# Questions tagged [roots-of-unity]

The roots-of-unity tag has no usage guidance.

62
questions

4
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1
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452
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### Has any one seen this sum of roots of unity before?

Fix a prime $p >2$ and $q_1$, $q_2$ such that $q_i - 1$ is exactly divisible by $p$. For any $n$, $a$, $b $, consider the sum
$$\sum_{i=0}^{p^{n-1}-1}\zeta_{p^n}^{aq_1^i+bq_2^i}.$$
Is this always ...

7
votes

0
answers

128
views

### Finding when a certain product in a cyclotomic field is equal to one

For the following, fix $m\geq 2$, and let $a_{0},\dots,a_{m-1}\in\mathbb{Z}$ be such that $\sum_{k=0}^{m-1}a_{k}=0$. I would like to find the exact conditions on the $a_{k}$ so that the following ...

15
votes

2
answers

1k
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### Vanishing of a sum of roots of unity

In my answer to this question, there appears the following sub-question about a sum of roots of unity. Denoting $z=\exp\frac{i\pi}N$ (so that $z^N=-1$), can the quantity
$$\sum_{k=0}^{N-1}z^{2k^2+k}$$
...

3
votes

0
answers

169
views

### Coefficients for Expansions of $1-\zeta_p$

Let $\mathbb{Q}_p(\zeta_p)$ be the cyclotomic extension of the $p$-adic field $\mathbb{Q}_p$. Then $1 - \zeta_p$ is a uniformizer for this field. Recall that
$$\sum_{i=1}^{p-1} \zeta_p^i = -1.$$
So ...

0
votes

0
answers

49
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### Unit modulus manifolds

I am conducting my research in optimization in manifold. I come up with the following question.
Let $\mathcal{F}_{p,q}$ is the collection of all matrices $\mathbf{F} \in \mathbb{C}^{p \times q}$ such ...

0
votes

0
answers

103
views

### A determinant involving the cotangent function

Let $n>1$ be odd. In my 2019 preprint On some determinants involving the tangent function, I proved that
$$\det\left[\tan\pi\frac{aj+bk}n\right]_{1\le j,k\le n-1}=\left(\frac{-ab}n\right)n^{n-2}$$
...

4
votes

0
answers

139
views

### Identities involving derangements and roots of unity

For a positive integer $n$, a derangement of $\{1,\ldots,n\}$ is a permutation $\tau$ of $\{1,\ldots,n\}$ with $\tau(j)\not=j$ for all $j=1,\ldots,n$. For convenience, we let $D(n)$ denote the set of ...

10
votes

1
answer

548
views

### A conjecture on binomial coefficients and roots of unity

Is the following true?
Let $p$ be a prime and let $w$ be a $(p-1)$st root of unity (not necessarily primitive). Then
$$\binom{w}{n}=\frac{w(w-1)\cdots(w-n+1)}{n!}$$ is $p$-integral; i.e., it can be ...

1
vote

0
answers

81
views

### Mod $N^2$ evaluation of a polynomial defined by first $N-1$ roots

Given a prime $N$ and integer $g$, where $g$ is able to generate the multiplicative subgroup $(\mathbb{Z}/N^2\mathbb{Z})^*$, I am interested in any results simplifying or evaluating $f\in (\mathbb{Z}/...

6
votes

0
answers

112
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### Simultaneous vanishing $\mathbb{Q}$-linear relations between $N$-th roots of unity

Let $\zeta$ be a primitive $N$-th root of unity and $\Gamma \subset (\mathbb{Z}/N)^\times$ a subgroup. Let $|\Gamma|$ be the cardinality of $\Gamma$ and consider the linear map $M_\Gamma\colon \mathbb{...

1
vote

1
answer

261
views

### Möbius inversion formula and roots of unity

Is the exact value of
$$
\sum_{d\mid n} \mu\left(\frac{n}{d}\right) \zeta^d
$$
known? Here, $\mu$ denotes the Möbius function and $\zeta$ a root of unity. At first sight, it seems to me that this ...

8
votes

0
answers

300
views

### Computing coefficients of polynomials from roots in $O(n\log{n})$ time

Suppose I have a univariate polynomial $p$ over a prime-order finite field $\mathbb{F}_q$ whose roots I know.
Suppose that the roots of $p$ are always an $n$-sized subset of $R=\{1,2,\dots,N\}, N <...

2
votes

0
answers

202
views

### Finite sum involving root of unity

I have the following sum:
$$\sum_{\sigma=1,\text{odd}}^{\frac{p}{2}-2}\frac{\sin \frac{r \sigma \pi}{p}}{\sin \frac{q \sigma \pi}{p}}$$
where $p\equiv2\pmod4$, $p$ and $q$ are coprime numbers such ...

5
votes

0
answers

268
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### Is an algebraic number satisfying certain super-congruences a root of unity?

Let $K|\mathbb{Q}$ be a number field, $D$ its discriminant and $\mathcal{O}$ the ring of integers in $K$. Let $x\in K$ (or maybe $\in \mathcal{O}[\frac 1D]$) such that for all primes $p$ in $\mathbb{Q}...

0
votes

0
answers

110
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### Countable roots of unity

I recently learned about non-standard analysis and have the following question. Take the rational numbers; there is a maximal cyclotomic extension (containing all roots of the multiplicative identity)....

6
votes

2
answers

460
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### A conjecture involving roots of unity

Motivated by Kevin Liu's recent question, here I pose the following conjecture based on my numerical computation.
Conjecture. Let $m>1$ and $n>1$ be integers. Let $\delta\in\{0,1\}$ and let $\...

13
votes

2
answers

525
views

### $q$ as a prime power and a root of unity

The number of points on the $(n-1)$-dimensional projective space $P^{n-1}(\mathbb{F}_q)$ over a finite field $\mathbb{F}_q$ is the $q$-integer
$$[n]_q := \frac{q^n-1}{q-1}.$$
In analogy, the number of ...

3
votes

1
answer

235
views

### Roots of anti-palindromic polynomial if coefficients are odd.

This is in continuation of the question asked in this earlier post here. Given an anti palindromic polynomial of degree $n$ with odd coefficients, does it have roots on the unit circle?

3
votes

0
answers

157
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### Modular root of $-1$

Take two distinct coprime integers $a,b$ and take $q=a^2+b^2$. Consider the equation $(xy^{-1})^2\equiv-1\bmod q$. The solutions are two roots which correspond to $(x,y)=(a,b)$ and $(x,y)=(b,a)$. Look ...

4
votes

0
answers

243
views

### power series and roots of unity

Let $p$ be an odd prime and $X$ and $Y$ be subsets of $p^{th}$ roots of unity, $|X|=|Y|=n,X\neq Y.$ Let $f(t)=\sum_{x\in X}x^{t}-\sum_{y\in Y}y^{t}$. If $f(t)=at^k+o(t^k)$ is the power series ...

5
votes

0
answers

113
views

### Sign preserving Galois automorphisms

I have an algebraic number $\alpha \in \mathbb{Q}(\zeta)$, where $\zeta^n = 1$ is a root of unity (not primitive) given as a linear combination of powers of $\zeta$, i.e, $\alpha = \sum_{i=1}^k a_i \...

6
votes

0
answers

184
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### Infinitude of cyclotomic polynomials with a certain number of terms

Let $\Phi_n$ be the $n$th cyclotomic polynomial:
$${\Phi _{n}(x)=\!\!\prod _{\substack {1\leq k\leq n \\ \gcd(k,n)=1}} \!\!\big(x-e^{2i\pi {k/n}}\big).}$$
Here is a list of the first 30 cyclotomic ...

4
votes

2
answers

575
views

### Summation formulas involving roots of unity to various powers

I want to know properties of the following sum: $$\sum_{j=0}^{p-1} \omega^{\beta j^2}= ~? $$
where $p$ is a prime, and $\omega^p=1$, is a $p$th root of unity (and $\beta$ is an integer between $0$ and ...

1
vote

0
answers

115
views

### How to evaluate this sum of roots of unity with condition to zero

In evaluating the sum:
$$\tag{1}\label{e1}\sum\limits_{j = 1 < h}^N {\left( {{e^{\frac{{i\pi }}{N}\left( {{s_1}j + {s_2}h} \right)}} - {e^{\frac{{i\pi }}{N}\left( {{s_1}h + {s_2}j} \right)}}} \...

6
votes

1
answer

488
views

### Q-binomials at roots of unity

As the title says, given a general $q$-binomial $\binom{n}{k}_q$,
is there some general result regarding its value at a root of unity, $q = \exp(2\pi i r/N)$?

0
votes

0
answers

196
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### Discrete Fourier transform of the Ramanujan's sums

Let $n$ be a positive integer, and $\zeta_n$ a primitive $n$-root of unity.
I consider the polynomial $P(X) = \sum_{k=0}^{\phi(n)-1} \left[ \sum_{l \in \mathbb{Z}_n^*}^n \zeta_n^{kl} \right]X^k = \...

2
votes

1
answer

162
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### Simplification of a sum with roots of unity

Let $p$ be an odd prime, $\zeta $ a primitive $p-$th root of unity and
$${a_n}(x) = \sum\limits_{k = 1}^{p - 1} {\prod\limits_{j = 1}^n {\left( {1 + {\zeta ^{jk}}x} \right)} } .$$ It seems that for $...

4
votes

0
answers

139
views

### An Optimization Problem for Exponential Polynomials

Let $\omega$ be a primitive complex $n^{th}$ root of unity. I am interested in the following quantity
$$
\max_{f(n)\leq \ell \leq g(n)} \quad \min_{0<k\leq n-1}
\left| 1+\omega^k+\omega^{2k}+\...

2
votes

1
answer

198
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### How to prove an approximation of a combinatorics identity

How to prove that $$\sum_{k\ge 0} \binom{n}{rk} =\frac{1}{r}\sum_{j=0}^{r-1}(1+w^j)^n$$ can be approximated as $\frac{2^n}{r}$, where $n\ge 0$, $r\ge 0$, $n>r$ and $w^r=1$ is a primitive $r$-th ...

4
votes

0
answers

248
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### How small can the nonzero sum of $O(\log n)$ distinct $n-$th roots of unity be?

The OEIS sequence oeis.org/A108380 gives the least number of distinct n-th roots of unity summing to the smallest possible nonzero magnitude.
This sequence seems to imply that the least number of ...

1
vote

1
answer

666
views

### Trace 0 and Norm 1 elements in finite fields

Let $\mathbb{F}_{q^\ell}/\mathbb{F}_{q}$ be the extension of finite filed $\mathbb{F}_{q}$, where $\ell$ be a odd prime and $(\neq q)$. Take $\zeta\in\mathbb{F}_{q^\ell}$. Does there exist different $...

3
votes

1
answer

160
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### Homomorphism from integral module generated by roots of unity to cyclic group?

Let $S$ be the set of all roots of unity. Consider the $\mathbb{Z}$-module, $\mathbb{Z} S$, as an additive abelian group (that is, $\mathbb{Z} S$ is the subset of complex numbers that can be ...

7
votes

1
answer

1k
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### Uniqueness of sums of roots of unity

Let $\zeta:=e^{\frac{2\pi i}{n}}$, with $n\geq4$, and let $2\leq k\leq n-2$.
Let us suppose that the prime factorization of $n$ is $n=p_1^{\alpha_1}\cdot\dots\cdot p_s^{\alpha_s}$, with $\alpha_i>...

2
votes

0
answers

336
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### Trace of roots of unity has valuation more than 1 in uramified field

Let $F$ be a finite extension of $\mathbb{Q}_p$ (p is prime) and $K/F$ be a unramified extension of prime degree $\ell (\neq p)$. Denote $\mu_K$ be the group of roots of unity in $K.$ Does there exist ...

7
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2
answers

870
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### Power sums of p-th roots of unity

The following question was asked by a colleague of mine. For any prime $p$ consider
$$ M_p:=\min_{z_1,\dots,z_p}\max_{j,k}\left|z_1^k+\dots+z_j^k\right|,$$
where $z_1,\dots,z_p$ are the complex $p$-th ...

0
votes

1
answer

681
views

### How to calculate $N_{L/k}$(roots of unity)?

Suppose that $L/k$ is a Galois extension of number fields and that $G$
is the corresponding Galois group. Further, for $\frak p$ a prime ideal
of $\cal O$$_L$, let $K=L^{G(\frak p)}$, where [$L$ : $K$...

3
votes

1
answer

326
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### When is possible to factor a field extension into one which adds no roots of unity, followed by one which adds only roots of unity?

The answer to whether this is possible for general fields is no. However, the counterexamples used two ingredients:
1) $\Bbb Q_p$, whose extensions $K$ containing $\Bbb Q_p(\sqrt[p^e]{u})$ might not ...

4
votes

1
answer

470
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### Unit in cyclotomic field

Let $n \in \mathbb{N}$ and $\zeta$ be a primitive $n$-th root of unity. I want to know for which $n$ the element $1+2(\zeta+\zeta^{-1})$ is a unit in the ring of integers of $\mathbb{Q}[\zeta]$. Can ...

6
votes

2
answers

452
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### Why are most coefficients of these minimal polynomials divisible by $p$?

For an odd prime $p$, let $\zeta:=e^{\frac{\pi i}p}$ and choose odd $1<n<p$. Further let $q(x)$ and $r(x)$ be integer polynomials such that $r(x)$ has no common factor with $x^n+1$, and $\xi$ ...

25
votes

0
answers

834
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### Which sets of roots of unity give a polynomial with nonnegative coefficients?

The question in brief: When does a subset $S$ of the complex $n$th roots of unity have the property that
$$\prod_{\alpha\, \in \,S} (z-\alpha)$$
gives a polynomial in $\mathbb R[z]$ with ...

4
votes

3
answers

265
views

### counting complex roots which are root of unity times a real number

Let $p(x)$ be a monic polynomial over the integers. I want to count the number of roots which have the form $\zeta \cdot r$ where $\zeta$ is a root of unity and $r$ is a real number.
To count the ...

4
votes

2
answers

553
views

### Non-standard Gauss sums

I have the following problem. Let $p$ be some prime. What is the value of
\begin{equation}
\sum_{k=1}^{p-1} \left(\frac{k+1}{p}\right) \omega_p^{kl},
\end{equation}
where $\left(\frac{k+1}{p}\right)$ ...

15
votes

1
answer

1k
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### Evaluating a remarkable term for primes p = 5 (mod. 8)

Let $p > 3$ be a prime number, and $\zeta$ be a primitive $p$-th root of unity. I am interested in knowing the exact value of
$$w_p = \prod_{a \in (\mathbb F_p^{\times})^2}(1 + \zeta^a) + \prod_{b ...

4
votes

1
answer

558
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### Primes $p=x^2+27y^2$ and Ramanujan's $x_1^{1/3} + x_2^{1/3} + x_3^{1/3}$

I was trying to generalize,
$$\sqrt[3]{\sum_{k=1}^5\cos\big(\tfrac{2^k\cdot\,2\pi}{31}\big)}+\sqrt[3]{\sum_{k=1}^5\cos\big(\tfrac{2^k\cdot\,6\pi}{31}\big)}+\sqrt[3]{\sum_{k=1}^5\cos\big(\tfrac{2^k\...

3
votes

1
answer

196
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### Does the Lehmer quintic parameterize certain minimal polynomials of the $p$th root of unity for infinitely many $p$?

The solvable Emma Lehmer quintic is given by,
$$F(y) = y^5 + n^2y^4 - (2n^3 + 6n^2 + 10n + 10)y^3 + (n^4 + 5n^3 + 11n^2 + 15n + 5)y^2 + (n^3 + 4n^2 + 10n + 10)y + 1 = 0$$
with discriminant $D = (7 + ...

9
votes

1
answer

344
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### A curious Gauss-Sum type identity

Let $q=e^{2\pi i/m}$, $a\in\mathbb{R}$ and $1\leq j\leq m-1$. I would like to prove that:
$$(a-1)\sum_{n=0}^{m-1} q^n\frac{\prod_{k=0}^{j-2} (q^{n+k+1}-a)}{\prod_{k=0}^{j} (aq^{n+k}-1)}=0.$$
For $j=...

4
votes

1
answer

406
views

### q-th powers and roots of polynomials

Let $p,q,r$ be integers with $r\ge2$; let $f$ be a polynomial of the form $f(X) = g((X+1)^r)$, which is not a $q$-th power. Let $\omega$ be a $p$-th root of unity.
Prove or disprove that the ...

0
votes

0
answers

87
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### Condensation points of orbits of roots of unity

For a fixed $n\in \mathbb{N}$ we consider the set of $n$-roots of unity $R(n)=\{z\in S^1; z^n=1\}$. It splits into mutually disjoint orbits. Let $R=\bigcup_{n=0}^{\infty} R(2^n-1)$. For each orbit in $...

4
votes

0
answers

333
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### Independent units in pure number fields $\mathbb{Q}(\sqrt[p]{t})$

Theorem: In this paper of Frei and Levesque, they correct the proof of a result of Halter-Koch and Stender:
Define the real pure algebraic number field $\mathbb{K}=\mathbb{Q}(\omega_n)$ for $\omega_n=...

16
votes

2
answers

1k
views

### Probability a polynomial has a root which is a root of unity

Consider a degree $n$ polynomial $P(x)$ with coefficients $c_i \in \{-1,0,1\}$ chosen uniformly and independently.
What is the probability that $P(x)$ has a root which is a root of
unity?
...