# Questions tagged [difference-equations]

Difference equations, including linear and nonlinear equations, discrete version of topics in analysis, partial difference equations, oscillation theory, periodic solutions, almost periodic solutions, bifurcation theory, stability theory.

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300 views

### Does this deceptively simple nonlinear recurrence relation have a closed form solution?

Given the base case $a_0 = 1$, does $a_n = a_{n-1} + \frac{1}{\left\lfloor{a_{n-1}}\right \rfloor}$ have a closed form solution? The sequence itself is divergent and simply goes {$1, 2, 2+\frac{1}{2}, ...

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vote

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76 views

### General solution for first-order difference equation

I have the following first-order difference equation
$$y_{t} = \frac{x_{t}}{1-\rho L} + \epsilon_{t}$$
where $L$ denotes the backshift operator, i.e., $L(x_{t}) = x_{t-1}$. I can obtain a solution ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

239 views

### On difference identities and $[K:F]$

Let $(K,\sigma)$ be a difference field of characteristic $0$, i.e. equiped with field morphism $\sigma:K\rightarrow K$. Assume that $K$ satisfy a non-trivial univariate difference polynomial identity $...

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15 views

### How to change difference equation time steps when rearranging?

I am using difference equations to solve SDOF systems.
I have the system $$m\ddot{y_i}+c\dot{y_i} + ky_i = x_i$$
Using the difference equation results for the derivatives,
I am meant to end up with
...

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votes

**1**answer

254 views

### A strange two-variable recursion

In some work I was doing with a colleague the following function of two natural number variables, defined by a recursion, came up and we have no clue how to solve it. Any suggestions or improvements ...

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**0**answers

270 views

### Hrushovski's proof of the Manin-Mumford Conjecture

For my master's thesis, I am studying Hrushovski's model-theoretic proof of the Manin-Mumford Conjecture. Among the references I have used are the following:
Lecture notes 'Model Theory of Difference ...

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votes

**3**answers

194 views

### Difference equation and formal series

For a given formal series $g(x)=\sum_{k=0}^\infty g_k x^k$ I would like to find a formal series $f(x)=\sum_{k=0}^\infty f_k x^k$ such that they satisfy the difference equation
$$
f(x+1)-f(x)=g(x).
$$
...

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**2**answers

310 views

### Combinatorial Identity with Connection Coefficients and Falling Factorial $\langle i x\rangle_n$

Let $j, k ,n$ be nonnegative integers such that $0 \leq j, k \leq n \leq k +j $. Pick integer $m$ such that $0 \leq m \leq k + j - n$.
Let $\langle x \rangle_m$ denote the falling factorial $x(x-1)\...

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votes

**1**answer

131 views

### A problem from linear algebra and difference equations

Let $A$ be a linear second-order difference operator acting on the space of complex sequences as
$$(Af)_{n}=f_{n-1}+a_{n}f_{n}+f_{n+1}, \quad n\in\mathbb{Z},$$
where $a_{n}\in\mathbb{C}$. Further, let ...

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86 views

### Bounds for Discrete Poisson Kernel of a Square

I am having difficulty in proving the lower bound of the discrete Poisson kernel of a square denoted as $H$ described below. It is stated in Gregory F. Lawler's Randomm Walk and the Heat Equation as ...

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vote

**1**answer

135 views

### boundedness of a nonlinear recursive sequence

Consider a real sequence $(x_k)$ for $k=0,1,2,\dots,N$ as $x_0=1$ and for $k>0$
$$ x_k=x_{k-1}+\frac{\gamma}{N}x_{k-1}^2,\qquad (\gamma>0).$$
I wonder to show that the sequence is bounded as $N\...

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**0**answers

235 views

### A two variable recurrence relation with conditionals

I have arrived at the combinatorial problem of enumerating certain types of ballot paths. This has led to analyzing the sequence defined by the following recurrence
$$
f(n,m) = \begin{cases} f(n, \...

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votes

**3**answers

315 views

### Finite realization of irrational transfer functions

In the field of digital signal processing, linear time-invariant systems play a distinguished role. These are the systems for which there exists an impulse response, a function $h:\mathbb{Z}\to\...

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vote

**1**answer

399 views

### Integer Polynomial solutions to functional equation

Recently I came across a functional equation which always has a polynomial with integer coefficients solution.
Let
$$
L_n(x)=(2 x+1)^2f(x+1)-4x(x+n+1)f(x)-((2 n+1)!!)^2\prod_{i=1}^n(x+i).
$$
Problem:
...

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votes

**1**answer

108 views

### how to solve this equation? [closed]

$Q=-{\frac {q \left( {{\rm e}^{{\it nb}\,{\it nv}\,\theta\,{\it Td}}}-1
\right) }{1-{{\rm e}^{\theta\,{\it Td}}}} \left( 1-{{\rm e}^{{\frac {
Q\theta\,{\it Td}}{p}}}} \right) \left( 1-{{\rm e}^{{\...

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votes

**0**answers

91 views

### Deriving Milne's predictor of order four from extrapolation polynomial [closed]

I am trying to derive the following Milne's predictor formula of order four for the differential equation $\frac{dy}{dx}=f(x,y)$ from an extrapolation polynomial of degree four. $$y_{n+1} = y_{n-3}+\...

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votes

**1**answer

66 views

### Sum of difference equation involving hypergeometric functions 1F0

I'm trying to prove the sum of a sequence given by
$a_{n+1} = \frac{nb-x}{(n+1)b} a_n$
with $a_1 = 1$. This gives the solution $a_n = \frac{(-x/b)_n}{n!}$. When trying to work out what this sums to, ...

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votes

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349 views

### closed form solution of the following iterative equation?

is it possible to obtain a closed-form solution w.r.t. ${P_j:\forall j}$ (or in terms of special functions) for the following equations:
$\alpha P_0=P_1$, $\alpha<1$
$\alpha P_j=P_{j+1}+P_{j+2}+\...

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**0**answers

82 views

### Geometric unfolding of a difference equation

Does anyone know a link to the (superb) slides of a talk given by Zeeman in 1996, I think (with same title as this question)? It used to be at www.math.utsa.edu/ecz/gu.html .

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**1**answer

313 views

### Derivative in terms of finite differences

Consider expanding the differentiation operator in terms of the forward difference operator as $f' = \log(1 + \Delta)f = \displaystyle \sum_{n = 1}^{\infty} \frac{(-1)^{n + 1}\Delta^n f}{n}$. For some ...

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votes

**1**answer

83 views

### Solving the difference equation $h(\vec x)\cdot A(\vec x)=\sum_{i=1}^m A(\vec x - \vec e_i)$

I am trying to solve the following difference equation:
$$h(x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4) \cdot A(x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4)=A(x_1-1,x_2,x_3,x_4)+A(x_1,x_2-1,x_3,x_4)+A(x_1,x_2,x_3-1,x_4)+A(x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4-1)$$
with ...

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vote

**0**answers

26 views

### Bifurcations in flows on 2-dimensional torus

I am doing research on bifurcations which appear in flows on the
2-dimensional torus, in particular on such which do not appear in flows
on $\mathbb{R}^2$.
Can anyone provide some references on ...

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votes

**1**answer

339 views

### for which values of $\theta$ does this equation $x_{n+1}=\cos(\theta)x^2_{n}-\sin(\theta)x^2_{n-1}$ have bounded solutions?

I would like to investigate the global behavior of the following equation :
$$x_{n+1}=Ax^2_{n}-Bx^2_{n-1}$$
where $A(\theta)= \cos(\theta)$ and $B(\theta) =\sin(\theta)$ are nonnegative parameters ...

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votes

**0**answers

72 views

### Discrete “difference” equations that involve changes in both shift and scale

A standard use of the Z-transform ($F(z) = \sum_n (f[n] \cdot z^{-n} )$) is to understand the effect of a difference equation on a signal. For instance:
$y[n] = x[n] + y[n-1]$
$Y(z) = X(z) + Y(z) \...

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918 views

### Boundedness of solutions of a difference equation

Is there someone who can show me how I can prove this conjecture? Or at least show me how to do the first implication ?
Conjecture: Assume $\alpha,\beta, \lambda \in [0,\infty)$. Then every ...

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**0**answers

188 views

### Help solving a recurrence relation

For solving a related probability problem, I need to solve the following recurrence relation:-
$q(r,b,L)=\frac{b}{r+b}q(r,b-1,L)+\sum_{k=1}^{L}\frac{r}{r+b}\times\cdots \times \frac{r-(k-1)}{r+b-(k-1)...

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86 views

### Rational dynamical system with nonnegative paramaters

let $A$ be a rational system of the form :$\begin{cases} x_{n+1}=\frac{\alpha_{1}}{y_{n}} \\ y_{n+1}=\frac{\alpha_{2}}{z_{n}} \\ z_{n+1}=\frac{\alpha_{3+}+\beta_{3}x_{n}+\sigma_{3}y_{n}+\lambda_{3}z_{...

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**1**answer

179 views

### a second order difference equation related to a real polynomials which seems to have only real roots

I am seeking solutions to the following difference equation:
$$2c_k-c_{k-1}-c_{k+1}=\ln(k+A)-\ln(k+B)$$
where $A>B>0$.
This equation is related to a real polynomial (see here) which I want to ...

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votes

**1**answer

217 views

### Generic way to solve f(x+1) - f(x) = g(x) when g(x) is given [closed]

All
I have been looking around for a general way to solve the problem of $f(x+1) - f(x) = g(x)$, where $g(x)$ is given. Has this problem been studied before?
If there does not exist such a general ...

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votes

**1**answer

268 views

### Non-linear 1st order difference equation

I have been trying to solve the following difference equation for some time now : $$u^3(n+1) = a - b\cdot u^2(n) + u^3(n), \qquad a \ne 0 \ne b$$
I have tried various substitutions, simplifications ...

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votes

**2**answers

240 views

### Resource on Infinite Systems of Difference Equations

I have asked this question previously at Math.stackexchange, but it seems to receive little attention there.
In my efforts (somewhere on the boundary of discrete mathematics and theoretical computer ...

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417 views

### Differential Equations vs Difference Equations

My question is:
Is there a duality between a solution of an ODE,PDE,SDE or integral equations with their analog counterpart in the discrete domain?
I mean if I know a solution to the difference ...

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vote

**1**answer

224 views

### Vortex equations on cylinder

Solutions to the vortex equations for a closed Riemann surface are well known (moduli space is a symmetric power). What do we know about solutions on surfaces with boundary or non compact surfaces? In ...

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votes

**1**answer

434 views

### nonlinear delay differential equation

Consider the delay differential equation:
$ y_x(x) = \sqrt{y(x-\bar{x})} $
where $y$ is the unknown function of $x$, and where $\bar{x}$ is a fixed parameter.
This equation does not seem to have a ...

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votes

**2**answers

455 views

### delay differential equation

I'm looking for exact solutions, if such exist, for the following non-linear delay differential equation (DDE):
$ y_x(x) = A y(x-1)^a $
where $ 0 < a < 1 $ and $ A > 0 $ are given constants....

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votes

**1**answer

509 views

### Is exponent of discrete-analytic function also discrete-analytic?

Lets define a discrete analytic function such a function that is equal to its Newton series:
$$f(x) = \sum_{k=0}^\infty \binom{x}k \Delta^k f\left (0\right)$$
Is function $g(x)=e^{f(x)}$ also ...

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1k views

### What are other applications of difference equations in other branches of mathematics ?

What are some of interesting results that arise from using difference equations in number theory , Combinatorics or any other field ?

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**0**answers

138 views

### Are there existing resources on modular-esque recurrence relations?

Does anyone know where I would be able to get information on analyzing a class of polynomial recurrence relations of a form like this?
$\begin{align*}
f_{n,k}(x) & =a(x)f_{n-1,k}(x)+b(x)f_{n-2,k}(...

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votes

**1**answer

780 views

### Why is there no formula for partial sums of some simple series?

I'm pretty sure that the sequences like $F_n=\sum_{k=1}^n \frac 1k$ are not traces of elementary functions on positive integers (take any reasonable definition of "elementary" you want, just make sure ...

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**1**answer

313 views

### Difference equation $A(n,x)=p(x)A(n-1,x-1)+q(x)A(n-1,x)$

I asked this question on MSE, but didn't get enough information. If it is a violation of some norms, let me know, I'll delete it.
I'm having problem solving this difference equation. Initially I ...

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vote

**1**answer

266 views

### Extension of polynomial functions

Let $P$ be an interval in $\mathbf{R}$, $n \in \mathbf{N}$. Assume that a function $f: P \rightarrow \mathbf{R}$ satisfies $\Delta^{n+1}_h f(x)=0$ for every $x \in P$ and every $h>0$ such that $x+(...

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1k views

### Are these two functions equal?

The question here is sparked by the discussion inside this question about indefinite sum(antidifference) of tan(x).
A proposed solution was a function
$$f_1(x)=ix-\psi _{e^{2 i}}^{(0)}\left(x+\frac{\...

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votes

**2**answers

746 views

### Discrete-analytic functions

I do not know if such concept already exists but lets consider functions which are equal to its Newton series.
We know that functions which are equal to their Taylor series are called analytic, so ...

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187 views

### Is there a solution/approximation for the non-linear difference equation $c_n = c_{n-1}+c_{\lceil \alpha n \rceil}$, where $0 < \alpha < 1$?

Is there a solution/approximation for the non-linear difference equation $c_n = c_{n-1}+c_{\lceil \alpha n \rceil}$, where $0 < \alpha < 1$?

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**4**answers

2k views

### Shannon's communication paper and finite differences

In Shannon's 1948 paper "A Mathematical Theory of Communication", early on he derives the equation $$N(t)=N(t-t_1)+N(t-t_2)+\ldots+N(t-t_n).$$
He then says "according to a well-known result in finite ...

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votes

**1**answer

449 views

### Smooth and analytic structures on low dimensional euclidian spaces

So it is relatively easy to show that there exists only one smooth structure on
the real line $\mathbb{R}$. So here are 2 natural questions:
Q1: Up to equivalence, is there only one real analytic ...

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votes

**0**answers

324 views

### When does a triangle of numbers have a zero row sum?

Suppose we have a triangle of numbers defined by the recurrence relation
$$\left| n \atop k \right| = f(n,k) \left| n-1 \atop k \right| +g(n,k) \left| n-1 \atop k-1 \right| + [n=k=0],$$
for some ...

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**0**answers

253 views

### A second order non-linear difference equations

I am trying to explicitly solve [ if possible and if the solution exists ] a second order non-linear difference equation of the form :
$ a _ {n+2} ^2 + a_{n} ^2 + K = \lambda a_{n+1} $, where K ...

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votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Laplace's summation formula

I recently came across the following formula, which is apparently known as Laplace's summation formula:
$$\int_a^b f(x) dx = \sum_{k=a}^{b-1} f(k) + \frac{1}{2} \left(f(b) - f(a)\right) - \frac{1}{...

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**0**answers

391 views

### Can any antidifference (indefinite sum) of a function be expressed in elementary functions and generalized polygamma function if its integral can be expressed in elementary functions?

If the integral or multiplicative integral of a function can be expressed with elementary functions, does it mean its indefinite sum (antidifference) or indefinite product respectively can be ...