "forward" problems are well-posed and can be solved straightforwardly, while the inverse problems are often ill-posed. Not to be confused with the (inverse) tag.

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Reconstruction of second-order elliptic operator from spectrum

Let $M$ be a compact smooth manifold, $(\lambda_n)_{n=1}^{\infty}$ be a square-summable monotonically increasing sequence of non-negative numbers, and let $(f_k)_{k=1}^{\infty}$ be continuous ...
Math_Newbie's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
75 views

Implicit function theorem / Implicit selections when Jacobian not invertible

I saw the attached result in the book by Dontchev and Rockafellar. It requires the Jacobian to be of full rank m. I suspect this condition can be further relaxed. Assume that we know that the columns ...
Ozzy's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
64 views

Confusion with implementation of PDE constraint Bayesiain inverse problem

Consider a PDE, $$\partial_t u -a \nabla u - ru (1-u) = 0$$ at a given snapshot in time. The inverse problem is to find the diffusion coefficient $a \in L^{\infty}$ from a noisy measurement $$Y = \Phi(...
Jarwin's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
160 views

Domains with discrete Laplace spectrum

Let $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ be a domain. Assume that the Laplacian $-\Delta=-(\partial^2/\partial x_1^2+\cdots+\partial^2/\partial x_n^2)$ has a discrete spectrum on $L^2(\Omega)$ (i.e., we are ...
mmen's user avatar
  • 413
8 votes
1 answer
388 views

Automorphisms of projective spaces, and the Axiom of Choice

It is known that upon not accepting the Axiom of Choice (AC), there exist models of ZF in which there are projective spaces (over a division ring) with a trivial automorphism group. (This is a truly ...
THC's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
62 views

A little question about the derivation of the generalized alternating projection (GAP) algorithm

This question is actually just a question about Euclidean projection. I've been studying some articles on the generalized alternate projection (GAP) algorithm recently, but have a little question ...
anyon's user avatar
  • 131
1 vote
0 answers
58 views

Resconstructing finite planar point sets from projections

What is the smallest length $m$ of a sequence $u_1,\ldots,u_m$ of $d$-dimensional vectors with real entries such that every finite set $X$ of $d$-dimensional vectors with real entries can be ...
Arnold Neumaier's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
110 views

What are the limitations for calculating the inverse of a polynomial with the Lagrange inversion theorem?

I have been attempting to produce a series expression for the roots of high degree polynomial using the Lagrange Inversion theorem. I am curious about the statement from the Wikipedia page on Bring ...
Talmsmen's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
124 views

Functional inverse problem based on a variational principle

I am trying to solve an inverse problem based on variational principle. I will first present a forward problem that is already solved, and then present the inverse problem that I am trying currently ...
can't stop me now's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
84 views

Analytically compare two 3D heatmaps of the brain

I have two heatmaps of a 3D model of the brain, with the color of each pixel being an intensity of the response to a stimulus, and I want to get a metric of how "alike" those two heatmaps ...
Alex Horrillo's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
88 views

Approximating the expectation of trace inverse of random Gaussian combination

Consider a random matrix $A \in \mathbb{R}^{m\times n}$ with i.i.d. entries, with mean zero and variance 1 and $m <n $. Has anyone studied this expectation in asymptotics $$E_{A}(\mathrm{Tr}( (A^T ...
goku's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
113 views

Proving some properties of the Landweber–Fridman iterates

$\newcommand\norm[1]{\lVert#1\rVert}$Let $B\in \mathbb R^{n\times n}$ be a symmetric and positive definite matrix. Assume that $x\in \mathbb R^n$ is the solution of $Bx=w$ for some given $w\in \mathbb ...
user1067171's user avatar
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0 answers
61 views

Alternative to the Sampling Theorem / Invertible transform with sampling criteria

I seek a transform $T$ that operates on real-valued $x(t)$, that Is perfectly invertible Has discrete counterpart with continuous reconstructor Provides conditional reconstruction guarantees ...
OverLordGoldDragon's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
129 views

Non-Fourier complete orthogonal basis?

The Fourier Transform (FT) Is orthogonal: inner product of one basis, $e^{j\omega_0}$, with any other basis, $e^{j\omega_1}$, is zero Is invertible: info-preserving, has inverse function Is energy-...
OverLordGoldDragon's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
39 views

Identity principle of solutions of SL-problems with matching values on open set

Situation (cut short): Corresponding solutions (by eigenvalue) of two given regular Sturm-Liouville problems with homogeneous Neumann BC, same spectrum but possibly distinct coefficient functions, &...
stewori's user avatar
  • 183
1 vote
1 answer
97 views

Bayesian inverse problems on non-separable Banach spaces

I am now studying Bayesian inverse problems. In the note of Dashti and Stuart https://arxiv.org/abs/1302.6989, they mentioned that "... when considering a non-separable Banach space $B$, it is ...
T. Huynh's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
41 views

Second-order envelope theorem for linear programming

Consider parameterized linear programming $V(\theta) = \max_x \langle c(\theta),x\rangle$ s.t. $A(\theta)x\leq b(\theta)$, $x\geq 0$. Let's also assume $c,A,b$ are infinitely differentiable with ...
Yining Wang's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
53 views

Stable deconvolution of a band-limited function from its convolution with a Gaussian

Suppose that $f : \mathbb R \to \mathbb C$ is a band-limited function, i.e. its Fourier transform $\hat f$ has support in a compact interval $[-a,a]$. Let $\phi(t) = e^{-\frac{t^2}{2\sigma^2}}$ be a ...
J. Swail's user avatar
  • 349
5 votes
0 answers
193 views

Where to locate $0\in \Omega$ to get $u_{\varepsilon}(0)\neq 0$ where $\Delta u_{\varepsilon} + (\lambda-\varepsilon) u_{\varepsilon} = \frac{1}{|x|}$

Let $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^3$ a smooth bounded domain with $0\in \Omega$ and $u_\varepsilon(x)$ the solution to $$ \Delta u_\varepsilon + (\lambda-\varepsilon) u_\varepsilon = \frac{1}{|x|}\quad \...
Jonas's user avatar
  • 241
3 votes
0 answers
114 views

Inverse Laplace transform through contour integration

How can I prove that in formal way, this function doesn't have inverse Laplace transform. $$ F(s)=\frac{\sin(s)}{\sqrt{s}} $$ Strictly it should be in Bromwich contour method. Could you please tell ...
meli0das's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
128 views

Geometrical interpretation of back projection operator or adjoint of Radon transform

If $f \in C_{c}^{\infty}\left(\mathbb{R}^{2}\right)$, the Radon transform of $f$ is the function $$R f(s, \omega):=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} f\left(s \omega+t \omega^{\perp}\right) d t, \quad s \in \...
Curious student's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
134 views

On the equation $[U, V] - V_x = C(x)$

While considering the zero curvature equation $U_t - V_x + [U, V] = 0$, I developed a similar problem, albeit one that discards time dependence entirely. For a given $U(x)$ and $C(x)$, find $V(x)$ ...
Talmsmen's user avatar
  • 577
2 votes
1 answer
77 views

How to find $\nabla u\cdot \nu|_{B(0,1)} $ where $u$ is solution of given conductivity equation?

I have encountered the following problem. Let $\chi:=\chi_{B(0,1/2)}$ be characteristics function i.e it take $1$ if $x\in B(0,1/2)$ otherwise $0$. $\nabla\cdot ((1+\chi_{B(0,1/2)})\nabla u )=0 $ in $...
Curious student's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
37 views

Reference request: diffusion approximation to the radiative transport

I'm looking for a good, modern reference for the diffusion approximation to the radiative transport problem. I'm aware of the text of Dautray and Lions, as well as the monograph by Bensoussan, Lions, ...
Phil's user avatar
  • 123
2 votes
1 answer
156 views

Is Sommerfeld radiation condition invariant under translations?

A smooth function $U:\mathbb{R}^3\setminus B_{r_0}(0)\to\mathbb{C}$ (for some $r_0>0$) satisfies the Sommerfeld Radiation Condition with index $k$, denoted $U\in \texttt{SRC}$, whenever $$ \lim_{r\...
GG1's user avatar
  • 126
2 votes
1 answer
203 views

Radon transform range theorem and radial functions

(UPDATED for rapid decay considerations + new question) In dimension 2, the Radon transform range theorem states that a rapidly decaying (Schwartz) function $g(t,\theta)$ can be represented as a ...
phaedo's user avatar
  • 123
4 votes
1 answer
306 views

Optimal transport: find cost function given observed transport

Could you advise me please on what to read on the "inverse" problem: suppose I have a source measure, a target measure and I observe the solution to optimal transport problem -- can I "back out" the ...
Sergey Egiev's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
112 views

Radon transform on complex Grassmannians

Let $Gr_{i,n}$ denote the Grassmannian of complex linear $i$-dimensional subspaces in the Hermitian space $\mathbb{C}^n$. Let $1\leq i<n/2$. Consider the Radon transform between space of functions ...
asv's user avatar
  • 20.4k
4 votes
1 answer
182 views

Interesting questions for inverse parabolic problems

I'm looking for some interesting questions and maybe open problems in inverse problems theory, especially in the framework of parabolic PDEs (basically the heat equation). As key words here we can ...
S. Maths's user avatar
  • 561
4 votes
1 answer
290 views

Given convex l.s.c. function $f$, find decreasing convex function $\phi$ such that $f(x) \equiv \sup_y x\phi(y)-\phi(-y)$

Let $f: \mathbb R \rightarrow (-\infty,+\infty]$ be a lower-semicontinuous convex function. Question Under what futher conditions does there exists a convex decreasing function $\phi: \mathbb R \...
dohmatob's user avatar
  • 6,466
52 votes
1 answer
5k views

Mathematics of imaging the black hole

The first ever black hole was "pictured" recently, per an announcement made on 10th April, 2019. See for example: https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-47873592 . It has been claimed that ...
Piyush Grover's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
287 views

Can a bijection between function spaces be continuous if the space's domains are different?

It is well-known that any bijection $\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^2$ cannot be continuous. But suppose we have the two spaces $A = \{f(x):\mathbb{R^2}\rightarrow \mathbb{R} \}$ and $B = \{f(x):\...
Joe's user avatar
  • 585
1 vote
0 answers
69 views

Kernel of Radon transform in $\mathbb{R}^3$

Consider the Radon transform from the space of functions on the manifold of affine lines in $\mathbb{R}^3$ to functions on the manifold of affine 2-planes in $\mathbb{R}^3$: $$(Rf)(H):=\int_{l\subset ...
asv's user avatar
  • 20.4k
17 votes
1 answer
612 views

An explicit reconstruction of a matrix from its minors

$\newcommand{\End}{\operatorname{End}}$ $\newcommand{\GL}{\operatorname{GL}}$ $\newcommand{\Cof}{\operatorname{cof}}$ Let $V$ be a $d$-dimensional real vector space. ($d \ge 4$). Fix an odd integer $...
Asaf Shachar's user avatar
  • 6,571
11 votes
3 answers
623 views

Which matrices can be realized as the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map for a given domain?

Consider Poisson equation $\nabla \cdot (\sigma(x)\nabla u)=0$ in a domain $D$, where $\sigma(x)$ is the spatially dependent conductivity. On the boundary we have $n$ electrodes (Dirichlet BC $u=\text{...
badmf's user avatar
  • 542
3 votes
1 answer
251 views

Reconstructing the Green's function of an initial-value problem of partial differential equation

Consider a partial differential equation that is of the following form: \begin{equation} (-\partial_x^2+g(x))f(x, t)=i\partial_tf(x, t) \end{equation} where $g(x)$ is a real function. Suppose that $f(...
Mr. Gentleman's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
198 views

How to numerically invert a bilateral (two-sided) Laplace transform?

For one-sided Laplace transforms I can find many algorithms to invert them numerically (e.g. algorithms named after: Talbot, Stehfest, Euler, ...). However, I am interested in numerical inversion of ...
David's user avatar
  • 1
6 votes
3 answers
449 views

Reference Request - Recovering a function from its definite integrals (inverse problem)

I'm having a difficult time finding any theory on an inverse problem I've come up against. Let's say I have an unknown function $f:[0,1] \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, and I know $\int_{a}^{b} f$ for some ...
Joseph Granata's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
116 views

How often does the gradient of a solution to elliptic equation vanish on the boundary?

This question is motivated by an inverse coefficient problem, for which it is useful to find solutions to a particular PDE so that the gradient of the solution does not vanish at all, or at least too ...
Tommi's user avatar
  • 628
1 vote
1 answer
139 views

inverse interpolation

Given data points $(x_i,y_i)\in \mathbb{R}^m\times \mathbb{R}^n$ with $n>m$ satisfying $y_i=f (x_i)$ with a sufficiently smooth injective unknown function $f:\mathbb{R}^m\rightarrow \mathbb{R}^n$ ...
user35593's user avatar
  • 2,276
3 votes
1 answer
205 views

Is there an English translation of Hadamard's classic French paper on well-posed problems?

This paper by Hadamard is often cited as being the source of the definition of well-posed and ill-posed problems. However, it is in French so I cannot verify that claim. Is there an English ...
rhombidodecahedron's user avatar
15 votes
1 answer
1k views

Is $\delta(df \wedge df)=0$ an Euler-Lagrange equation?

$\newcommand{\id}{\operatorname{Id}}$ $\newcommand{\TM}{\operatorname{TM}}$ $\newcommand{\Hom}{\operatorname{Hom}}$ $\newcommand{\M}{\mathcal{M}}$ $\newcommand{\N}{\mathcal{N}}$ $\newcommand{\tr}{\...
Asaf Shachar's user avatar
  • 6,571
0 votes
1 answer
141 views

Solution of Poisson equation vanishing at the boundary of any order

Let $f$ be a compactly supported function in $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^3$ and $\Delta u=f$ in $\Omega$ such that $D^{\alpha}u=0$ on $\partial \Omega$ for every multi-index $\alpha$ with $|\alpha| \...
Matchmaticians's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
113 views

On the Integration and Manipulation of Expressions Involving Hypergeometric Functions

I would like to ask the following two: For the integral: \begin{equation} \int_{0}^{t}\left( 1-s^p \right)^{\frac{1-p}{p}}ds \end{equation} I know that it is reduced to the following product ...
Bazinga's user avatar
  • 111
3 votes
1 answer
540 views

Is this result on an unconstrained inverse quadratic programming problem new or known already?

Is this problem and solution actually new, or has someone done this earlier? The details can be found in the preprint: arxiv:1701.01477. Let us consider a direct quadratic programming problem: $$ \...
Evgeniy Abramov's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
810 views

Approximating Uniform Distribution with Mixture of Gaussians

Let $T$ be a compact, connected, proper subset of $\mathbb{R}^3:\quad T \subset \mathbb{R}^3$. Further let $\left\{ \boldsymbol{\mu}_i \right\}_{i=1}^n$ be a given finite set of $n$ point in $T$: $$ \...
aberdysh's user avatar
  • 181
4 votes
0 answers
411 views

A question in inverse Galois Theory

Let $\mathbb{G}= \{g_1,\cdots,g_n\}$ be a finite group ,$\rho$ be the regular representation. Let $x_1,\cdots,x_n$ be indeterminates and let $x = (x_1,\cdots,x_n)^\top$. Let the matrix $G$ be defined ...
user avatar
12 votes
3 answers
677 views

How to find Suleimanova's work on the Nonnegative Inverse Eigenvalue Problem?

Many papers cite the work of Suleimanova when studying inverse eigenvalue problems - in particular, the nonnegative inverse eigenvalue problem (NIEP). However, I cannot seem to find her work anywhere....
Jeremy Lin's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
225 views

Are inverse eigenvalue problems (IEPs) hopeless and not a fruitful area of research?

I've been studying IEPs, in particular, the Nonnegative Inverse Eigenvalue Problem, some basic theoretical framework, the many open questions that IEPs have, and now sort of realize the computational ...
User001's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
254 views

Question related to Galois covering of Projective line over rational numbers

Suppose that we have Galois covering $$X\longrightarrow P^{1}_{\mathbb{Q}}$$ defined over the rationals which is cyclic, in the sense that the Galois group associated to the covering is a cyclic group....
Tensor_Product's user avatar