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Questions tagged [catalan-numbers]

The Catalan numbers form the sequence of numbers starting 1,1,2,5,14,42,... with explicit formula $\frac{1}{n+1}\binom{2n}{n}$. It counts many combinatorial objects like planar binary trees, triangulations, noncrossing partitions, Dyck paths, etc. See https://oeis.org/A000108

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Products of Catalan numbers

Let $c(n)=\frac{1}{n+1}\binom{2n}{n}$ be the Catalan number. It seems that a product $\prod_{n\in I} c(n)$, where $I\subset\mathbb N_{>1}$, is never a Catalan number. Is this a (known) fact?
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Reference request: Catalan number of type B

Are there some generalized Catalan number of type $B$ such that the sequence of the numbers is $3,9,29,97,333$ for $n=2,3,4,5,6$? As discussed in this previous question, there are at least two types ...
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Reference request for some determinants of binomial coefficients

Let $C_{n}=\binom{2n}{n}\frac{1}{n+1}$ be a Catalan number. I am interested in books or papers where the following identities occur: $$\det\left(\binom{i+j+1}{i-j+1}\right)_{0 \leq i,j\leq {n-1}}=C_{n}...
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A matrix identity related to Catalan numbers

Let $$C_n=\frac{1}{2n+1}\binom{2n+1}{n}$$ be a Catalan number. It is well-known that $$(\sum_{n\ge{0}}C_n x^n)^k=\sum_{n\ge{0}}C(n,k)x^n$$ with $$C(n,k)=\frac{k}{2n+k}\binom{2n+k}{n}.$$ It is also ...
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Math journal publishing work related to combinatorics, probability, counting problems etc.?

I'm a high school student. My peer and I have done some work on the Ballot Theorem counting problem and Catalan Numbers. We have come up with a new proof to the Ballot Theorem and we demonstrate the ...
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Show a sequence of sums involving Catalan Numbers converges

Let $C_n$ be the $n$-th Catalan Number and let $\mathcal{O}_{s,j} = {{2s-j-1}\choose{j}} C_{s-j}^2$. Then we want to consider $\mathcal{E}_s = \sum_{j=0}^{s-1} (-1)^j\mathcal{O}_{s,j}$. We want to ...
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Mysterious symmetry - in search for a bijection

I have a mysterious symmetry that I have not managed to prove. First some definitions (see picture below) Fix a partition that fit in a staircase shape with $n$ rows. There are $Catalan(n)$ such ...
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Is the order on repeated exponentiation the Dyck order?

The Catalan numbers $C_n$ count both the Dyck paths of length $2n$, and the ways to associate $n$ repeated applications of a binary operation. We call the latter magma expressions; we will ...
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Curious Catalan convolutions

Question. Do these identities involving even-index Catalan numbers have a known combinatorial interpretation? They look as though they should. I haven’t seen one in the literature. $$\sum_{a+b=n}C_{...
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Some quotients of Hankel determinants

This question has been inspired by Hankel determinants of binomial coefficients. For a sequence $\{h_{n}\}_{n=0}^{\infty}$ denote by $H_n$ the Hankel matrix $$H_{n}:=\begin{pmatrix} h_{0} & h_{...
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Proofs of some combinatorial identities

Just wondering if anyone knows any references in the literature to bijections corresponding to the following simple generating function identities. Let $B(z)=\dfrac{1}{\sqrt{1-4z}}$ and $C(z)=\dfrac{1-...
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Number of tilting modules

Let $A=A_n$ be the algebra of upper triangular matrices over a field $K$ with $n$ simple modules. It is a nice result that there are $C_{n+1}=1,2,5,14,...$ (Catalan numbers for $n \geq 1$) tilting $...
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Reference request: Heyting algebra structure on Catalan numbers

I've noticed that for every natural number $n\in\mathbb{N}$, there is a finite Heyting algebra with cardinality $C(n)$, where $C(n)$ is the $n$th Catalan number, $$1,1,2,5,14,42,132,\ldots$$ I'm ...
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Distribution of the area statistic for Catalan paths

A Catalan path of semilength $n$ is a path from $(0,0)$ to $(2n,0)$ that proceeds by taking northeast (1,1) or southeast (1,-1) steps, and never goes below the $x$-axis. The area of a path $P$ is the ...
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On generalized Catalan numbers

Counting some things in homological algebra, I found this sequence: https://oeis.org/A025242. Is there a good motivation why this sequence is called "generalized Catalan numbers"? In the link there ...
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generating $q$-Catalan numbers

An $n$-Dyck path (or a Catalan path) is a lattice path $P$, unit East and North steps, in an $n\times n$ square grid which stays (weakly) above the main diagonal. Let $\square_n$ denote all such paths....
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Does $q$-Catalan number count subspaces?

Consider the $n$-element subsets $\{a_1<a_2<\cdots <a_n\}$ of $\{1,\ldots ,2n\}$ satisfying $a_i\geq 2i$ for all $i=1,\ldots ,n$. The number of such subsets is given by $${2n\choose n}-{2n\...
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Intuition behind Hook Length Formula

Suppose I have a Standard Young Tableaux with dimensions $2$ x $n$. The Catalan numbers, $C_n$ count the number of ways to arrange the numbers $\left\{1, ..., 2n\right\}$. This can be derived using ...
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Is there a combinatorial interpretation or bijective proof for this Catalan number identity?

Is there any combinatorial interpretation or bijective proof for this identity $$2C_n=4{2n \choose n}-{2n+2 \choose n+1}$$ where $C_n$ is the sequence of Catalan numbers?
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genus zero permutation and noncrossing partition

Question Let $g$ to be an element of permutation group $S_n$, and $\tau = (1,2,3,\cdots,n)$ is the circular permutation. $g$ and $\tau g$ have $n+1$ cycles in total(fixed point is also a cycle), ...
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Can we define the Mandelbrot set in terms of the generating function of the Catalan numbers?

For each complex number $c$, define $P_{0}(c)=0$ and $P_{n+1}(c) = (P_{n}(c))^{2} + c$ . The Mandelbrot set is the set of complex numbers c for which $|P_{n}(c)|$ stays bounded as $n\rightarrow \...
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Solving for f given constraint involving f(x, y) and f(xy, y)

I am interested in a weighted version of the Catalan numbers. The generating function for this case, $$ f(x, y) = \sum_s \sum_n f_{s n} x^s y^n $$ (where the $y^n$ term is the weight), obeys the ...
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Is there a distance function on Dyck/Tamari words of arbitrary length?

Consider sequences of well-formed parentheses (or up/down sequences) of the type counted by the Catalan numbers. See http://www-math.mit.edu/~rstan/ec/catalan.pdf These are sometimes called Dyck ...
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q-Catalan numbers from Grassmannians

In this question by $q$-Catalan numbers I mean the $q$-analog given by the formula $\frac{1}{[n+1]_q}\left[{2n\atop n}\right]_q$. The polynomial $\left[{2n\atop n}\right]_q$ represents the class of ...
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Catalan numbers as sums of squares of numbers in the rows of the Catalan triangle - is there a combinatorial explanation?

This question arose from an answer to my recent question How many traces are there on Temperley-Lieb, Fuss-Catalan, Iwahori-Hecke, Birman-Wenzl-Murakami-Kauffman, ... algebras? What I need from that ...
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Using Mellin transform for a certain function

In short, I want to use the Mellin transform to obtain the asymptotic behavior of the sequence $D_n = \frac{ [z^n] D(z)} {C_n}$ where $$ D(z) = \frac 1{2z}\sum_{p \ge 1}C_p \left( \sqrt{1-4z+4z^{p+...
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Determinant of a checkerboard Hankel matrix with Catalan numbers

My goal is to compute \begin{equation} I = \det \left(\mathbf{I} + \mathbf{A}\right) \end{equation} where $\mathbf{A}$ is a $n \times n$ checkerboard matrix filled with Catalan numbers: $$ \left\{ ...
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Probability of a graph procedure

We are going to build $K_n$ one edge at a time. Begin with the empty graph on $n$ vertices. Take a random permutation of the edges of $K_n$ and, one at a time, place the edges onto the graph (so, ...
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Lots of combinatorial interpretations of Catalan numbers

During a lecture I gave on Catalan numbers, I pointed out that that it is possible to give a continuum number of combinatorial interpretations of these numbers. See the solution to (f$^5$) on page 54 ...
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When does a Catalan number equal a Fibonacci number?

The $n=3$'rd Catalan number (A000108) is $1,1,2,5$ : $\frac{\binom{2n}{n}}{n+1}=\frac{\binom{6}{3}}{4}=\frac{20}{4}=$ 5. The $n=4$'th Fibonacci number (A000045) is $1,1,2,3,5,...$ : 5. Q. Which ...
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Number of Dyck paths with k returns and b peaks

The number of Dyck paths from the origin to $(2n,0)$ which touch the $x$-axis $k+2$ times ($k$ internal touches) is given by $$\frac{k}{2n-k}{2n-k \choose n}.$$ The number of Dyck paths from the ...
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Non-abelian freeness of SU_2

The distribution of the trace of a random element of $SU_2$ is the Sato-Tate distribution. The analogue of the Gaussian distribution in free probability theory is the Wigner semicircle distribution. ...
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More 3-connected cubic graphs with all 2-factors of same cycle type?

The setup is as in this question: Let $G$ be a 3-connected cubic graph. If all 2-factors of $G$ are isomorphic (as graphs), i.e. all have the same partition $\pi$ as cycle type, we'll say that $G$ is ...
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A double grading of catalan numbers

This is something I found in trying to work on Vince Vatter's excellent question. I have no solution, but a much more precise conjecture. Recall that a rooted planar tree is a rooted tree where, for ...
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Even more generalized Catalan numbers

What is the number of ways to parenthesize $n$ elements using applications of operators of arbitrary arities larger than or equal to $2$? For example, for $n=3$, there are $3$ ways: $$ abc, a(bc),(ab)...
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A family of words counted by the Catalan numbers

In recent work with Michael Albert and Nik Ruškuc, a family of words has arisen which is counted by the Catalan numbers. I've looked at Richard Stanley's Catalan exercises in EC2 and his Catalan ...
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Why are the dinv-statistic and the partition length equidistributed?

A partition of $n$ is a weakly decreasing sequence of natural numbers $\lambda = (\lambda_1, \lambda_2, \dots)$ such that $\sum \lambda_i = n$. Its length $l(\lambda)$ is the number of positive ...
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What does the $q$-Catalan Numbers count?

I had completed a paper describing the $q$-Catalan numbers, which is the $q$-analog of the Catalan numbers. The $n$-th Catalan numbers can be represented by: $$C_n=\frac{1}{n+1}{2n \choose n}$$ and ...
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Semi-planar partition monoid/algebra

Here are some beginner questions on partition algebras... I am trying to understand the monoid called $P_k$ in Tom Halverson, Arun Ram, Partition Algebras. For the sake of simplicity, let $k$ be a ...
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Intuition Behind a Decimal Representation with Catalan Numbers

From $0 = 0.5 - 0.5 = 0.5 - \sqrt{0.25}$, we can adjust the subtrahend slightly to obtain $$0.5 - \sqrt{0.249} = 0.001\ 001\ 002\ 005\ 014\ 042\ldots$$ where the decimal representation contains the ...
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A generalization of Catalan numbers

It is well-known that the $n$th Catalan number is equal to $(n+1)^{-1}\binom{2n}{n}$. A long time ago I had wondered what happens if you look at the sequence generated by $(n+k)^{-1}\binom{pn}{n}$ - ...
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Application of Catalan number [closed]

Hi guys just a quick questions What are the real life application of catalan numbers? Thanks a lot!
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enumerative meaning of natural q-Catalan numbers

Define $[n]=(1-q^n)/(1-q)$ and $[n]!=[1][2][3] \cdots [n]$, so that $[2n]!/[n]![n+1]!$ is a polynomial in $q$ (the most algebraically natural $q$-analogue of the Catalan numbers); what enumerative ...
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Catalan objects associated to a univariate polynomial

Given a monic degree $n$ polynomial $f(z)$ with no double roots, and a phase $0\leq \theta < \pi$, there are natural constructions which associate to this data: a noncrossing matching on $2n$ ...
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Higher-dimensional Catalan numbers?

One could imagine defining various notions of higher-dimensional Catalan numbers, by generalizing objects they count. For example, because the Catalan numbers count the triangulations of convex ...
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Equidistribution of returns and height of first peak of Dyck paths

I believe that it is "well known" that the following two statistics on Dyck paths have symmetric joint distribution: number of returns to the axis $RET(D)$ height of the first peak (or length of the ...
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Probability of a Random Walk crossing a straight line

Let $(S_n)_{n=1}^{\infty}$ be a standard random walk with $S_n = \sum_{i=1}^n X_i$ and $\mathbb{P}(X_i = \pm 1) = \frac{1}{2}$. Let $\alpha \in \mathbb{R}$ be some constant. I would like to know the ...
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Modular congruences related to sums of Catalan numbers

I am curious if somebody can be helpful concerning the following experimental observation: There exist two rational sequences $\alpha_0,\alpha_1,\dots$ and $\beta_0,\beta_1,\dots$, both with values ...
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Combinatorial proof of a recurrence for the Catalan numbers

I would like to ask whether there is a combinatorial proof of the following recurrence relation for Catalan numbers: $$ C_{n+1}=\frac{4n+2}{n+2} C_n. $$ Thanks!~
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Counting $(n,k)$-forests of binary trees

Given $k,n\in\mathbf{N}$ with $n\ge k$, define the set $\mathcal{F}(k,n)$ of $(k,n)$-forests of binary rooted trees (where a $(k,n)$-forest is a collection of $k$ rooted trees, which have a totality ...