# Questions tagged [q-analogs]

The q-analogs tag has no usage guidance.

78
questions

**9**

votes

**2**answers

291 views

### Is there a nice q-analogue of the Jacobi identity in a quantized enveloping algebra?

In a Lie algebra $\mathfrak{g}$ the Jacobi identity $\newcommand{\bracket}[2]{\left[#1\,#2\right]} \bracket{x}{\bracket{y}{z}} + \bracket{z}{\bracket{x}{y}} + \bracket{y}{\bracket{z}{x}} = 0$ holds. ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

110 views

### Is there a $q$-analogue to Shapiro's convolution identity?

Let $C_n=\frac1{n+1}\binom{2n}n$ denote the Catalan numbers.
This question is motivated by the (unanswered) MO post by Alexander Burstein and my own (answered by Fedor Petrov) MO post.
Specifically, ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

208 views

### Looking for a $q$-analogue of a binomial identity

The following identity is well-known and there are a few proofs to it (see Bijective proof problems, by R P Stanley, for this and similar formulae):
$$\sum_{k=0}^n\binom{2k}k\binom{2n-2k}{n-k}=4^n \...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

224 views

### Enumerating subspaces of $\mathbb{F}_q^n$ in terms of words and inversions

When $q$ is a prime power, then on the one hand the $q$-binomial coefficient $\binom{n}{k}_q$ equals the number of $k$-dimensional subspaces of $\mathbb{F}_q^n$, and on the other hand it is the ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

145 views

### A $q$-analogue of a characterization of polynomials by binomial coefficients

Considering the binomial coefficient $\binom{x}{m}$ as a polynomial in $x$, the span of $\binom{x}{0}, \binom{x}{1}, \ldots, \binom{x}{d}$ is exactly the polynomials of degree $\le d$. A closely ...

**18**

votes

**1**answer

413 views

### What is the groupoid cardinality of the category of vector spaces over a finite field?

For any groupoid, it's groupoid cardinality is the sum of the reciprocals of the automorphism groups over the isomorphism classes. Let us consider the category of vector spaces over a finite field $\...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

689 views

### Proof of certain $q$-identity for $q$-Catalan numbers

Let us use the standard notation for $q$-integers, $q$-binomials,
and the $q$-analog
$$
\operatorname{Cat}_q(n) := \frac{1}{[n+1]_q} \left[\matrix{2n \\ n}\right]_q.
$$
I want to prove that for all ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

160 views

### A recursion which defines polynomials with integer coefficients?

Let $[n]=1+q+\dots+q^{n-1}$ and $u(n)=\prod_{j=1}^n \gcd([j],[n])$.
Define
$$r(n)=\sum_{d|n,d>1}{(-1)^d \frac{u(n)}{du(\frac{n}{d})^d}r\Big(\frac{n}{d}\Big)^d}+\frac{(1-q)^{n-1}u(n)}{n[n]}$$ with $...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

314 views

### Relationship between $q$-Weyl dimension formula and $q$-analog of weight multiplicity?

$\DeclareMathOperator\dim{dim}$For a dominant (integral) weight $\lambda$ and any (integral) weight $\mu$ of a simple Lie algebra $\mathfrak{g}$, Lusztig's $q$-analog of weight multiplicty $K_{\lambda,...

**8**

votes

**7**answers

587 views

### Important combinatorial and algebraic interpretations of the coefficients in the polynomial $[n]!_q = (1+q)(1+q+q^2) \ldots (1+q+\cdots + q^{n-1})$

What are some important combinatorial and algebraic interpretations of the coefficients in the polynomial
$$[n]!_q = (1+q)(1+q+q^2) \ldots (1+q+\cdots + q^{n-1})?$$
As motivation, I will give ...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

453 views

### $q$-analogs of total positivity

A real matrix $M$ is called totally positive if all of its minors are positive; these matrices have been extensively studied, and there are generalizations to other Lie types, for example by Lusztig.
...

**21**

votes

**2**answers

690 views

### A q-rious identity

Let $[x]_q=\frac{1-q^x}{1-q}$, $[n]_q!=[1]_q[2]_q\cdots[n]_q$ and ${\binom{x}{n}}_{q}=\frac{[x]_q[x-1]_q\cdots[x-n+1]_q }{[n]_q!}$.
Computer experiments suggest that
$$\det \left(q^\binom{i-j}{2}\...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

265 views

### Lusztig's $q$-analog of weight multiplicity with product formula

For partitions $\lambda, \mu \vdash n$, the Kostka-Foulkes polynomial $K_{\lambda,\mu}(q)$, a $q$-analog of the Kostka coefficient $K_{\lambda,\mu}$, has a combinatorial description, due to Lascoux ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

216 views

### Prominent examples of $q$-analogs without known cyclic sieving

The cyclic sieving phenomenon is nicely summarized in the following AMS Notices "What is...?" article: https://www.ams.org/notices/201402/rnoti-p169.pdf.
In that article, Reiner, Stanton, and White ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

257 views

### Product of $q$-analogues

Background
Recall that the $q$-analogue $[n]_q\in\mathbb Z[q]$ of a natural number $n\in\mathbb N$ is defined as
$$ [n]_q := \frac{q^n -1}{q-1}$$
the idea being that formulas involving $q$ will ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

109 views

### Q-analogue of an inequality

Pick integers $b\geq a \geq 0$ and $k\geq j\geq 0$.
It is not super-difficult to prove the inequality
$$
\binom{kb}{ka}^j \geq \binom{jb}{ja}^k.
$$
This is actually quite a nice inequality that was ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

109 views

### Positivity of q-analogs of central binomial coefficients?

With the usual $q-$notations
$[n]_q=1+q+\cdots+q^{n-1}=\frac{\,\,1-q^n}{1-q},$
$[n]_q!=[1]_q[2]_q\cdots[n]_q$ and
$\binom{n}k_q=\frac{[n]_q!}{[k]_q!\cdot[n-k]_q!}$
let
$$b(n,k,r,q)=\det\left(q^{r\...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

195 views

### $q$-factorial coefficient asymptotics

Consider the $[n]!_q = \prod\limits_{k = 1}^{n} \frac{q^k - 1}{q - 1} = \sum\limits_{k = 0}^{\binom n 2} c_k q^k$ and let $\{f_n\}_{n \in \mathbb{N}}$ be the sequence of the functions on $[0; 1]$ ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

147 views

### Conjecture for a certain Cauchy-type determinant

Given the Cauchy-like matrix
$$
\mathbf X_M(q) = \left[ \frac{2}{\pi} \frac{
\Gamma\!\left(m - \frac{1}{2} \right)\Gamma\!\left(n + \frac{1}{2} \right)
}{
\Gamma(m)\,\Gamma(n)
}
\frac{m-\frac{3}{4}}
{\...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

173 views

### Major index generating polynomial for border-strip tableaux

The Question in its original form has been answered, but there is a follow-up, see the end of the post.
A border-strip is a skew Young diagram that does not contain a $2 \times 2$-box. A border-strip ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

180 views

### A curious $q$-identity

Let $[x]_{q}=\frac{1-q^x}{1-q}$ and $\binom{x}{n}_{q}$ denote a $q$-binomial coefficient.
Let $A_n(x,q)$ be the $n\times n $ matrix with entries $$q^\binom{i-j}{2}\binom{i+j+x}{i-j+1}_{q},$$ $0 \le i,...

**14**

votes

**0**answers

217 views

### Irreducibility of q-factorial plus 1

Let $q$ be a formal variable and for every positive integer $n$ let
$$[n]_q! = 1 (1 + q)(1 + q + q^2) \dotsm (1 + q + \dotsb + q^{n-1})$$
be the $q$-factorial.
Is it true that $[n]_q! + 1$ is an ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

190 views

### q-analog of $(d/dx) \binom{x}{k}$?

It is not hard to find easy formulas for the derivative of the function $\binom{x}{k}$, for instance it is not too hard to see (for $k$ an integer) that
$\frac{d}{dx} \binom{x}{k} = \sum_{i=1}^k \...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

271 views

### What partial sum formulae exist for this basic hypergeometric series?

I've run into:
$$\sum_{x=1}^{\infty} {x^a\over 1-q^{x}}, \ s.t.\ q\in \mathbb N>1 \ or \ q\in (0, 1),\ a \in \mathbb N$$
I am interested mostly in the cases where $a = 1$ or $ a = 2$
Things I'...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

441 views

### $q$ as a prime power and a root of unity

The number of points on the $(n-1)$-dimensional projective space $P^{n-1}(\mathbb{F}_q)$ over a finite field $\mathbb{F}_q$ is the $q$-integer
$$[n]_q := \frac{q^n-1}{q-1}.$$
In analogy, the number of ...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

552 views

### Schur-Weyl duality and q-symmetric functions

Disclaimer: I'm far from an expert on any of the topics of this question. I apologize in advance for any horrible mistakes and/or inaccuracies I have made and I hope that the spirit of the question ...

**10**

votes

**4**answers

689 views

### A divisibility of q-binomial coefficients combinatorially

Let a and b be coprime positive integers. Then the number a+b divides the binomial coefficient ${a+b \choose a}$. I know how to prove this combinatorially - for example after choosing an ordered set ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

165 views

### For $q$-analogues of a known curious identity

In 2002 I published the folllowing curious combinatorial identity:
$$(x+m+1)\sum_{i=0}^m(-1)^i\binom{x+y+i}{m-i}\binom{y+2i}i-\sum_{i=0}^m\binom{x+i}{m-i}(-4)^i=(x-m)\binom xm.$$
My original proof is ...

**14**

votes

**1**answer

571 views

### Is there a lift of the q-Vandermonde identity to some geometric (motivic) identity for Grassmannians over $F_q$?

The q-Vandermonde identity reads:
$$ \binom{m + n}{k}_{\!\!q} =\sum_{j} \binom{m}{k - j}_{\!\!q} \binom{n}{j}_{\!\!q} q^{j(m-k+j)} $$
The q-binomial coefficients:
$$ \binom{ a }{ b}_{\!\!q} $$
...

**30**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Mysterious symmetry - in search for a bijection

I have a mysterious symmetry that I have not managed to prove.
First some definitions (see picture below)
Fix a partition that fit in a staircase shape with $n$ rows.
There are $Catalan(n)$ such ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

326 views

### $q$-analog of an integral from quantum field theory?

This question has been completely reformulated and a new property for the function $f_q$ has been added due to a series of helpful comments by fedja.
Consider the integral from quantum field theory ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

297 views

### Inequality for functions on [0,1], continued

Let $0<a<1,\; \psi_a(x)=\displaystyle \prod_{j=0}^\infty (1-a^jx).$ For each $ k\in \mathbb{N},$ set
$$f_k(a;x):=\frac{x^k}{(1-a)(1-a^2)\dots (1-a^k)}\,\psi_a(x).$$
Question. Is it true that, ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

87 views

### Does the Riemann characterization of the hypergeometric function have a q-analog?

This question is inspired by another recent one here, Characterization of the hypergeometric function. The latter is about the classical result of Riemann characterizing the hypergeometric functions ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

436 views

### Q-binomials at roots of unity

As the title says, given a general $q$-binomial $\binom{n}{k}_q$,
is there some general result regarding its value at a root of unity, $q = \exp(2\pi i r/N)$?

**5**

votes

**2**answers

556 views

### Some curious Hankel determinants

Let $f(n,q)=\prod_{j=1}^na(q^j)$ for a polynomial $a(q)$ and let $d(n)=\det(f(i+j,q))_{i,j=0}^n$ be its Hankel determinant.
Computer experiments suggest that
$$\lim_{q\to1}\frac{d(n)}{(q-1)^\binom{n+...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

189 views

### Total positivity of $q$-Pascal matrix?

A matrix of real numbers is called totally positive if all its minors are non-negative. A well-known example is the Pascal matrix $(\binom{i}{j})$.
Is it true that the minors of the $q$-Pascal matrix ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

106 views

### Does this q-analogue have a nice closed form? [closed]

Let $[n]_q=1+q+\cdots+q^{n-1}$. Is there a nice closed form of $\sum_{s=1}^i[s]_{q}$? One would expect that the answer will be some q-analog of $\frac{i(i+1)}{2}$, since $\sum_{s=1}^i s=\frac{i(i+1)...

**13**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### A “quantum” identity: in search of a proof -Part II

As usual, denote $[n]_q=1+q+\cdots+q^{n-1}=\frac{\,\,1-q^n}{1-q}$ and $[n]_q!=[1]_q[2]_q\cdots[n]_q$. Furthermore, we write
$$\binom{n}k_q=\frac{[n]_q!}{[k]_q!\cdot[n-k]_q!}.$$
As a follow up on this ...

**8**

votes

**3**answers

376 views

### A not quite theta not quite basic hypergeometric function

The study of matrix quantum group coactions on the noncommutative disk algebra turns up the following series, which is a $q$-deformation of the negative binomial series, for integer $t\ge 0$, complex $...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

273 views

### Is a basic hypergeometric function ${}_2\phi_1(a, b; c; q, z)$ a meromorphic function in $z$?

Here a basic hypergeometric function is the analytic continuation of the basic hypergeometric series (or called the $q$-hypergeometric series)
$$
{}_2\phi_1(a, b; c; q, z) = \sum^{\infty}_{n = 0} \...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

223 views

### $q$-crystals - is there such a thing?

There are several important facts that I first heard about here on MO. One of the most enlightening of these is that $\mathscr D$-modules on a scheme $X$ may be viewed as sheaves on the groupoid of ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

389 views

### Does $\sum_{n=-\infty}^\infty (bq^n,p/aq^n;p)_\infty z^n q^{n(n-1)/2}$ have a closed form?

The formula
$$
\small\sum_{n=-\infty}^\infty (bq^n,p/aq^n;p)_\infty
z^n q^{n(n-1)/2}=\frac{(-z,-q/z;q)_\infty}{\ln\frac{1}{q}}\int\limits_0^\infty\frac{\left(bt/z,pz/at;p\right)_\infty}{\left(-t,-...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

533 views

### Does $q$-Catalan number count subspaces?

Consider the $n$-element subsets $\{a_1<a_2<\cdots <a_n\}$ of $\{1,\ldots ,2n\}$ satisfying $a_i\geq 2i$ for all $i=1,\ldots ,n$. The number of such subsets is given by $${2n\choose n}-{2n\...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

224 views

### What is the value of this sum involving q-binomials?

Let $n\ge 2r$ be positive integers.
Is there a closed form for following finite summation involving in q-binomial coefficients
$$\sum_{s=0}^r(-1)^sq^{\frac{s(s+1)}{2}}{n-2r+s\brack n-2r}_q{n\brack r-...

**19**

votes

**1**answer

488 views

### “quantum” symmetric plane partitions beget alternating sign matrices?

The "quantum" version qTSPP of the number of totally symmetric plane partitions, contained in the cube $[0,n]^3$, is enumerated by
$$f_n(q):=\prod_{j=1}^n\prod_{k=1}^j\prod_{\ell=1}^k\frac{1-...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

662 views

### A conjecture about algebraic values of $(-q;\,-q)_\infty/(q;\,q)_\infty$

Recall that $(a;\,q)_\infty$ is the $q$-Pochhammer symbol:
$$(a;\,q)_\infty=\prod_{n=0}^\infty(1-a \, q^n).\tag1$$
Its important special case $(q;\,q)_\infty=\prod_{n=1}^\infty(1-q^n)$ is sometimes ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

116 views

### A $q-$binomial identity related to $q-$Narayana polynomials of type B

Denote by $ {n\brack {k}}$ a $q-$binomial coefficient.
Let ${D_{n,k}}(t,q) = \sum\limits_{j = 0}^{n - k} {{q^{{j^2} + kj}}}{n\brack {j}}{n\brack {k+j}}t^j $
and
${R_n}(x,t,q) = \sum\limits_{k = 0}...

**11**

votes

**3**answers

680 views

### Is this a q-count of Alternating Sign Matrices?

The number of Alternating Sign Matrices of size $n$ is well known to be
$\prod_{k=0}^{n-1}\frac{(3k+1)!}{(n+k)!}$. Is it known whether the naive q-analog expression
$$\prod_{k=0}^{n-1}\frac{[3k+1]_q!}{...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

421 views

### q-analog of a combinatorial identity involving binomial coefficients

Using, e.g., properties of iterated finite differences it is easy to show that for any pair of integers $n$ and $m$ with $n>\!>m$ one has the identity
$$
\sum_{k=0}^m(-1)^{k-m} {n-k\choose m}{m\...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

272 views

### What is known about the $q$-analogue of the simplex?

I am interested in the field with one element. I am thus interested in combinatorial interpretations of the Gaussian binomial coefficients. Richard Stanley's "Enumerative combinatorics" mentions ...