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Questions tagged [inverse-problems]

Inverse problems involve for example reconstruction of an object based on physical measurements and finding a best model/parameters out of a family given observed data. Typically the corresponding "forward" problems are well-posed and can be solved straightforwardly, while the inverse problems are often ill-posed. Not to be confused with the (inverse) tag.

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122 views

Can a bijection between function spaces be continuous if the space's domains are different?

It is well-known that any bijection $\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^2$ cannot be continuous. But suppose we have the two spaces $A = \{f(x):\mathbb{R^2}\rightarrow \mathbb{R} \}$ and $B = \{f(x):\...
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0answers
30 views

A right-inverse property of a regression problem

Disclaimer: This might be a silly question. However, after some days of thought, I could not find a clear/rigorous answer. So I decided to post it here. Let $Y\in\mathbb{R}^{n\times p}$ and $X\in\...
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0answers
20 views

Strategies to make the sum operation bijective in a contribution problem

There is a group of people that wants to contribute over a common resource. For instance, supose that there are exactly $k$ people, each with a "contribution" number associated $n_k\in \mathbb{R^+}$, ...
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0answers
43 views

Kernel of Radon transform in $\mathbb{R}^3$

Consider the Radon transform from the space of functions on the manifold of affine lines in $\mathbb{R}^3$ to functions on the manifold of affine 2-planes in $\mathbb{R}^3$: $$(Rf)(H):=\int_{l\subset ...
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0answers
27 views

Volterra equation of the first kind with an exponential kernel

I am interested in an approximation $\hat{f}$ as well as the error estimate $\|\hat{f} - f\|_{L^2}$ for $f\in L^2([0,T];\mathbb{R})$ in the following Volterra equation $$Af(t) = \int_0^t e^{-\lambda (...
17
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1answer
468 views

An explicit reconstruction of a matrix from its minors

$\newcommand{\End}{\operatorname{End}}$ $\newcommand{\GL}{\operatorname{GL}}$ $\newcommand{\Cof}{\operatorname{cof}}$ Let $V$ be a $d$-dimensional real vector space. ($d \ge 4$). Fix an odd integer $...
11
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3answers
522 views

Which matrices can be realized as the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map for a given domain?

Consider Poisson equation $\nabla \cdot (\sigma(x)\nabla u)=0$ in a domain $D$, where $\sigma(x)$ is the spatially dependent conductivity. On the boundary we have $n$ electrodes (Dirichlet BC $u=\text{...
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0answers
47 views

Reconstructing the Green's function of an initial-value problem of partial differential equation

Consider a partial differential equation that is of the following form: \begin{equation} (-\partial_x^2+g(x))f(x, t)=i\partial_tf(x, t) \end{equation} where $g(x)$ is a real function. Suppose that $f(...
0
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1answer
93 views

How to numerically invert a bilateral (two-sided) Laplace transform?

For one-sided Laplace transforms I can find many algorithms to invert them numerically (e.g. algorithms named after: Talbot, Stehfest, Euler, ...). However, I am interested in numerical inversion of ...
6
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3answers
227 views

Reference Request - Recovering a function from its definite integrals (inverse problem)

I'm having a difficult time finding any theory on an inverse problem I've come up against. Let's say I have an unknown function $f:[0,1] \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, and I know $\int_{a}^{b} f$ for some ...
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0answers
73 views

When does the gradient of a solution to elliptic equation vanish on the boundary?

This question is motivated by an inverse coefficient problem, for which it is useful to find solutions to a particular PDE so that the gradient of the solution does not vanish at all, or at least too ...
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1answer
50 views

inverse interpolation

Given data points $(x_i,y_i)\in \mathbb{R}^m\times \mathbb{R}^n$ with $n>m$ satisfying $y_i=f (x_i)$ with a sufficiently smooth injective unknown function $f:\mathbb{R}^m\rightarrow \mathbb{R}^n$ ...
3
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1answer
130 views

Is there an English translation of Hadamard's classic French paper on well-posed problems?

This paper by Hadamard is often cited as being the source of the definition of well-posed and ill-posed problems. However, it is in French so I cannot verify that claim. Is there an English ...
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1answer
882 views

Is $\delta(df \wedge df)=0$ an Euler-Lagrange equation?

$\newcommand{\id}{\operatorname{Id}}$ $\newcommand{\TM}{\operatorname{TM}}$ $\newcommand{\Hom}{\operatorname{Hom}}$ $\newcommand{\M}{\mathcal{M}}$ $\newcommand{\N}{\mathcal{N}}$ $\newcommand{\tr}{\...
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1answer
77 views

Solution of Poisson equation vanishing at the boundary of any order

Let $f$ be a compactly supported function in $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^3$ and $\Delta u=f$ in $\Omega$ such that $D^{\alpha}u=0$ on $\partial \Omega$ for every multi-index $\alpha$ with $|\alpha| \...
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0answers
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On the Integration and Manipulation of Expressions Involving Hypergeometric Functions

I would like to ask the following two: For the integral: \begin{equation} \int_{0}^{t}\left( 1-s^p \right)^{\frac{1-p}{p}}ds \end{equation} I know that it is reduced to the following product ...
3
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1answer
446 views

Is this result on an unconstrained inverse quadratic programming problem new or known already?

Is this problem and solution actually new, or has someone done this earlier? The details can be found in the preprint: arxiv:1701.01477. Let us consider a direct quadratic programming problem: $$ \...
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2answers
443 views

Approximating Uniform Distribution with Mixture of Gaussians

Let $T$ be a compact, connected, proper subset of $\mathbb{R}^3:\quad T \subset \mathbb{R}^3$. Further let $\left\{ \boldsymbol{\mu}_i \right\}_{i=1}^n$ be a given finite set of $n$ point in $T$: $$ \...
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0answers
330 views

A question in inverse Galois Theory

Let $\mathbb{G}= \{g_1,\cdots,g_n\}$ be a finite group ,$\rho$ be the regular representation. Let $x_1,\cdots,x_n$ be indeterminates and let $x = (x_1,\cdots,x_n)^\top$. Let the matrix $G$ be defined ...
11
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3answers
568 views

How to find Suleimanova's work on the Nonnegative Inverse Eigenvalue Problem?

Many papers cite the work of Suleimanova when studying inverse eigenvalue problems - in particular, the nonnegative inverse eigenvalue problem (NIEP). However, I cannot seem to find her work anywhere....
3
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1answer
157 views

Are inverse eigenvalue problems (IEPs) hopeless and not a fruitful area of research?

I've been studying IEPs, in particular, the Nonnegative Inverse Eigenvalue Problem, some basic theoretical framework, the many open questions that IEPs have, and now sort of realize the computational ...
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1answer
228 views

Question related to Galois covering of Projective line over rational numbers

Suppose that we have Galois covering $$X\longrightarrow P^{1}_{\mathbb{Q}}$$ defined over the rationals which is cyclic, in the sense that the Galois group associated to the covering is a cyclic group....
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0answers
52 views

The jump set of $SBV$ function for different value of parameter in image denoising problem

The classical Mumford-Shah image denoisng problem study the minimizer of the following functional, for each $\alpha>0$ where $\Omega\subset \mathbb R^2$ is open bounded with sommth boundary, $$ u_\...
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2answers
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Recent observation of gravitational waves

It was exciting to hear that LIGO detected the merging of two black holes one billion light-years away. One of the black holes had 36 times the mass of the sun, and the other 29. After the merging the ...
3
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0answers
139 views

Spectra of certain totally positive matrices

Let $S$ be the set of $3 \times 3$ matrices $A$ satisfying the following conditions: All minors are $>0$ (i.e., $A$ is a strictly totally positive matrix); all principal minors are $>1$, except ...
7
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1answer
631 views

Question on Inverse Galois Theory

Let $G$ be a finite group, $n=|G|$. Let $\rho:G\rightarrow GL(n,\mathbb{C})$ be the regular representation. Let $G \le H \le S_n$ be another group. Then we have $\mathbb{Q}[x_1,\cdots,x_n]^H \le \...
3
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2answers
756 views

Can one hear the shape of a drum for operators?

M. Kac in his famous paper "Can one hear the shape of a drum?" asked whether one can "hear" the area of the ambient domain by looking at the spectral picture. Although he was not the first who came up ...
3
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1answer
83 views

Under what hypothesis on the domain is the X-ray transform/John transform operator bounded?

I asked this question on math stackexchange, without any reply yet. Link:https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/1401580/under-what-hypothesis-is-the-x-ray-transform-john-transform-operator-bounded ...
6
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1answer
166 views

Radon transform between affine grassmannians

Let $\overline{GR}(n,k)$ be the manifold of all affine k-dimensional subspaces in $R^n$, and let $R:C^{\infty}_c(\overline{GR}(n,k))\to C^{\infty}_c(\overline{GR}(n,l))$, $0\le k<l\le n-1$, be the ...
2
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0answers
70 views

Combining microlocal Helgason's support and Holmgren's theorem to prove injectivity of limited-angle Radon transform

This questions is slightly related to Kashiwara's watermelon theorem and Microlocal version of Helgason's (support) and Holmgren's theorems, in which I asked for some references. Now I ...
4
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1answer
179 views

Injectivity of the Funk transform for nonsmooth functions

Let $S^{n-1}$ be the unit sphere in $\mathbb R^n$ and $\Gamma_n$ the collection of great circles on it. Assume $n\geq3$. The Funk transform of a function $f:S^{n-1}\to\mathbb R$ is a map $Ff:\Gamma_n\...
22
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7answers
2k views

What's that shape? Inferring a 3D shape from random shadows

Let $P$ be a bounded, simply connected region of $\mathbb{R}^3$. $P$ could be a polyhedron, or a smooth shape, or an arbitrary shape; I'll assume below that $P$ is a (non-degenerate, perhaps non-...
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0answers
26 views

Counting variables to look for invariances/range conditions

A while back, I asked this question on m.se. I wasn't terribly happy with the answer, and when someone asked a very similar question which isn't getting any action, it got me thinking again. Let me ...
5
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1answer
358 views

An unusual metric reconstruction problem

$\newcommand{\bR}{\mathbb{R}}\newcommand{\pa}{\partial}$This questions has some nebulous roots in Morse theory. The most general version goes as follows. Fix an integer $n\geq 2$. Suppose that we have ...
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2answers
550 views

Certain inverse problem related to moments

Suppose $D\subset \mathbb C$ is a smoothly bounded domain and it contains the origin. Let $ds$ denote the arc length measure on $\partial D.$ I am interested in the following two inverse problems (...
1
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1answer
111 views

Fredholm integral with functions constrained to [0;1]

I am trying to feed information about the solution when solving an inverse problem given by a Fredholm integral of the form $$ g(t)=\int_{a}^{b}K(t,s)f(s)ds. $$ Say I know $g(t)$ and $K(t,s)$, and ...
3
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0answers
166 views

Applications of Freiman's theorem?

What are some interesting applications of Freiman's theorem or, better-yet, its recent generalizations (eg Green-Ruzsa) that could be included in a graduate course in additive combinatorics? I'm ...
4
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0answers
271 views

How to check if a manifold can be foliated by strictly convex hypersurfaces?

Let $M$ be a compact Riemannian manifold with boundary. How can one recognize whether the manifold can be foliated by strictly convex hypersurfaces? An exact definition is given below. If the ...
4
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0answers
73 views

Sample based inversion of the Radon transform

I have a classic tomography problem in which I would like to infer the internal density $p_0: \mathbb R^2 \to \mathbb R$ from external Radon projections. The internal density however is viewed as a ...
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0answers
41 views

Uniquenss of domain with given interior newtonian potential

The newtonian potential of a domain $\Omega$ is defined by $\Gamma*(\chi_{\Omega})$ ($\Gamma$ is the fundamental solution of laplacian operator $\Delta$), i.e. the convolution of indicator function ...
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0answers
231 views

A integral equation with Discrete to result by inverse problem

Problem I asked a question at Math.SE last year and later offered a bounty for it, but it remains unsolved even in the simplest case. So I finally decided to repost this case here, (I know the ...
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0answers
112 views

Do position and momentum measurements determine a wave function?

Suppose we have a function $f\in L^2(\mathbb R^n)$ and we know the functions $x\mapsto|f(x)|$ and $p\mapsto|\hat f(p)|$, where $\hat f$ is the Fourier transform of $f$. Can we reconstruct the function ...
3
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1answer
96 views

General Radon-type inverse problem

Let $f : \mathbb R^n \to \mathbb R$ be a density which is sufficiently smooth and can also be restricted to have compact support for now. Let $t \ge 0$ and $F_t : \mathbb R^n \to \mathbb R$, i.e. $(...
4
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1answer
214 views

Invertibility of an inverse problem

Let $p$ be a scalar field $p: \mathbb R^n \to \mathbb R$. I encountered the problem of reconstructing an unknown density $p$ from its integral values $$I(t,z) = \int_{V_t} p(x) dS$$ along a one-...
22
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1answer
920 views

Geodesics in finite groups

It seems that I can generalize a result from compact, connected Lie groups to finite groups, but in order to do so, I need to have some kind of geodesics on finite groups. Below is a proposition for ...
6
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1answer
221 views

Solving for a set of points from projections

Consider a set of $N$ points in $n$-dimensional space, i.e. \begin{align*} S = \{x_1, \dots, x_N\} \subset \mathbb R^n. \end{align*} Let $v \in \mathbb R^n$ and consider the image set (not counting ...
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2answers
175 views

Solving a functional equation

I would like to consider the following simple problem. I want to find two functions $f,g : \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ such that, being given a collection $(h_v)_{v\in V}$ of real functions indexed by ...
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0answers
636 views

Inverse problem with a rank-1 update

I hope you can help me out with this. I have to find the solution x to an inverse system $$ x=A^{-1}b $$ This inverse problem is basically a least square problem with a rank-1 update. $$ x=[uv^{T}...
4
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2answers
186 views

Reconstructing set of points from one-dimensional images

Consider a set of $N$ points in $n$-dimensional space, i.e. \begin{align*} \{x_1, \dots, x_N\} \subset \mathbb R^n. \end{align*} Let us be given a finite family of non-injective matrices \begin{...
3
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1answer
173 views

Partial recovery from Radon transform

Let $f : \mathbb R^3 \to \mathbb R$ be an integrable function. Let $\eta$ be a one-dimensional subspace of $\mathbb R^3$. We denote $p+\eta$ the affine subspace (a line) which is obtained by ...