# Questions tagged [roots-of-unity]

The roots-of-unity tag has no usage guidance.

67
questions

2
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### Sum of roots of unity

Today I came across the series $\sum_{k=0}^{n-1}\varepsilon^{2k^2}$, where $\varepsilon$ is some primitive $n^\text{th}$ root of unity. Is there an explicit expression for this sum? I mistakenly ...

1
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1
answer

167
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### Norm of $2^{i}$-th primitive root

Let $ K $ be finite degree extension of $ \mathbb{Q} $ such that $ -1 $ is not a square in $ K $. Let $ L = \frac{K[x]}{\langle x^2 +1\rangle}$. Thus every element of $ L $ is of the form $ a + ib $ ...

0
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0
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30
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### About nilpotent Jordan algebras, matrix representations and formally real algebras

Given an non-commutative associative unital algebra A of characteristic $0$, one can construct a Jordan algebra $A+$ using the same underlying addition vector space.
Notice first that an associative ...

1
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0
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114
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### $\sin(\frac{\pi}{p}) $ not expressible by positive radicals and $\sin(\frac{\pi}{q_i})$?

We have the following identities:
$\sin(\frac{\pi}{1})=0$
$\sin(\frac{\pi}{2})=1$
$\sin(\frac{\pi}{3})=\frac{\sqrt{3}}{2}$
$\sin(\frac{\pi}{4})=\sqrt{\frac{1}{2}}$
Lets start with a definition.
Rules ...

3
votes

1
answer

295
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### A similar relationship between the generic cubic and the Lehmer quintic?

I. Comparison
It doesn't seem to be well-known that the generic cubic (prominent in this MO post) for $C_3 = A_3$,
$$x^3-nx^2+(n-3)x+1 = 0$$
has the nice property that its roots $a,b,c$, if in correct ...

5
votes

1
answer

285
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### A conjectural permanent identity

Let $n>1$ be an integer, and let $\zeta$ be a primitive $n$th root of unity. By $(3.4)$ of arXiv:2206.02589, $1$ and those $n+1-2s\ (s=1,\ldots,n-1)$ are all the eigenvalues of the matrix $M=[m_{jk}...

2
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1
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468
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### Integer eigenvalues of a class of matrices inspired by Prof. Zhi-Wei Sun's conjecture

Theorem: Let $n>1$ be an odd number and $\zeta$ a primitive $n$-th root of unity. Then
\begin{eqnarray}
&&\sum_{\tau\in D(n-1)}\mathrm{sign}(\tau)\prod_{j=1}^{n-1}\frac{1}{1-\zeta^{j-\tau(j)...

4
votes

1
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573
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### Has any one seen this sum of roots of unity before?

Fix a prime $p >2$ and $q_1$, $q_2$ such that $q_i - 1$ is exactly divisible by $p$. For any $n$, $a$, $b $, consider the sum
$$\sum_{i=0}^{p^{n-1}-1}\zeta_{p^n}^{aq_1^i+bq_2^i}.$$
Is this always ...

7
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0
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142
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### Finding when a certain product in a cyclotomic field is equal to one

For the following, fix $m\geq 2$, and let $a_{0},\dots,a_{m-1}\in\mathbb{Z}$ be such that $\sum_{k=0}^{m-1}a_{k}=0$. I would like to find the exact conditions on the $a_{k}$ so that the following ...

15
votes

2
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### Vanishing of a sum of roots of unity

In my answer to this question, there appears the following sub-question about a sum of roots of unity. Denoting $z=\exp\frac{i\pi}N$ (so that $z^N=-1$), can the quantity
$$\sum_{k=0}^{N-1}z^{2k^2+k}$$
...

3
votes

0
answers

180
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### Coefficients for Expansions of $1-\zeta_p$

Let $\mathbb{Q}_p(\zeta_p)$ be the cyclotomic extension of the $p$-adic field $\mathbb{Q}_p$. Then $1 - \zeta_p$ is a uniformizer for this field. Recall that
$$\sum_{i=1}^{p-1} \zeta_p^i = -1.$$
So ...

1
vote

1
answer

202
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### A determinant involving the cotangent function

Let $n>1$ be odd. In my 2019 preprint On some determinants involving the tangent function, I proved that
$$\det\left[\tan\pi\frac{aj+bk}n\right]_{1\le j,k\le n-1}=\left(\frac{-ab}n\right)n^{n-2}$$
...

10
votes

1
answer

511
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### Identities involving derangements and roots of unity

For a positive integer $n$, a derangement of $\{1,\ldots,n\}$ is a permutation $\tau$ of $\{1,\ldots,n\}$ with $\tau(j)\not=j$ for all $j=1,\ldots,n$. For convenience, we let $D(n)$ denote the set of ...

10
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1
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591
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### A conjecture on binomial coefficients and roots of unity

Is the following true?
Let $p$ be a prime and let $w$ be a $(p-1)$st root of unity (not necessarily primitive). Then
$$\binom{w}{n}=\frac{w(w-1)\cdots(w-n+1)}{n!}$$ is $p$-integral; i.e., it can be ...

1
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0
answers

88
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### Mod $N^2$ evaluation of a polynomial defined by first $N-1$ roots

Given a prime $N$ and integer $g$, where $g$ is able to generate the multiplicative subgroup $(\mathbb{Z}/N^2\mathbb{Z})^*$, I am interested in any results simplifying or evaluating $f\in (\mathbb{Z}/...

6
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0
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122
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### Simultaneous vanishing $\mathbb{Q}$-linear relations between $N$-th roots of unity

Let $\zeta$ be a primitive $N$-th root of unity and $\Gamma \subset (\mathbb{Z}/N)^\times$ a subgroup. Let $|\Gamma|$ be the cardinality of $\Gamma$ and consider the linear map $M_\Gamma\colon \mathbb{...

2
votes

1
answer

308
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### Möbius inversion formula and roots of unity

Is the exact value of
$$
\sum_{d\mid n} \mu\left(\frac{n}{d}\right) \zeta^d
$$
known? Here, $\mu$ denotes the Möbius function and $\zeta$ a root of unity. At first sight, it seems to me that this ...

8
votes

0
answers

340
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### Computing coefficients of polynomials from roots in $O(n\log{n})$ time

Suppose I have a univariate polynomial $p$ over a prime-order finite field $\mathbb{F}_q$ whose roots I know.
Suppose that the roots of $p$ are always an $n$-sized subset of $R=\{1,2,\dots,N\}, N <...

2
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0
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215
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### Finite sum involving root of unity

I have the following sum:
$$\sum_{\sigma=1,\text{odd}}^{\frac{p}{2}-2}\frac{\sin \frac{r \sigma \pi}{p}}{\sin \frac{q \sigma \pi}{p}}$$
where $p\equiv2\pmod4$, $p$ and $q$ are coprime numbers such ...

5
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0
answers

272
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### Is an algebraic number satisfying certain super-congruences a root of unity?

Let $K|\mathbb{Q}$ be a number field, $D$ its discriminant and $\mathcal{O}$ the ring of integers in $K$. Let $x\in K$ (or maybe $\in \mathcal{O}[\frac 1D]$) such that for all primes $p$ in $\mathbb{Q}...

6
votes

2
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484
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### A conjecture involving roots of unity

Motivated by Kevin Liu's recent question, here I pose the following conjecture based on my numerical computation.
Conjecture. Let $m>1$ and $n>1$ be integers. Let $\delta\in\{0,1\}$ and let $\...

13
votes

2
answers

587
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### $q$ as a prime power and a root of unity

The number of points on the $(n-1)$-dimensional projective space $P^{n-1}(\mathbb{F}_q)$ over a finite field $\mathbb{F}_q$ is the $q$-integer
$$[n]_q := \frac{q^n-1}{q-1}.$$
In analogy, the number of ...

3
votes

1
answer

285
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### Roots of anti-palindromic polynomial if coefficients are odd.

This is in continuation of the question asked in this earlier post here. Given an anti palindromic polynomial of degree $n$ with odd coefficients, does it have roots on the unit circle?

3
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0
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160
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### Modular root of $-1$

Take two distinct coprime integers $a,b$ and take $q=a^2+b^2$. Consider the equation $(xy^{-1})^2\equiv-1\bmod q$. The solutions are two roots which correspond to $(x,y)=(a,b)$ and $(x,y)=(b,a)$. Look ...

4
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0
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269
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### power series and roots of unity

Let $p$ be an odd prime and $X$ and $Y$ be subsets of $p^{th}$ roots of unity, $|X|=|Y|=n,X\neq Y.$ Let $f(t)=\sum_{x\in X}x^{t}-\sum_{y\in Y}y^{t}$. If $f(t)=at^k+o(t^k)$ is the power series ...

5
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0
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117
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### Sign preserving Galois automorphisms

I have an algebraic number $\alpha \in \mathbb{Q}(\zeta)$, where $\zeta^n = 1$ is a root of unity (not primitive) given as a linear combination of powers of $\zeta$, i.e, $\alpha = \sum_{i=1}^k a_i \...

6
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0
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199
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### Infinitude of cyclotomic polynomials with a certain number of terms

Let $\Phi_n$ be the $n$th cyclotomic polynomial:
$${\Phi _{n}(x)=\!\!\prod _{\substack {1\leq k\leq n \\ \gcd(k,n)=1}} \!\!\big(x-e^{2i\pi {k/n}}\big).}$$
Here is a list of the first 30 cyclotomic ...

4
votes

2
answers

646
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### Summation formulas involving roots of unity to various powers

I want to know properties of the following sum: $$\sum_{j=0}^{p-1} \omega^{\beta j^2}= ~? $$
where $p$ is a prime, and $\omega^p=1$, is a $p$th root of unity (and $\beta$ is an integer between $0$ and ...

1
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0
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128
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### How to evaluate this sum of roots of unity with condition to zero

In evaluating the sum:
$$\tag{1}\label{e1}\sum\limits_{j = 1 < h}^N {\left( {{e^{\frac{{i\pi }}{N}\left( {{s_1}j + {s_2}h} \right)}} - {e^{\frac{{i\pi }}{N}\left( {{s_1}h + {s_2}j} \right)}}} \...

6
votes

1
answer

580
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### Q-binomials at roots of unity

As the title says, given a general $q$-binomial $\binom{n}{k}_q$,
is there some general result regarding its value at a root of unity, $q = \exp(2\pi i r/N)$?

0
votes

0
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204
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### Discrete Fourier transform of the Ramanujan's sums

Let $n$ be a positive integer, and $\zeta_n$ a primitive $n$-root of unity.
I consider the polynomial $P(X) = \sum_{k=0}^{\phi(n)-1} \left[ \sum_{l \in \mathbb{Z}_n^*}^n \zeta_n^{kl} \right]X^k = \...

2
votes

1
answer

176
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### Simplification of a sum with roots of unity

Let $p$ be an odd prime, $\zeta $ a primitive $p-$th root of unity and
$${a_n}(x) = \sum\limits_{k = 1}^{p - 1} {\prod\limits_{j = 1}^n {\left( {1 + {\zeta ^{jk}}x} \right)} } .$$ It seems that for $...

4
votes

0
answers

145
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### An Optimization Problem for Exponential Polynomials

Let $\omega$ be a primitive complex $n^{th}$ root of unity. I am interested in the following quantity
$$
\max_{f(n)\leq \ell \leq g(n)} \quad \min_{0<k\leq n-1}
\left| 1+\omega^k+\omega^{2k}+\...

2
votes

1
answer

202
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### How to prove an approximation of a combinatorics identity

How to prove that $$\sum_{k\ge 0} \binom{n}{rk} =\frac{1}{r}\sum_{j=0}^{r-1}(1+w^j)^n$$ can be approximated as $\frac{2^n}{r}$, where $n\ge 0$, $r\ge 0$, $n>r$ and $w^r=1$ is a primitive $r$-th ...

4
votes

0
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264
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### How small can the nonzero sum of $O(\log n)$ distinct $n-$th roots of unity be?

The OEIS sequence oeis.org/A108380 gives the least number of distinct n-th roots of unity summing to the smallest possible nonzero magnitude.
This sequence seems to imply that the least number of ...

1
vote

1
answer

754
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### Trace 0 and Norm 1 elements in finite fields

Let $\mathbb{F}_{q^\ell}/\mathbb{F}_{q}$ be the extension of finite filed $\mathbb{F}_{q}$, where $\ell$ be a odd prime and $(\neq q)$. Take $\zeta\in\mathbb{F}_{q^\ell}$. Does there exist different $...

3
votes

1
answer

189
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### Homomorphism from integral module generated by roots of unity to cyclic group?

Let $S$ be the set of all roots of unity. Consider the $\mathbb{Z}$-module, $\mathbb{Z} S$, as an additive abelian group (that is, $\mathbb{Z} S$ is the subset of complex numbers that can be ...

7
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1
answer

1k
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### Uniqueness of sums of roots of unity

Let $\zeta:=e^{\frac{2\pi i}{n}}$, with $n\geq4$, and let $2\leq k\leq n-2$.
Let us suppose that the prime factorization of $n$ is $n=p_1^{\alpha_1}\cdot\dots\cdot p_s^{\alpha_s}$, with $\alpha_i>...

2
votes

0
answers

357
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### Trace of roots of unity has valuation more than 1 in uramified field

Let $F$ be a finite extension of $\mathbb{Q}_p$ (p is prime) and $K/F$ be a unramified extension of prime degree $\ell (\neq p)$. Denote $\mu_K$ be the group of roots of unity in $K.$ Does there exist ...

8
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2
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943
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### Power sums of p-th roots of unity

The following question was asked by a colleague of mine. For any prime $p$ consider
$$ M_p:=\min_{z_1,\dots,z_p}\max_{j,k}\left|z_1^k+\dots+z_j^k\right|,$$
where $z_1,\dots,z_p$ are the complex $p$-th ...

0
votes

1
answer

819
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### How to calculate $N_{L/k}$(roots of unity)?

Suppose that $L/k$ is a Galois extension of number fields and that $G$
is the corresponding Galois group. Further, for $\frak p$ a prime ideal
of $\cal O$$_L$, let $K=L^{G(\frak p)}$, where [$L$ : $K$...

3
votes

1
answer

344
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### When is possible to factor a field extension into one which adds no roots of unity, followed by one which adds only roots of unity?

The answer to whether this is possible for general fields is no. However, the counterexamples used two ingredients:
1) $\Bbb Q_p$, whose extensions $K$ containing $\Bbb Q_p(\sqrt[p^e]{u})$ might not ...

4
votes

1
answer

489
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### Unit in cyclotomic field

Let $n \in \mathbb{N}$ and $\zeta$ be a primitive $n$-th root of unity. I want to know for which $n$ the element $1+2(\zeta+\zeta^{-1})$ is a unit in the ring of integers of $\mathbb{Q}[\zeta]$. Can ...

6
votes

2
answers

462
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### Why are most coefficients of these minimal polynomials divisible by $p$?

For an odd prime $p$, let $\zeta:=e^{\frac{\pi i}p}$ and choose odd $1<n<p$. Further let $q(x)$ and $r(x)$ be integer polynomials such that $r(x)$ has no common factor with $x^n+1$, and $\xi$ ...

26
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0
answers

887
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### Which sets of roots of unity give a polynomial with nonnegative coefficients?

The question in brief: When does a subset $S$ of the complex $n$th roots of unity have the property that
$$\prod_{\alpha\, \in \,S} (z-\alpha)$$
gives a polynomial in $\mathbb R[z]$ with ...

4
votes

3
answers

289
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### counting complex roots which are root of unity times a real number

Let $p(x)$ be a monic polynomial over the integers. I want to count the number of roots which have the form $\zeta \cdot r$ where $\zeta$ is a root of unity and $r$ is a real number.
To count the ...

4
votes

2
answers

600
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### Non-standard Gauss sums

I have the following problem. Let $p$ be some prime. What is the value of
\begin{equation}
\sum_{k=1}^{p-1} \left(\frac{k+1}{p}\right) \omega_p^{kl},
\end{equation}
where $\left(\frac{k+1}{p}\right)$ ...

16
votes

1
answer

1k
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### Evaluating a remarkable term for primes p = 5 (mod. 8)

Let $p > 3$ be a prime number, and $\zeta$ be a primitive $p$-th root of unity. I am interested in knowing the exact value of
$$w_p = \prod_{a \in (\mathbb F_p^{\times})^2}(1 + \zeta^a) + \prod_{b ...

4
votes

1
answer

593
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### Primes $p=x^2+27y^2$ and Ramanujan's $x_1^{1/3} + x_2^{1/3} + x_3^{1/3}$

I was trying to generalize,
$$\sqrt[3]{\sum_{k=1}^5\cos\big(\tfrac{2^k\cdot\,2\pi}{31}\big)}+\sqrt[3]{\sum_{k=1}^5\cos\big(\tfrac{2^k\cdot\,6\pi}{31}\big)}+\sqrt[3]{\sum_{k=1}^5\cos\big(\tfrac{2^k\...

3
votes

1
answer

239
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### Does the Lehmer quintic parameterize certain minimal polynomials of the $p$th root of unity for infinitely many $p$?

The solvable Emma Lehmer quintic is given by,
$$F(y) = y^5 + n^2y^4 - (2n^3 + 6n^2 + 10n + 10)y^3 + (n^4 + 5n^3 + 11n^2 + 15n + 5)y^2 + (n^3 + 4n^2 + 10n + 10)y + 1 = 0$$
with discriminant $D = (7 + ...