Questions tagged [root-systems]

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Interpretation of the coefficients in the sum of positive roots

Take a finite Cartan datum with index set $I$, simple roots $\{\alpha_i\mid i \in I\}$ and positive roots $\Phi^+$. Let $2\rho=\sum_{\alpha\in\Phi^+}\alpha$ be the sum of the positive roots and write $...
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PBW basis for the quantized enveloping Lie algebra of $\mathfrak{g}_2$

I would like to know if you have any reference where I can find the canonical PBW basis for $U_q(\mathfrak{g}_2),$ computed using the action of the braid group as defined by Luzstig. Alternatively I ...
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6 votes
1 answer
172 views

Order ideals of positive root systems and avoiding group elements in the Weyl group

Let $X$ be the poset of positive roots of a finite root system of Dynkin type $Q$. Question 1: In Dynkin type $A_n$, is it true that the poset of order ideals of $X$ is isomorphic to the poset of [2,...
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9 votes
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A Lie-theoretic question regarding $B\ltimes \mathfrak{g}/\mathfrak{b}$

I am stuck on a seeming elementary Lie-theoretic question arising from a study of components of affine Springer fibers. Will be very grateful if somebody would like to share some insight, or ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Congruence closure of principal congruence subgroup of the symplectic group over the integers

This question is a continuation of the question that I asked here: The principal congruence subgroup of the symplectic group over the integers Denote by $\Delta$ the group generated by $T=\{A\in \text{...
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1 vote
1 answer
181 views

The principal congruence subgroup of the symplectic group over the integers

Consider the symplectic group $\text{Sp}_{2g}(\mathbb{Z})$ over the integers. It has a classical root system $C_g$ and associated root subgroups $U_\varphi$ for $\varphi\in C_g$. These subgroups are ...
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3 votes
0 answers
67 views

How to determine sublattices S of a root lattice R

Let $R$ be a root lattice of a irreducible root system $\Phi$. Suppose $W$ is a Weyl group of $\Phi$ and $S$ is a sublattice of $R$ which is $W$-stable and satisfies $|R/S|<\infty$. For example, ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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A nice/simple relationship between the Chevalley generators of $\mathfrak{sp}_n$ and the Chevally generators of $\mathfrak{sl}_n$?

The Lie algebra $\mathfrak{sl}_n$ is defined to be the trace free matrices in $M_n(\mathbb{C})$. The Lie algebra $\mathfrak{so}_n$ is defined to be the matrices $A$ in $M_n(\mathbb{R})$ satisfying $A +...
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4 votes
1 answer
145 views

Structure of the permutation groups acting on the root systems of Niemeier lattices of type $A_{k}^n$

I have been doing research on the Niemeier lattices with root systems of type, $A_{k}^n$ and I am particularly interested in the finite groups permuting the constituent root systems. These groups ...
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1 vote
0 answers
212 views

Condition for a sum of images of fundamental dominant weights to lie on a wall

Let $\Delta$ be a system of simple roots in a root system with Weyl group $W$. For $\alpha\in\Delta$, let $\varpi_\alpha$ be the corresponding fundamental dominant weight. Let $w\neq r$ be elements of ...
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Why is the $A$-series root system best written in a vector space of one dimension higher?

In the classification of root systems, we have four families $A_n,B_n,C_n$, and $D_n$, and six exceptionals $E_6,E_7,E_8, F_4$, and $G_2$. For every non-exceptional case except $A_n$, the root system ...
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3 votes
1 answer
252 views

Conjugation of root subgroups by the Weyl group

Fix a field $k$ of characteristic zero, and let $G$ be a connected reductive algebraic $k$-group of isotropic rank $\ge 1$. Fix a maximal $k$-split torus $S$, and let $\Phi_k$ be the relative root ...
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2 votes
0 answers
177 views

Errata in N. A'Campo's "Tresses, monodromie et le groupe symplectique"

There are many small mistakes in this article. A great amount of them are concentrated in Lemma 2. The setup for this lemma is the following. Let $R$ be a commutative ring and $n=2g+1$ or $n=2g$ a ...
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4 votes
1 answer
156 views

A weight generalization of root systems?

For any simple complex Lie algebra $\frak{g}$, with a given choice of Cartan subalgebra $\frak{h}$, we have an associated root system $R \subseteq \frak{h}^*$. The properties of $R$ can be formalized ...
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2 votes
1 answer
201 views

Action of the negative Cartan-Weyl generators on a highest weight element

Let $\frak{g}$ be a complex simple Lie algebra of rank $l$. For $\frak{h}$ a choice of Cartan subalgebra, let $\alpha_1, \cdots, \alpha_r$ be the corresponding choice of simple roots, $X_{\alpha_i}, ...
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3 votes
0 answers
98 views

The group of fixed points of an involution of a Weyl group

Let $R$ be a reduced root system in a vector space $V$ over $\mathbb Q$. Let $W=W(R)$ denote its Weyl group. Let $S\subset R$ be a basis of $R$ (a system of simple roots). Let $D=D(R,S)$ denote the ...
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Automorphism groups of which lattices act irreducibly on the ambient Euclidean space

(I asked this question on MSE a few days ago but it hasn't drawn any response yet.) Let $V$ be a finite-dimensional real inner product space and let $L \subset V$ be a lattice of full rank. Consider ...
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45 views

Regularity of the roots of a normalized polynomial

Let $1\le k\in \mathbb N$ and $\Omega$ be an open subset of $\mathbb R^n$ such that $0\in \Omega$. We define for $(t,x)\in \mathbb R\times \Omega$ the function $p$ by $$p(t,x)=\sum_{0\le l\le k} t^l ...
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2 votes
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106 views

Existence and uniqueness of solution of a nonlinear system

I need a proof of the following result to calculate a Nash equilibrium in the Showcase Showdown game. For all $n>1$, the system of equations $$\left\{ \begin{aligned} (1+e^{x}(-1+x))^{n-2}&=\...
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3 votes
1 answer
127 views

Action of split torus on positive root spaces

Let $G$ be a connected reductive group over a field $k$ (not necessarily algebraically closed). Let $S$ be a maximal split torus in $G$ with relative root system $\Phi = \Phi_k(S,G)$. Let $\Phi^+$ ...
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9 votes
2 answers
837 views

Which representations of $\mathfrak{sl}(2)$ are homomorphic images of the tensor product of finitely many copies of $\mathbb{C}^2$?

My questions may turn out to be related to Schur functors. If $\mathfrak{g}$ is a complex semisimple Lie algebra and $\lambda$ is the highest weight of an irreducible representation $V$ of $\mathfrak{...
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3 votes
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161 views

Singular del Pezzo surfaces and degeneration of root systems

Let $S$ be a smooth del Pezzo surface of degree $d$ and $K_S^*$ the anticanonical class. It is well known that the set of classes $$R(S)=\{\alpha\in H^2(S,\mathbb Z)|\alpha^2=-2,\alpha\cdot K_S^*=0\},$...
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  • 1,013
2 votes
1 answer
120 views

Algorithm to determine if a vector in the geometric representation of a Coxeter group is proportional to a root

Let $W$ be a Coxeter group, and let $V$ be its geometric representation (as defined for instance in Section 5.3 of Humphreys' book Reflection groups and Coxeter groups). Let $v\in V\backslash\{0\}$ (...
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3 votes
0 answers
92 views

Relation between root subgroups and the root system in unitary groups

Consider a 4-dimensional non-degenerate unitary space over a field of order 4. It can be shown that there are 45 isotropic lines. For each such a line one can associate a unitary transvection and each ...
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3 votes
1 answer
314 views

A formula for the dual Coxeter number

Let $\Phi$ be the root system of a finite dimensional simple Lie algebra $\mathfrak g$, with dual Coxeter number $h^\vee$. Let $\alpha_0\in \Phi$ be a long root (if all the roots have the same length, ...
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2 votes
0 answers
142 views

What is $f^*TX$ for a general morphism $f\colon\mathbb{P}^1\to X$?

Let $X$ be a projective homogeneous space over $\mathbb{C}$, i.e. $G/P$ where $G$ is a simple, simply connected linear algebraic group and $P$ is a parabolic subgroup. Let $f\colon\mathbb{P}^1\to X$ ...
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4 votes
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Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the exceptional simple Lie group E6, E7, E8

What is the significance of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the exceptional simple Lie group root lattice to the Lie group or other mathematics branches? For example, E6, we have $$ \left( \begin{...
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1 vote
1 answer
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How to verify that an element in the root lattice is an imaginary root of a non-hyperbolic root system?

In my research I encounter some elements in a root lattice and I would like to verify that these elements are imaginary roots. Consider the root system $J_{6, 11}$ with the following Dynkin diagram: \...
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7 votes
0 answers
252 views

Why are fundamental weights denoted by omega?

In my field (and many others, I believe) the absolutely standard notation for the fundamental weights of a root system is lowercase omega: $\omega$. Recently I was taken aback to receive a copyedited ...
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  • 2,776
9 votes
1 answer
272 views

Action of Weyl group on regions of Shi arrangement

This is an elaboration of a question which was aked on MO several years ago, which was unanswered but deleted by the question-asker. I hope it is okay to elaborate on a deleted question like this; for ...
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  • 18.8k
9 votes
2 answers
345 views

Number of reduced decompositions of the longest element of the Weyl group

Let $R$ be a reduced root system, $W$ the associated Weyl group, and $w_0 \in W$ the longest element of $W$. In general $w_0$ admits more than one reduced decomposition into a product of reflections, ...
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1 vote
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107 views

Uniqueness in Mare combinatorics and bounds on Gromov-Witten invariants

Let $R$ be the root system of a Weyl group $W$. Let $\tilde{R}^+$ be the set of $B$-cosmall roots, i.e. the set of positive roots $\alpha$ such that $\ell(s_\alpha)=2\operatorname{ht}\alpha-1$. Based ...
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0 answers
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What is the name of the following root system?

The Dynkin diagram of the root system of affine $D_4$ is $$ \circ \quad \circ \quad \circ \quad \circ \\ \circ $$ where all of the four vertices in the first row connects to the vertex in the second ...
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7 votes
0 answers
163 views

Regarding $F_4$ and $G_2$ Lie algebras, do there exist $F_n$ or $G_n$ families of Lie algebras?

For example, $E_6$ exceptional Lie algebra is part of the $E_n$ series of Lie algebras (Kac-Moody algebras). Are $F_4$ or $G_2$ maybe also parts of some $F_n$ or $G_n$ series of Lie algebras or are ...
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3 votes
1 answer
157 views

when a set of roots extend to a system of simple roots

Given a set of roots in a root system, assume that the pairing of each two roots in this set is not positive. Then clearly the set gives a closed root subsystem. My question is, when this set extends ...
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12 votes
2 answers
321 views

Lattice structure in the root poset

Let $W$ be a Coxeter group with simple generators $s_1$, $s_2$, ..., $s_r$. Let $\Phi^+$ be the corresponding positive root system, with $\alpha_i$ the positive root corresponding to $s_i$. Bjorner ...
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4 votes
1 answer
220 views

A transversal for the $\operatorname{Ad}(K)$ action on a sphere in $\mathfrak{p}$

This exercise level question has been unanswered on MSE for a few years. I hope you can answer it either there or here. $G$ is a semisimple Lie group with a choice of Cartan decomposition on its Lie ...
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5 votes
1 answer
221 views

Is the connected centralizer of a semisimple element in a connected reductive group also a centralizer?

Let $G$ be a connected reductive algebraic group defined over an algebraically closed field and let $g\in G$ be semisimple. Write $C=\mathrm{C}_G(g)$ and $C^\circ=\mathrm{C}_G(g)^\circ$ for the ...
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4 votes
0 answers
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Stability of infinite root systems with a long path in their Coxeter diagrams

Given a Cartan matrix associated to a Coxeter diagram, I can modify it by replacing one of the edges in the diagram with a long chain of vertices connected by simply laced edges; for example, this is ...
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  • 433
4 votes
1 answer
236 views

Table of products for Lie algebra inner product of roots and weights

For a simple Lie algebra $\frak{g}$, it is usual to scale the inner product so that the shortest simple root has length $2$. With this conventions, where can I find a table (online) of the following ...
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5 votes
1 answer
263 views

How to determine a highest weight corresponding to a parabolic subgroup?

Let $G$ be a simply connected, semisimple algebraic group over $\mathbb C$ with maximal torus $T$ and Borel subgroup $B$ containing $T$. If $(V,\pi)$ is an irreducible representation of $G$, then $(V,...
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7 votes
1 answer
361 views

Relationship between $q$-Weyl dimension formula and $q$-analog of weight multiplicity?

$\DeclareMathOperator\dim{dim}$For a dominant (integral) weight $\lambda$ and any (integral) weight $\mu$ of a simple Lie algebra $\mathfrak{g}$, Lusztig's $q$-analog of weight multiplicty $K_{\lambda,...
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9 votes
0 answers
88 views

A characterization of root systems via their intersections with halfspaces

In a recent preprint I obtained a nice characterization of root systems as a side product. I can imagine that this was known before, and that a source for this statement can shorten the proof of my ...
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  • 9,471
5 votes
0 answers
173 views

Reference about the root systems $E_{n}$, $n \ge 10$

I am trying to understand the root systems $E_{n}$, $n \ge 10$. In particular, I would like to find some references which describe the number of real roots and imaginary roots of a given degree. ...
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10 votes
1 answer
261 views

Generalized root systems and reflection groups

Consider the following alternative definition of finite reflection group: Definition: A finite reflection group $\Gamma\subset\mathrm O(\Bbb R^d)$ is a finite group generated by orthogonal ...
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0 votes
0 answers
136 views

What are some nice matrix representations of $E_6$?

I'm planning on doing some SAGE computations to play around with the Lie group $E_6$ (not sure which isogeny class yet), and was wondering if anyone knew of some nice matrix representations of the Lie ...
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  • 5,536
4 votes
0 answers
216 views

Do these Zariski-dense subgroups of complex Chevalley group have non-empty intersection with this Bruhat cell?

Let $G$ be a complex Chevalley group (not necessarily adjoint type) with $\operatorname{\mathbb{C}-rank}\geq2$ and let $H$ be a normal subgroup of $G(\mathbb Z)$ with a finite index (so $H$ is Zariski ...
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4 votes
0 answers
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Is one of the hyperplane partitions of a irreducible root system always generate the whole Weyl group?

Let $\Delta$ be a irreducible root system and $\Delta^+$ be its positive roots. We say a subset $\Delta^{\prime}\subset \Delta^+$ can generate the Weyl group if reflections of roots in $\Delta^{\...
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  • 8,079
4 votes
1 answer
157 views

Can we have a nontrivial division of a irreducible root system as the union of two closed sub-root systems?

The question is related to this MO question. Let $(\Phi, E)$ be a irreducible crystallographic root system where $\Phi$ is the set of all roots and $E$ is the $\mathbb{R}$-span of $\Phi$. As in the ...
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  • 8,079
2 votes
1 answer
200 views

The simple reflections of the Weyl group in $\operatorname{SO}_{2n}(\mathbb C)$

Let $W$ be the Weyl group corresponding to the maximal torus $diag(t_1, . . . , t_{n}, t^{−1}_n, . . . , t^{−1}_1)$ in a Borel group of $\operatorname{SO}_{2n}(\mathbb C)$. What are the matrices ...
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