# Questions tagged [catalan-numbers]

The Catalan numbers form the sequence of numbers starting 1,1,2,5,14,42,... with explicit formula $\frac{1}{n+1}\binom{2n}{n}$. It counts many combinatorial objects like planar binary trees, triangulations, noncrossing partitions, Dyck paths, etc. See https://oeis.org/A000108

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### Conjecture on sum over permutations of products of Catalan numbers

Context In a recent paper involving entanglement in linear optics, we came across some summations involving Catalan numbers and permutations. In particular, these sums arise when doing integration ...
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### Non-crossing and crossing bijection in higher genus

This is a follow-up question of my SO post I'll briefly mention it here. So given a $n$ cycle say $(1,2,\ldots,n)$, what are the monotonic 2 -tuples, of the form $(a,b)(c,d)$, monotonicity in on the ...
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### Counting monomials and $q$-Catalan polynomials

Define $N(F)$ to be the number of monomials of a multi-variable polynomial $F$. For example $N(x^2y+3xy-y^5)=3$. If $\mathbf{x}=(x_1,\dots,x_n)$ and $F_n(\mathbf{x})=\prod_{k=1}^n(x_1+\cdots+x_k)$ ...
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### Bijection between forests and skew SYT + Cyclic sieving

Consider the two-row skew shape $\lambda_n = (2n+1,n)/(1)$. The number of standard Young tableaux of this shape is $\binom{3n}{n}-\binom{3n}{n-2}$ (since one can easily biject this to the set of non-...
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### Reference for a definition of Catalan numbers

The $l$-th Catalan number ${2l\choose l}\frac{1}{l+1}$ is equal to the number of sequences $s_0,\ldots,s_{l+1}$ of length $l+2$ with the following properties: (1) $s_0=s_{l+1}=1$ and $s_1,\ldots,s_l$ ...
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### A big list of Narayana-enumerated objects

By a Narayana-enumerated object I mean an object whose count is given by the Narayana number $N(n,k)=\frac{1}{n} {n \choose k} {n \choose k-1}$. Can you give me a reference to some good big list of ...
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### Counting monomials and the Catalan numbers

Given a multi-variable polynomial $F$, denote the number of monomials by $N(F)$. Take for instance, \begin{align*}N(x(x+y)+(x+y)^2-(x-y)^2)=N(x^2+5xy)&=2 \qquad \text{and} \\ N((x+z)(x+y)^2)=N(x^3 ...
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### Sequence of monotone tuples and permutation condition for rotation

I was doing some counting in $S_n$ symmetric group I encountered the following problem, which also someway related to central factorial number. So given a $n$ cycle say $(1,2,\ldots,n)$, what are the ...
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### Another generalization of parity of Catalan numbers

Recently, a question by T. Amdeberhan gathered up many enjoyable proofs that a Catalan number $C_n$ is odd if and only if $n=2^r-1$. Noam D. Elkies' answer considered $F=\sum_{n=0}^\infty C_n x^{n+1}$....
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### Sequences that sums up to second differences of Bell and Catalan numbers

Let $f(n)$ be A007814, the exponent of the highest power of $2$ dividing $n$, a.k.a. the binary carry sequence, the ruler sequence, or the $2$-adic valuation of $n$. Let $g(n)$ be A025480, $g(2n) = n$...
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### Generating functions for Hankel determinants of Catalan numbers

The Hankel determinants of the Catalan numbers are well known and can be written as $d(k,n)= \det \left( C_{k + i + j} \right)_{i,j = 0}^{n - 1}=\prod_{i=1}^{k-1}\frac{\binom{2n+2j}{j}}{\binom{2j}{j}}$...
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### Does this question have anything to do with Catalan numbers?

I think this question has something to do with Catalan numbers but I'm not really sure. I want to find out the number of strings that consist of $n$ $L$'s and $n$ $R$'s, under the constraint that for ...
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### Are the “generalized Catalan numbers” of Dumitrescu–Mulase the "moments" of some "multivariate Wigner semicircle distribution"?

The classical Catalan numbers $$C_n = \frac{1}{n+1} \binom{2n}{n},$$ well-known for their numerous combinatorial interpretations (the second volume of Stanley's Enumerative Combinatorics famously ...
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### A matrix identity related to Catalan numbers

Let $$C_n=\frac{1}{2n+1}\binom{2n+1}{n}$$ be a Catalan number. It is well-known that $$(\sum_{n\ge{0}}C_n x^n)^k=\sum_{n\ge{0}}C(n,k)x^n$$ with $$C(n,k)=\frac{k}{2n+k}\binom{2n+k}{n}.$$ It is also ...
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### Math journal publishing work related to combinatorics, probability, counting problems etc.?

I'm a high school student. My peer and I have done some work on the Ballot Theorem counting problem and Catalan Numbers. We have come up with a new proof to the Ballot Theorem and we demonstrate the ...
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### Show a sequence of sums involving Catalan Numbers converges

Let $C_n$ be the $n$-th Catalan Number and let $\mathcal{O}_{s,j} = {{2s-j-1}\choose{j}} C_{s-j}^2$. Then we want to consider $\mathcal{E}_s = \sum_{j=0}^{s-1} (-1)^j\mathcal{O}_{s,j}$. We want to ...
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### Mysterious symmetry - in search for a bijection

I have a mysterious symmetry that I have not managed to prove. First some definitions (see picture below) Fix a partition that fit in a staircase shape with $n$ rows. There are $Catalan(n)$ such ...
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### Is the order on repeated exponentiation the Dyck order?

The Catalan numbers $C_n$ count both the Dyck paths of length $2n$, and the ways to associate $n$ repeated applications of a binary operation. We call the latter magma expressions; we will ...
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