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Questions tagged [inverse-problems]

Inverse problems involve for example reconstruction of an object based on physical measurements and finding a best model/parameters out of a family given observed data. Typically the corresponding "forward" problems are well-posed and can be solved straightforwardly, while the inverse problems are often ill-posed. Not to be confused with the (inverse) tag.

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Inverse Galois problem for G with a derived sequence of length 2

For a finite group G with a derived sequence of length 2, please tell me how to specifically construct a field that is a Galois extension of $\mathbb{Q}$ and whose Galois group is G. I made some edits ...
mathle's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
137 views

Is the real and imaginary part of the Dirichlet eta function invertible when viewed as single variable function?

If we examine $\Re(\eta(\alpha + \beta i))$ as a function of $\alpha$ or only $\beta$ is $\eta$ invertible? That is, if we define that map $J:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ as \begin{equation}\...
The potato eater's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
48 views

How can we calculate the Euler-lagrange equations?

In this paper https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.09605.pdf \ let $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ with $n \geq 1$ be a bounded Lipschitz domain with boundary $\partial \Omega$, $f: \Omega \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ ...
Mohamed's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
34 views

What is the impact of individual estimate on each other in matrix inversion?

I am looking to understand the impact of each estimate on each other in matrix inversion. Lets say I have a vector $A = \left[a_1, a_2 \right]^T$ of size $2 \times 1$ and $a_1$ and $a_2$ are related ...
Sagar's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
78 views

Recovering a binary function on a lattice by studying its sum along closed walks

I recently posted this question on MSE. While it attracted interest, no answers were submitted, so I thought to try and post it here. I have a binary function $f:\mathbb N^2\rightarrow\{0,1\}$. While ...
GSofer's user avatar
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0 answers
118 views

Is there any sufficient or equivalent condition for the invertibility of a regular map, i.e. a self map of $\mathbb{R}^m$ with polynomial components?

Let $P:\mathbb{R}^m\to \mathbb{R}^m$ be a regular map, i.e. a map whose components are polynomials. I was wondering whether we can say anything about the the component polynomials, their degrees or ...
Learning math's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
478 views

Reconstruction of second-order elliptic operator from spectrum

Let $M$ be a compact smooth manifold, $(\lambda_n)_{n=1}^{\infty}$ be a square-summable monotonically increasing sequence of non-negative numbers, and let $(f_k)_{k=1}^{\infty}$ be continuous ...
Math_Newbie's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
104 views

Implicit function theorem / Implicit selections when Jacobian not invertible

I saw the attached result in the book by Dontchev and Rockafellar. It requires the Jacobian to be of full rank m. I suspect this condition can be further relaxed. Assume that we know that the columns ...
Ozzy's user avatar
  • 383
3 votes
0 answers
69 views

Confusion with implementation of PDE constraint Bayesiain inverse problem

Consider a PDE, $$\partial_t u -a \nabla u - ru (1-u) = 0$$ at a given snapshot in time. The inverse problem is to find the diffusion coefficient $a \in L^{\infty}$ from a noisy measurement $$Y = \Phi(...
Jarwin's user avatar
  • 81
5 votes
1 answer
209 views

Domains with discrete Laplace spectrum

Let $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ be a domain. Assume that the Laplacian $-\Delta=-(\partial^2/\partial x_1^2+\cdots+\partial^2/\partial x_n^2)$ has a discrete spectrum on $L^2(\Omega)$ (i.e., we are ...
mmen's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
433 views

Automorphisms of projective spaces, and the Axiom of Choice

It is known that upon not accepting the Axiom of Choice (AC), there exist models of ZF in which there are projective spaces (over a division ring) with a trivial automorphism group. (This is a truly ...
THC's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
58 views

Resconstructing finite planar point sets from projections

What is the smallest length $m$ of a sequence $u_1,\ldots,u_m$ of $d$-dimensional vectors with real entries such that every finite set $X$ of $d$-dimensional vectors with real entries can be ...
Arnold Neumaier's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
130 views

What are the limitations for calculating the inverse of a polynomial with the Lagrange inversion theorem?

I have been attempting to produce a series expression for the roots of high degree polynomial using the Lagrange Inversion theorem. I am curious about the statement from the Wikipedia page on Bring ...
Talmsmen's user avatar
  • 547
5 votes
0 answers
133 views

Functional inverse problem based on a variational principle

I am trying to solve an inverse problem based on variational principle. I will first present a forward problem that is already solved, and then present the inverse problem that I am trying currently ...
can't stop me now's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
97 views

Analytically compare two 3D heatmaps of the brain

I have two heatmaps of a 3D model of the brain, with the color of each pixel being an intensity of the response to a stimulus, and I want to get a metric of how "alike" those two heatmaps ...
Alex Horrillo's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
99 views

Approximating the expectation of trace inverse of random Gaussian combination

Consider a random matrix $A \in \mathbb{R}^{m\times n}$ with i.i.d. entries, with mean zero and variance 1 and $m <n $. Has anyone studied this expectation in asymptotics $$E_{A}(\mathrm{Tr}( (A^T ...
goku's user avatar
  • 25
2 votes
0 answers
121 views

Proving some properties of the Landweber–Fridman iterates

$\newcommand\norm[1]{\lVert#1\rVert}$Let $B\in \mathbb R^{n\times n}$ be a symmetric and positive definite matrix. Assume that $x\in \mathbb R^n$ is the solution of $Bx=w$ for some given $w\in \mathbb ...
user1067171's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
70 views

Alternative to the Sampling Theorem / Invertible transform with sampling criteria

I seek a transform $T$ that operates on real-valued $x(t)$, that Is perfectly invertible Has discrete counterpart with continuous reconstructor Provides conditional reconstruction guarantees ...
OverLordGoldDragon's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
217 views

Non-Fourier complete orthogonal basis?

The Fourier Transform (FT) Is orthogonal: inner product of one basis, $e^{j\omega_0}$, with any other basis, $e^{j\omega_1}$, is zero Is invertible: info-preserving, has inverse function Is energy-...
OverLordGoldDragon's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
42 views

Identity principle of solutions of SL-problems with matching values on open set

Situation (cut short): Corresponding solutions (by eigenvalue) of two given regular Sturm-Liouville problems with homogeneous Neumann BC, same spectrum but possibly distinct coefficient functions, &...
stewori's user avatar
  • 183
1 vote
1 answer
117 views

Bayesian inverse problems on non-separable Banach spaces

I am now studying Bayesian inverse problems. In the note of Dashti and Stuart https://arxiv.org/abs/1302.6989, they mentioned that "... when considering a non-separable Banach space $B$, it is ...
T. Huynh's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
51 views

Second-order envelope theorem for linear programming

Consider parameterized linear programming $V(\theta) = \max_x \langle c(\theta),x\rangle$ s.t. $A(\theta)x\leq b(\theta)$, $x\geq 0$. Let's also assume $c,A,b$ are infinitely differentiable with ...
Yining Wang's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
61 views

Stable deconvolution of a band-limited function from its convolution with a Gaussian

Suppose that $f : \mathbb R \to \mathbb C$ is a band-limited function, i.e. its Fourier transform $\hat f$ has support in a compact interval $[-a,a]$. Let $\phi(t) = e^{-\frac{t^2}{2\sigma^2}}$ be a ...
J. Swail's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
197 views

Where to locate $0\in \Omega$ to get $u_{\varepsilon}(0)\neq 0$ where $\Delta u_{\varepsilon} + (\lambda-\varepsilon) u_{\varepsilon} = \frac{1}{|x|}$

Let $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^3$ a smooth bounded domain with $0\in \Omega$ and $u_\varepsilon(x)$ the solution to $$ \Delta u_\varepsilon + (\lambda-\varepsilon) u_\varepsilon = \frac{1}{|x|}\quad \...
Jonas's user avatar
  • 241
3 votes
0 answers
126 views

Inverse Laplace transform through contour integration

How can I prove that in formal way, this function doesn't have inverse Laplace transform. $$ F(s)=\frac{\sin(s)}{\sqrt{s}} $$ Strictly it should be in Bromwich contour method. Could you please tell ...
meli0das's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
165 views

Geometrical interpretation of back projection operator or adjoint of Radon transform

If $f \in C_{c}^{\infty}\left(\mathbb{R}^{2}\right)$, the Radon transform of $f$ is the function $$R f(s, \omega):=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} f\left(s \omega+t \omega^{\perp}\right) d t, \quad s \in \...
Curious student's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
141 views

On the equation $[U, V] - V_x = C(x)$

While considering the zero curvature equation $U_t - V_x + [U, V] = 0$, I developed a similar problem, albeit one that discards time dependence entirely. For a given $U(x)$ and $C(x)$, find $V(x)$ ...
Talmsmen's user avatar
  • 547
2 votes
1 answer
84 views

How to find $\nabla u\cdot \nu|_{B(0,1)} $ where $u$ is solution of given conductivity equation?

I have encountered the following problem. Let $\chi:=\chi_{B(0,1/2)}$ be characteristics function i.e it take $1$ if $x\in B(0,1/2)$ otherwise $0$. $\nabla\cdot ((1+\chi_{B(0,1/2)})\nabla u )=0 $ in $...
Curious student's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
39 views

Reference request: diffusion approximation to the radiative transport

I'm looking for a good, modern reference for the diffusion approximation to the radiative transport problem. I'm aware of the text of Dautray and Lions, as well as the monograph by Bensoussan, Lions, ...
Phil's user avatar
  • 123
2 votes
1 answer
162 views

Is Sommerfeld radiation condition invariant under translations?

A smooth function $U:\mathbb{R}^3\setminus B_{r_0}(0)\to\mathbb{C}$ (for some $r_0>0$) satisfies the Sommerfeld Radiation Condition with index $k$, denoted $U\in \texttt{SRC}$, whenever $$ \lim_{r\...
GG1's user avatar
  • 126
2 votes
1 answer
246 views

Radon transform range theorem and radial functions

(UPDATED for rapid decay considerations + new question) In dimension 2, the Radon transform range theorem states that a rapidly decaying (Schwartz) function $g(t,\theta)$ can be represented as a ...
phaedo's user avatar
  • 123
4 votes
1 answer
385 views

Optimal transport: find cost function given observed transport

Could you advise me please on what to read on the "inverse" problem: suppose I have a source measure, a target measure and I observe the solution to optimal transport problem -- can I "back out" the ...
Sergey Egiev's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
115 views

Radon transform on complex Grassmannians

Let $Gr_{i,n}$ denote the Grassmannian of complex linear $i$-dimensional subspaces in the Hermitian space $\mathbb{C}^n$. Let $1\leq i<n/2$. Consider the Radon transform between space of functions ...
asv's user avatar
  • 21.3k
4 votes
1 answer
217 views

Interesting questions for inverse parabolic problems

I'm looking for some interesting questions and maybe open problems in inverse problems theory, especially in the framework of parabolic PDEs (basically the heat equation). As key words here we can ...
S. Maths's user avatar
  • 561
4 votes
1 answer
315 views

Given convex l.s.c. function $f$, find decreasing convex function $\phi$ such that $f(x) \equiv \sup_y x\phi(y)-\phi(-y)$

Let $f: \mathbb R \rightarrow (-\infty,+\infty]$ be a lower-semicontinuous convex function. Question Under what futher conditions does there exists a convex decreasing function $\phi: \mathbb R \...
dohmatob's user avatar
  • 6,764
52 votes
1 answer
5k views

Mathematics of imaging the black hole

The first ever black hole was "pictured" recently, per an announcement made on 10th April, 2019. See for example: https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-47873592 . It has been claimed that ...
Piyush Grover's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
364 views

Can a bijection between function spaces be continuous if the space's domains are different?

It is well-known that any bijection $\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^2$ cannot be continuous. But suppose we have the two spaces $A = \{f(x):\mathbb{R^2}\rightarrow \mathbb{R} \}$ and $B = \{f(x):\...
Joe's user avatar
  • 535
1 vote
0 answers
70 views

Kernel of Radon transform in $\mathbb{R}^3$

Consider the Radon transform from the space of functions on the manifold of affine lines in $\mathbb{R}^3$ to functions on the manifold of affine 2-planes in $\mathbb{R}^3$: $$(Rf)(H):=\int_{l\subset ...
asv's user avatar
  • 21.3k
17 votes
1 answer
641 views

An explicit reconstruction of a matrix from its minors

$\newcommand{\End}{\operatorname{End}}$ $\newcommand{\GL}{\operatorname{GL}}$ $\newcommand{\Cof}{\operatorname{cof}}$ Let $V$ be a $d$-dimensional real vector space. ($d \ge 4$). Fix an odd integer $...
Asaf Shachar's user avatar
  • 6,641
11 votes
3 answers
660 views

Which matrices can be realized as the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map for a given domain?

Consider Poisson equation $\nabla \cdot (\sigma(x)\nabla u)=0$ in a domain $D$, where $\sigma(x)$ is the spatially dependent conductivity. On the boundary we have $n$ electrodes (Dirichlet BC $u=\text{...
badmf's user avatar
  • 532
3 votes
1 answer
262 views

Reconstructing the Green's function of an initial-value problem of partial differential equation

Consider a partial differential equation that is of the following form: \begin{equation} (-\partial_x^2+g(x))f(x, t)=i\partial_tf(x, t) \end{equation} where $g(x)$ is a real function. Suppose that $f(...
Mr. Gentleman's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
211 views

How to numerically invert a bilateral (two-sided) Laplace transform?

For one-sided Laplace transforms I can find many algorithms to invert them numerically (e.g. algorithms named after: Talbot, Stehfest, Euler, ...). However, I am interested in numerical inversion of ...
David's user avatar
  • 1
6 votes
3 answers
498 views

Reference Request - Recovering a function from its definite integrals (inverse problem)

I'm having a difficult time finding any theory on an inverse problem I've come up against. Let's say I have an unknown function $f:[0,1] \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, and I know $\int_{a}^{b} f$ for some ...
Joseph Granata's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
118 views

How often does the gradient of a solution to elliptic equation vanish on the boundary?

This question is motivated by an inverse coefficient problem, for which it is useful to find solutions to a particular PDE so that the gradient of the solution does not vanish at all, or at least too ...
Tommi's user avatar
  • 648
1 vote
1 answer
153 views

inverse interpolation

Given data points $(x_i,y_i)\in \mathbb{R}^m\times \mathbb{R}^n$ with $n>m$ satisfying $y_i=f (x_i)$ with a sufficiently smooth injective unknown function $f:\mathbb{R}^m\rightarrow \mathbb{R}^n$ ...
user35593's user avatar
  • 2,286
3 votes
1 answer
239 views

Is there an English translation of Hadamard's classic French paper on well-posed problems?

This paper by Hadamard is often cited as being the source of the definition of well-posed and ill-posed problems. However, it is in French so I cannot verify that claim. Is there an English ...
rhombidodecahedron's user avatar
15 votes
1 answer
1k views

Is $\delta(df \wedge df)=0$ an Euler-Lagrange equation?

$\newcommand{\id}{\operatorname{Id}}$ $\newcommand{\TM}{\operatorname{TM}}$ $\newcommand{\Hom}{\operatorname{Hom}}$ $\newcommand{\M}{\mathcal{M}}$ $\newcommand{\N}{\mathcal{N}}$ $\newcommand{\tr}{\...
Asaf Shachar's user avatar
  • 6,641
0 votes
1 answer
145 views

Solution of Poisson equation vanishing at the boundary of any order

Let $f$ be a compactly supported function in $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^3$ and $\Delta u=f$ in $\Omega$ such that $D^{\alpha}u=0$ on $\partial \Omega$ for every multi-index $\alpha$ with $|\alpha| \...
A random mathematician's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
117 views

On the Integration and Manipulation of Expressions Involving Hypergeometric Functions

I would like to ask the following two: For the integral: \begin{equation} \int_{0}^{t}\left( 1-s^p \right)^{\frac{1-p}{p}}ds \end{equation} I know that it is reduced to the following product ...
Bazinga's user avatar
  • 111
3 votes
1 answer
545 views

Is this result on an unconstrained inverse quadratic programming problem new or known already?

Is this problem and solution actually new, or has someone done this earlier? The details can be found in the preprint: arxiv:1701.01477. Let us consider a direct quadratic programming problem: $$ \...
Evgeniy Abramov's user avatar