The quadratic-residues tag has no usage guidance.

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### Relationship between quadratic residues modulo a prime and quadratic residues modulo a prime power [closed]

Been going through Alan Baker's A Comprehensive Course in Number Theory. Very interesting book, although the way proofs are presented sometimes throws me off a little.
I usually read through a ...

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### overlap quadratic residues

Let $p$ be a prime number of form $4k+1$ and $M$ is its quadratic residue set.
Let $M_i=\{i+x|\forall x\in M\}$ $\forall 0<i<p$.
Does there exist a positive constant $\varepsilon$ such that ...

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### How does this sequence grow

Let $a(n)$ be the number of solutions of the equation $a^2+b^2\equiv -1 \pmod {p_n}$, where $p_n$ is the n-th prime and $0\le a \le b \le \frac{p_n-1}2$. Is the sequence $a(1),a(2),a(3),\dots$ ...

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### Orders of the conjugates of an algebraic prime number in its residue field

Of interest to me is the following question (it would be nice to find out what is known in its direction):
Given a Galois number field $K/\mathbb{Q}$ and a completely and principally split prime ...

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### Quadratic residues and nonresidues of arbitrary patterns

Let $p_1, p_2, \dotsc, p_n$ be distinct primes, and let $\epsilon_1, \epsilon_2, \dotsc, \epsilon_n$ be an arbitrary sequence of $1$ and $-1$.
There is an integer $a$ such that $\left( \frac{a}{p_1} ...

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### Impossible Range for Minkowski-Like Sum of Squares

Given coprime positive integers M,N, and a corresponding integer z outside of the range (for all integers x,a,b,c) of $Mx^2-N(a^2+b^2+c^2)$, is there any such z which is "deceptive", meaning that it ...

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### Does there exist a non-square number which is the quadratic residue of every prime?

I want to know whether there exist a non-square number $n$ which is the quadratic residue of every prime.
I know it is very elementary, and I think those kind of number are not exist, but I don't know
...

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### Are there Carlitz analogues of quadratic residues and reciprocity?

Let $q$ be a prime power. I will use the notations of Keith Conrad's Carlitz extensions paper (but I'll work over $\mathbb{F}_q$ rather than $\mathbb{F}_p$).
The most general question I'm asking here ...

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### quadratic residues - is there an easy explanation for the pattern I'm seeing?

Let $m$ be an integer and $q$ be an odd prime factor of $m^2 + 1$. Is there an obvious reason that $\left(\frac{2m}{q}\right)$ always equals 1? From some numerics, this seems to be the case.
The ...

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### Three consecutive quadratic residues problem

Prove that doesn't exist $N\in\mathbb{N}$ with property: for all primes $p>N$ exist $n\in\{3, 4,\ldots, N\}$ such that $n, n-1, n-2$ are quadratic residues modulo $p$.

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### Shortest interval over which there are more quadratic residues than nonresidues

Hi, I refer to formula (8) in Chapter 1 of H. Davenport, Multiplicative Number Theory, Third Edition, Springer (2000), which says that for primes $q\equiv 3 \bmod 4$:
$$
...

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### Gauss sum (with sign) through algebra

Let $p$ be an odd prime, and $\zeta$ a primitive $p$-th root of unity over a field of characteristic $0$.
Let $G = \sum\limits_{j=0}^{p-1} \zeta^{j\left(j-1\right)/2}$ be the standard Gauss sum for ...

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### Sum of squares modulo a prime

What is the probability that the sum of squares of n randomly chosen numbers from $Z_p$ is a quadratic residue mod p?
That is, let $a_1$,..$a_n$ be chosen at random. Then how often is $\Sigma_i ...

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### Numbers with few quadratic residues

It is well known that the upper bound on the number of quadratic residues mod n is approximately n/2 and it reaches this bound for n prime.
Is there any similar lower bound on the number of quadratic ...

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### Distribution of quadratic residues of a fixed number without using Dedekind zeta function

Let $n > 1$ be a square-free natural number, which is fixed. The assertion to be proved is the following:
Let $p$ run through primes. Then, $$\left( \frac{n}{p} \right)$$ is equally distributed ...

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### Positivity of $L(1,\chi)$ for real Dirichlet's character

Let $\chi$ be a real nonprincipal Dirichlet's character modulo $m$.
In my
answer to the question on $L(1,\chi)$, I explain a trick for showing that $L(1,\chi)>0$ on the simplest examples
of the ...

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### Intuition for a formula that expresses the class number of an imaginary quadratic field by counting quadratic residues

If $p$ is a prime of the form $4n+3$, the class number $h$ of $Q[\sqrt{-p}]$ can be expressed using the number $V$ of quadratic residues and $N$ nonresidues in the interval $[1,\frac{p-1}{2}]$:
If ...

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### Isolated quadratic residues in integers mod p

For prime p sufficiently large, there is always an integer q such that q is a residue mod p, but neither q−1 nor q+1 are; the number of such residues scales like p/8 (and similarly for any ...

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### Irreducibility of polynomials related to quadratic residues

Let $p \equiv 1 \bmod 4$ be a prime number. Define the polynomial
$$ f(x) = \sum_{a=1}^{p-1} \Big(\frac{a}{p}\Big) x^a. $$
Then $f(x) = x(1-x)^2(1+x)g(x)$ for some polynomial
$g \in {\mathbb Z}[x]$ ...