# Questions tagged [quadratic-residues]

The quadratic-residues tag has no usage guidance.

The quadratic-residues tag has no usage guidance.

74
questions

-1
votes

1
answer

132
views

Let $k$ be a squarefree positive integer. We know that a prime $p$ splits in $K=\mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{-k})$ if and only if $-k$ is a quadratic residue mod $p$.
My question is: can we explicitly determine ...

3
votes

1
answer

153
views

In $\mathbb{F_p}$, $p$ prime what is the larget subset $S$ of quadratic residues with no pair of elements differing by 1?
In this related question Seva gives an example:
"...assuming $p\equiv\...

2
votes

1
answer

388
views

For a positive integer $n$, let $a(n)$ the smallest number $k>0$ such that $-n$ is not a quadratic residue modulo $k$.
Using CRT, we can prove that all values of $a(n)$ are prime powers, and every ...

5
votes

0
answers

441
views

Motivated by my paper Quadratic residues and quartic residues modulo primes [Int. J. Number Theory 16 (2020), 1833-1858], here I pose two new conjectures for primes $p\equiv1\pmod8$ based on my ...

1
vote

0
answers

76
views

Suppose $m > 0$ is a square free integer and $m \equiv 1 $mod $4$. Then the $K = \mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{-m})$ is a subfield of $L = \mathbb{Q}(\theta)$, where $\theta$ is a primitive $4m$-th root of ...

1
vote

1
answer

119
views

I am trying to find an asymptotic formula for the following sum as $T \to \infty$.
$$ \sum_{t = 1}^{T} \prod_{\substack{p \; \textrm{prime} \\ p | t}} \rho(p) \frac{1 - \frac{1}{p^2}}{1 - \frac{\rho(p)...

0
votes

0
answers

89
views

For which sets of residue classes are there easy elementary proofs that there are infinitely many primes in them, which don’t require the machinery of proofs of Dirichlet’s theorem?
Example: it’s ...

1
vote

0
answers

83
views

The $q$-analogue of an integer $m$ is defined by
$[m]_q=(1-q^m)/(1-q)$. Note that $\lim_{q\to1}[m]_q=m$.
I have formulated the following conjecture on determinants involving the floor function and the ...

11
votes

0
answers

333
views

Let $p$ be a prime number, and let $r=r(p)$ be the smallest prime number with $(r/p)=1$. The classical result of Linnik-Vinogradov (based on Burgess) implies that $r\ll_\epsilon p^{1/4+\epsilon}$, but ...

4
votes

1
answer

209
views

What would be the best lower bound for the number of squares modulo $p$ in an interval $[1,N]$ with $N<p$ that are prime?
Via the Burgess bound, I can find a lower bound for the number of squares ...

3
votes

1
answer

375
views

For any prime $p>5$, one of the numbers
$$1^2+1=2,\ \ 2^2+1=5,\ \ 3^2+1=10=2\times5$$
is a quadratic residue modulo $p$. In 2014 I conjectured that each prime $p$ has a primitive root $g<p$ of ...

4
votes

1
answer

179
views

For a tournament $T$, let $\mathrm{dom}(T)$ be the order of a smallest dominating set in $T$. Let $q$ be a prime power congruent to 3 mod 4 and let $T_q$ be the Paley tournament on $q$ vertices.
Is ...

12
votes

1
answer

622
views

Let $p>3$ be a prime.
We set $R=\{x\in\mathbb{Z}: (x/p)=1\}$, where $(\cdot/p)$ is the Legendre symbol. When $p\equiv3\pmod4$, by class formulae of imaginary quadratic fields $\mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{-p})$...

4
votes

1
answer

180
views

For a prime (or prime power) $p$ and some absolute constant $C$ (say $C$ = 100), consider the set $A$ of all $1 \leq a \leq p/C$ such that $1 \leq a^2 \leq p/C$ modulo $p$. Is it known that $|A| = \...

8
votes

1
answer

664
views

I'm wondering if it's possible, given a prime p and an infinite list of primes $q_1$, $q_2$, ... to find an integer d which (1) is not a square mod p, but (2) is a square mod $q_i$ for all i. Always, ...

16
votes

0
answers

362
views

Let $E: y^2 = x^3 + ax + b$ be an elliptic curve over $\mathbb{Q}$ with $a,b \in \mathbb{Z}$. Recall that any rational point $P = (x,y)$ can be written uniquely as $P = (u/d^2, v/d^3)$ with $u,v,d \in ...

9
votes

3
answers

589
views

As the title asks: does there exist $N$ such that, for any prime $p$ larger than $N$, the expression $x^4 +y^4$ takes on all values in $\mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}$?
I have been thinking about this ...

2
votes

0
answers

78
views

I'm really not sure about this, but I've heard somewhere that for any prime $p$,
$|\sum_{x=0}^{p-1} (\frac{ax^3 +bx^2 +cx +d}{p} ) |\le \sqrt{2p}$ holds.
Does anyone know a proof for this inequality ...

2
votes

0
answers

116
views

Let $S$ denote the set of positive integers $n$ with $n$ a quadratic nonresidue modulo the $n$th prime $p_n$. The first 20 elements of $S$ are
$$2,\, 3,\, 6,\, 7,\, 8,\, 10,\, 11,\, 13,\, 15,\, 18,\, ...

4
votes

0
answers

138
views

The Fibonacci numbers $F_0,F_1,F_2,\ldots$ and the Lucas numbers $L_0,L_1,L_2,\ldots$ are given by
$$F_0=0,\ F_1=1,\ \text{and}\ F_{n+1}=F_n+F_{n-1}\ (n=1,2,3,\ldots)$$
and
$$L_0=2,\ L_1=1,\ \text{...

5
votes

1
answer

191
views

I saw some papers from famous mathematicians (assuming GRH or without it) which are devoted to finding bound for least quadratic nonresidues modulo prime number $p$.
My question is that why it is so ...

9
votes

1
answer

949
views

QUESTION. How to solve my following conjecture involving primitive tenth roots of unity?
Conjecture. Let $\zeta$ be any primitive tenth root of unity. Then
$$\prod_{k=1}^{(p-1)/2}(\zeta-e^{2\pi ik^2/...

4
votes

0
answers

223
views

In a recent preprint, I investigated
$$S_p(x):=\prod_{k=1}^{(p-1)/2}(x-e^{2\pi ik^2/p}),$$
where $p$ is an odd prime and $x$ is a root of unity.
Motivated by Question 337879 and Question 338325, ...

4
votes

2
answers

630
views

Let $p$ be an odd prime. Dirichlet's class number formula for quadratic fields essentially determines the value of the product $\prod_{k=1}^{(p-1)/2}(1-e^{2\pi ik^2/p})$. I think it is interesting to ...

9
votes

1
answer

409
views

Question. Is my following conjecture new? How to prove it?
Conjecture. Let $p>3$ be a prime with $p\equiv3\pmod 8$, and let $h(-p)$ denote the class number of the imaginary quadratic field $\...

6
votes

1
answer

342
views

In my paper http://arxiv.org/abs/1809.07766, I determined the parity of
$$\left|\left\{(j,k):\ 1\le j<k\le\frac{p-1}2\ \&\ (j^2\ \text{mod}\ p)>(k^2\ \text{mod}\ p)\right\}\right|$$
for any ...

1
vote

0
answers

373
views

I'm trying to use FLINT (Fast Library for Number Theory) to calculate the Legendre Symbol of the following:
$$\left(\frac{n! + 1}{p}\right)$$
In my case, $p$ is a positive, odd prime (specifically $...

0
votes

1
answer

139
views

Let $p\equiv 3\pmod 4$ and $G$ be the set of nonzero quadratic residues modulo $p$ (so $G=(p-1)/2$). For $1\leq a\leq p-1$, let $G_a=\{(a+g)\pmod p\mid g\in G\}$. What is the size of $G_0\cap G_a$?
I ...

6
votes

0
answers

198
views

Bertrand's postulate proved by Chebyshev states that for any $x>1$ there is a prime $p$ in the interval $(x,2x)$. In 2012 I considered some refinements of this by imposing additional requirement ...

5
votes

0
answers

188
views

Let $p$ be an odd prime and define
$$D_p^+:=\det\left[(i+j)\left(\frac{i+j}p\right)\right]_{1\le i,j\le(p-1)/2}$$
and $$D_p^{-}:=\det\left[(i-j)\left(\frac{i-j}p\right)\right]_{1\le i,j\le(p-1)/2},$$
...

1
vote

0
answers

142
views

QUESTION. Is my following conjecture true? If true, how to prove it?
Conjecture. Let $p$ be a prime with $p\equiv5\pmod 6$, and define the matrices $A_p$ and $B_p$ by
$$A_p:=\left[\frac1{i^2-ij+j^2}\...

7
votes

2
answers

826
views

I have the following conjecture involving a possible new formula for the class number of the quadratic field $\mathbb Q(\sqrt{(-1)^{(p-1)/2}p})$ with $p$ an odd prime.
Conjecture. Let $p$ be an odd ...

3
votes

0
answers

115
views

Let $p$ be an odd prime. As in my paper, for $c,d\in\mathbb Z$ let us define
$$[c,d]_p:=\det\left[\left(\frac{i^2+cij+dj^2}p\right)\right]_{0\le i,j\le p-1},$$
where $(\frac{\cdot}p)$ is the Legendre ...

2
votes

1
answer

203
views

Let $p$ be an odd prime. For $d\in\mathbb Z$ we define
$$T(d,p):=\det\left[\left(\frac{i^2+dj^2}p\right)\right]_{0\le i,j\le(p-1)/2},$$
where $(\frac{\cdot}p)$ is the Legendre symbol.
By (1.17) of my ...

8
votes

1
answer

333
views

Recall that the permanent of an $n\times n$ matrix $A=[a_{i,j}]_{1\le i,j\le n}$ is defined by
$$\operatorname{per}A=\sum_{\sigma\in S_n}\prod_{i=1}^n a_{i,\sigma(i)}.$$
In 2004, R. Chapman [Acta ...

4
votes

1
answer

445
views

As in Question 319254, for an odd prime $p$ and integers $c,d$ we define
$$S_p(c,d):=\sum_{x=0}^{(p-1)/2}\left(\frac{x^5+cx^3+dx}p\right),$$
where $(\frac{\cdot}p)$ is the Legendre symbol.
In my ...

1
vote

0
answers

114
views

As in Question 319254, for an odd prime $p$ and integers $c,d$ we let
$$S_p(c,d):=\sum_{x=0}^{(p-1)/2}\left(\frac{x^5+cx^3+dx}p\right).$$ If $p\equiv1\pmod4$, then we obviously have
\begin{align}&\...

1
vote

0
answers

160
views

Let $p$ be an odd prime. Here I introduce the sum
$$S_p(c,d):=\sum_{x=0}^{(p-1)/2}\left(\frac{x^5+cx^3+dx}p\right)$$
with $c,d\in\mathbb Z$, where $(\frac{\cdot}p)$ is the Legendre symbol.
I have a ...

0
votes

2
answers

254
views

Let $S_n$ be the symmetric group of all permutations of $\{1,\ldots,n\}$, and let
$$S(n)=\bigg\{\sum_{k=1}^nk^2\pi(k)^2:\ \pi\in S_n\}.$$
Motivated by Question 316142 of mine, here I ask the following ...

2
votes

1
answer

223
views

Let $\lfloor x\rfloor$ be the floor function.
QUESTION: Does the determinant
$$D_p=\det\left[\left\lfloor\frac{i^2+j^2}p\right\rfloor\right]_{1\le i,j\le(p-1)/2}$$ vanish for each prime $p>7$ with ...

2
votes

1
answer

357
views

Let $p$ be an odd prime. For $a\in\mathbb Z$ let $\{a\}_p$ denote the least nonnegative residue of $a$ modulo $p$. The list $\{1^2\}_p,\ldots,\{((p-1)/2)^2\}_p$ is a permutation of all the quadratic ...

7
votes

1
answer

261
views

QUESTION: Is my following conjecture true?
Conjecture. Let $p>3$ be a prime and let $h(-p)$ be the class number of the imaginary quadratic field $\mathbb Q(\sqrt{-p})$. Then
$$\frac{p-1}2!!\prod^{...

5
votes

1
answer

403
views

Suppose $r$ integers $n_1, \ldots, n_r$ are given such that $0<|n_i|<N$ for $1 \leq i \leq r$ and for a natural number $N.$ Is it possible to find a prime number $p$ such that all numbers $n_1, \...

4
votes

0
answers

346
views

My question has been here on MSE for a long time, but it has not received a full answer. I bring it here:
Find a prime $p$ such that $p \equiv 1 \bmod 4$ and such that the
product in the range $[...

2
votes

0
answers

180
views

Let $p$ be an odd prime and let $(\frac{\cdot}p)$ be the Legendre symbol. R. Chapman's conjecture on the exact value of the determinant of
$$C_p:=\left[\left(\frac{i-j}p\right)\right]_{0\le i,j\le (p-...

7
votes

1
answer

458
views

Let $p$ be an odd prime, and let $(\frac{\cdot}p)$ denote the Legendre symbol. Motivated by my question http://mathoverflow.net/questions/310301, here I introduce the matrices $A^+_p$ and $A^-_p$ ...

13
votes

0
answers

340
views

Let $p$ be an odd prime, and let $A_p$ denote the matrix
$$[a_{ij}]_{1\le i,j\le (p-1)/2},$$
where
$$a_{1j}=\left(\frac jp\right),\ \ \text{and}\ \ a_{ij}=\left(\frac{i^2+j^2}p\right)\ \text{for}\ i&...

13
votes

3
answers

1k
views

Let $p$ be an odd prime and let $S_p$ denote the determinant
$$\det\left[\left(\frac{i^2+j^2}p\right)\right]_{1\le i,j\le (p-1)/2}$$
with $(\frac{\cdot}p)$ the Legendre symbol. By Theorem 1.2 of my ...

13
votes

2
answers

414
views

For any odd integer $n>1$ and integers $c$ and $d$, define
$$(c,d)_n:=\det\left[\left(\frac{i^2+cij+dj^2}n\right)\right]_{1\le i,j\le n-1},$$
where $(\frac{\cdot}n)$ is the Jacobi symbol. It is ...

1
vote

0
answers

176
views

Recall that the Mersenne numbers are those integers $M_p=2^p-1$ with $p$ prime.
QUESTION: Is it true that for each prime $p>3$ there is a Mersenne number which is a quadratic nonresidue modulo $p$?...