# Questions tagged [root-systems]

The root-systems tag has no usage guidance.

219
questions

4
votes

0
answers

74
views

### Interpretation of the coefficients in the sum of positive roots

Take a finite Cartan datum with index set $I$, simple roots $\{\alpha_i\mid i \in I\}$ and positive roots $\Phi^+$. Let $2\rho=\sum_{\alpha\in\Phi^+}\alpha$ be the sum of the positive roots and write $...

5
votes

1
answer

103
views

### PBW basis for the quantized enveloping Lie algebra of $\mathfrak{g}_2$

I would like to know if you have any reference where I can find the canonical PBW basis for $U_q(\mathfrak{g}_2),$ computed using the action of the braid group as defined by Luzstig.
Alternatively I ...

6
votes

1
answer

172
views

### Order ideals of positive root systems and avoiding group elements in the Weyl group

Let $X$ be the poset of positive roots of a finite root system of Dynkin type $Q$.
Question 1: In Dynkin type $A_n$, is it true that the poset of order ideals of $X$ is isomorphic to the poset of [2,...

9
votes

0
answers

225
views

### A Lie-theoretic question regarding $B\ltimes \mathfrak{g}/\mathfrak{b}$

I am stuck on a seeming elementary Lie-theoretic question arising from a study of components of affine Springer fibers. Will be very grateful if somebody would like to share some insight, or ...

1
vote

0
answers

37
views

### Congruence closure of principal congruence subgroup of the symplectic group over the integers

This question is a continuation of the question that I asked here: The principal congruence subgroup of the symplectic group over the integers
Denote by $\Delta$ the group generated by $T=\{A\in \text{...

1
vote

1
answer

181
views

### The principal congruence subgroup of the symplectic group over the integers

Consider the symplectic group $\text{Sp}_{2g}(\mathbb{Z})$ over the integers. It has a classical root system $C_g$ and associated root subgroups $U_\varphi$ for $\varphi\in C_g$. These subgroups are ...

3
votes

0
answers

67
views

### How to determine sublattices S of a root lattice R

Let $R$ be a root lattice of a irreducible root system $\Phi$.
Suppose $W$ is a Weyl group of $\Phi$ and $S$ is a sublattice of $R$ which is $W$-stable and satisfies $|R/S|<\infty$.
For example, ...

1
vote

1
answer

119
views

### A nice/simple relationship between the Chevalley generators of $\mathfrak{sp}_n$ and the Chevally generators of $\mathfrak{sl}_n$?

The Lie algebra $\mathfrak{sl}_n$ is defined to be the trace free matrices in $M_n(\mathbb{C})$. The Lie algebra $\mathfrak{so}_n$ is defined to be the matrices $A$ in $M_n(\mathbb{R})$ satisfying $A +...

4
votes

1
answer

145
views

### Structure of the permutation groups acting on the root systems of Niemeier lattices of type $A_{k}^n$

I have been doing research on the Niemeier lattices with root systems of type, $A_{k}^n$ and I am particularly interested in the finite groups permuting the constituent root systems. These groups ...

1
vote

0
answers

212
views

### Condition for a sum of images of fundamental dominant weights to lie on a wall

Let $\Delta$ be a system of simple roots in a root system with Weyl group $W$. For $\alpha\in\Delta$, let $\varpi_\alpha$ be the corresponding fundamental dominant weight. Let $w\neq r$ be elements of ...

2
votes

0
answers

89
views

### Why is the $A$-series root system best written in a vector space of one dimension higher?

In the classification of root systems, we have four families $A_n,B_n,C_n$, and $D_n$, and six exceptionals $E_6,E_7,E_8, F_4$, and $G_2$. For every non-exceptional case except $A_n$, the root system ...

3
votes

1
answer

252
views

### Conjugation of root subgroups by the Weyl group

Fix a field $k$ of characteristic zero, and let $G$ be a connected reductive algebraic $k$-group of isotropic rank $\ge 1$. Fix a maximal $k$-split torus $S$, and let $\Phi_k$ be the relative root ...

2
votes

0
answers

177
views

### Errata in N. A'Campo's "Tresses, monodromie et le groupe symplectique"

There are many small mistakes in this article. A great amount of them are concentrated in Lemma 2.
The setup for this lemma is the following. Let $R$ be a commutative ring and $n=2g+1$ or $n=2g$ a ...

4
votes

1
answer

156
views

### A weight generalization of root systems?

For any simple complex Lie algebra $\frak{g}$, with a given choice of Cartan subalgebra $\frak{h}$, we have an associated root system $R \subseteq \frak{h}^*$. The properties of $R$ can be formalized ...

2
votes

1
answer

201
views

### Action of the negative Cartan-Weyl generators on a highest weight element

Let $\frak{g}$ be a complex simple Lie algebra of rank $l$. For $\frak{h}$ a choice of Cartan subalgebra, let $\alpha_1, \cdots, \alpha_r$ be the corresponding choice of simple roots, $X_{\alpha_i}, ...

3
votes

0
answers

98
views

### The group of fixed points of an involution of a Weyl group

Let $R$ be a reduced root system in a vector space $V$ over $\mathbb Q$.
Let $W=W(R)$ denote its Weyl group.
Let $S\subset R$ be a basis of $R$ (a system of simple roots).
Let $D=D(R,S)$ denote the ...

1
vote

0
answers

53
views

### Automorphism groups of which lattices act irreducibly on the ambient Euclidean space

(I asked this question on MSE a few days ago but it hasn't drawn any response yet.)
Let $V$ be a finite-dimensional real inner product space and let $L \subset V$ be a lattice of full rank. Consider ...

0
votes

0
answers

45
views

### Regularity of the roots of a normalized polynomial

Let $1\le k\in \mathbb N$ and $\Omega$ be an open subset of $\mathbb R^n$ such that $0\in \Omega$. We define for $(t,x)\in \mathbb R\times \Omega$ the function $p$ by
$$p(t,x)=\sum_{0\le l\le k} t^l ...

2
votes

0
answers

106
views

### Existence and uniqueness of solution of a nonlinear system

I need a proof of the following result to calculate a Nash equilibrium in the Showcase Showdown game.
For all $n>1$, the system of equations
$$\left\{
\begin{aligned}
(1+e^{x}(-1+x))^{n-2}&=\...

3
votes

1
answer

127
views

### Action of split torus on positive root spaces

Let $G$ be a connected reductive group over a field $k$ (not necessarily algebraically closed). Let $S$ be a maximal split torus in $G$ with relative root system $\Phi = \Phi_k(S,G)$. Let $\Phi^+$ ...

9
votes

2
answers

837
views

### Which representations of $\mathfrak{sl}(2)$ are homomorphic images of the tensor product of finitely many copies of $\mathbb{C}^2$?

My questions may turn out to be related to Schur functors.
If $\mathfrak{g}$ is a complex semisimple Lie algebra and $\lambda$ is the highest weight of an irreducible representation $V$ of $\mathfrak{...

3
votes

0
answers

161
views

### Singular del Pezzo surfaces and degeneration of root systems

Let $S$ be a smooth del Pezzo surface of degree $d$ and $K_S^*$ the anticanonical class. It is well known that the set of classes
$$R(S)=\{\alpha\in H^2(S,\mathbb Z)|\alpha^2=-2,\alpha\cdot K_S^*=0\},$...

2
votes

1
answer

120
views

### Algorithm to determine if a vector in the geometric representation of a Coxeter group is proportional to a root

Let $W$ be a Coxeter group, and let $V$ be its geometric representation (as defined for instance in Section 5.3 of Humphreys' book Reflection groups and Coxeter groups). Let $v\in V\backslash\{0\}$ (...

3
votes

0
answers

92
views

### Relation between root subgroups and the root system in unitary groups

Consider a 4-dimensional non-degenerate unitary space over a field of order 4. It can be shown that there are 45 isotropic lines. For each such a line one can associate a unitary transvection and each ...

3
votes

1
answer

314
views

### A formula for the dual Coxeter number

Let $\Phi$ be the root system of a finite dimensional simple Lie algebra $\mathfrak g$, with dual Coxeter number $h^\vee$.
Let $\alpha_0\in \Phi$ be a long root (if all the roots have the same length, ...

2
votes

0
answers

142
views

### What is $f^*TX$ for a general morphism $f\colon\mathbb{P}^1\to X$?

Let $X$ be a projective homogeneous space over $\mathbb{C}$, i.e. $G/P$ where $G$ is a simple, simply connected linear algebraic group and $P$ is a parabolic subgroup. Let $f\colon\mathbb{P}^1\to X$ ...

4
votes

0
answers

135
views

### Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the exceptional simple Lie group E6, E7, E8

What is the significance of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the exceptional simple Lie group root lattice to the Lie group or other mathematics branches?
For example,
E6, we have
$$
\left(
\begin{...

1
vote

1
answer

50
views

### How to verify that an element in the root lattice is an imaginary root of a non-hyperbolic root system?

In my research I encounter some elements in a root lattice and I would like to verify that these elements are imaginary roots. Consider the root system $J_{6, 11}$ with the following Dynkin diagram:
\...

7
votes

0
answers

252
views

### Why are fundamental weights denoted by omega?

In my field (and many others, I believe) the absolutely standard notation for the fundamental weights of a root system is lowercase omega: $\omega$. Recently I was taken aback to receive a copyedited ...

9
votes

1
answer

272
views

### Action of Weyl group on regions of Shi arrangement

This is an elaboration of a question which was aked on MO several years ago, which was unanswered but deleted by the question-asker. I hope it is okay to elaborate on a deleted question like this; for ...

9
votes

2
answers

345
views

### Number of reduced decompositions of the longest element of the Weyl group

Let $R$ be a reduced root system, $W$ the associated Weyl group, and $w_0 \in W$ the longest element of $W$. In general $w_0$ admits more than one reduced decomposition into a product of reflections, ...

1
vote

0
answers

107
views

### Uniqueness in Mare combinatorics and bounds on Gromov-Witten invariants

Let $R$ be the root system of a Weyl group $W$. Let $\tilde{R}^+$ be the set of $B$-cosmall roots, i.e. the set of positive roots $\alpha$ such that $\ell(s_\alpha)=2\operatorname{ht}\alpha-1$. Based ...

0
votes

0
answers

109
views

### What is the name of the following root system?

The Dynkin diagram of the root system of affine $D_4$ is
$$
\circ \quad \circ \quad \circ \quad \circ \\
\circ
$$
where all of the four vertices in the first row connects to the vertex in the second ...

7
votes

0
answers

163
views

### Regarding $F_4$ and $G_2$ Lie algebras, do there exist $F_n$ or $G_n$ families of Lie algebras?

For example, $E_6$ exceptional Lie algebra is part of the $E_n$ series of Lie algebras (Kac-Moody algebras). Are $F_4$ or $G_2$ maybe also parts of some $F_n$ or $G_n$ series of Lie algebras or are ...

3
votes

1
answer

157
views

### when a set of roots extend to a system of simple roots

Given a set of roots in a root system, assume that the pairing of each two roots in this set is not positive. Then clearly the set gives a closed root subsystem. My question is, when this set extends ...

12
votes

2
answers

321
views

### Lattice structure in the root poset

Let $W$ be a Coxeter group with simple generators $s_1$, $s_2$, ..., $s_r$. Let $\Phi^+$ be the corresponding positive root system, with $\alpha_i$ the positive root corresponding to $s_i$. Bjorner ...

4
votes

1
answer

220
views

### A transversal for the $\operatorname{Ad}(K)$ action on a sphere in $\mathfrak{p}$

This exercise level question has been unanswered on MSE for a few years. I hope you can answer it either there or here.
$G$ is a semisimple Lie group with a choice of Cartan decomposition on its Lie ...

5
votes

1
answer

221
views

### Is the connected centralizer of a semisimple element in a connected reductive group also a centralizer?

Let $G$ be a connected reductive algebraic group defined over an algebraically closed field and let $g\in G$ be semisimple. Write $C=\mathrm{C}_G(g)$ and $C^\circ=\mathrm{C}_G(g)^\circ$ for the ...

4
votes

0
answers

61
views

### Stability of infinite root systems with a long path in their Coxeter diagrams

Given a Cartan matrix associated to a Coxeter diagram, I can modify it by replacing one of the edges in the diagram with a long chain of vertices connected by simply laced edges; for example, this is ...

4
votes

1
answer

236
views

### Table of products for Lie algebra inner product of roots and weights

For a simple Lie algebra $\frak{g}$, it is usual to scale the inner product so that the shortest simple root has length $2$. With this conventions, where can I find a table (online) of the following ...

5
votes

1
answer

263
views

### How to determine a highest weight corresponding to a parabolic subgroup?

Let $G$ be a simply connected, semisimple algebraic group over $\mathbb C$ with maximal torus $T$ and Borel subgroup $B$ containing $T$. If $(V,\pi)$ is an irreducible representation of $G$, then $(V,...

7
votes

1
answer

361
views

### Relationship between $q$-Weyl dimension formula and $q$-analog of weight multiplicity?

$\DeclareMathOperator\dim{dim}$For a dominant (integral) weight $\lambda$ and any (integral) weight $\mu$ of a simple Lie algebra $\mathfrak{g}$, Lusztig's $q$-analog of weight multiplicty $K_{\lambda,...

9
votes

0
answers

88
views

### A characterization of root systems via their intersections with halfspaces

In a recent preprint I obtained a nice characterization of root systems as a side product.
I can imagine that this was known before, and that a source for this statement can shorten the proof of my ...

5
votes

0
answers

173
views

### Reference about the root systems $E_{n}$, $n \ge 10$

I am trying to understand the root systems $E_{n}$, $n \ge 10$. In particular, I would like to find some references which describe the number of real roots and imaginary roots of a given degree.
...

10
votes

1
answer

261
views

### Generalized root systems and reflection groups

Consider the following alternative definition of finite reflection group:
Definition: A finite reflection group $\Gamma\subset\mathrm O(\Bbb R^d)$ is a finite group generated by orthogonal ...

0
votes

0
answers

136
views

### What are some nice matrix representations of $E_6$?

I'm planning on doing some SAGE computations to play around with the Lie group $E_6$ (not sure which isogeny class yet), and was wondering if anyone knew of some nice matrix representations of the Lie ...

4
votes

0
answers

216
views

### Do these Zariski-dense subgroups of complex Chevalley group have non-empty intersection with this Bruhat cell?

Let $G$ be a complex Chevalley group (not necessarily adjoint type) with $\operatorname{\mathbb{C}-rank}\geq2$ and let $H$ be a normal subgroup of $G(\mathbb Z)$ with a finite index (so $H$ is Zariski ...

4
votes

0
answers

138
views

### Is one of the hyperplane partitions of a irreducible root system always generate the whole Weyl group?

Let $\Delta$ be a irreducible root system and $\Delta^+$ be its positive roots.
We say a subset $\Delta^{\prime}\subset \Delta^+$ can generate the Weyl group if reflections of roots in $\Delta^{\...

4
votes

1
answer

157
views

### Can we have a nontrivial division of a irreducible root system as the union of two closed sub-root systems?

The question is related to this MO question. Let $(\Phi, E)$ be a irreducible crystallographic root system where $\Phi$ is the set of all roots and $E$ is the $\mathbb{R}$-span of $\Phi$. As in the ...

2
votes

1
answer

200
views

### The simple reflections of the Weyl group in $\operatorname{SO}_{2n}(\mathbb C)$

Let $W$ be the Weyl group corresponding to the maximal torus $diag(t_1, . . . , t_{n}, t^{−1}_n, . . . , t^{−1}_1)$ in a Borel group of $\operatorname{SO}_{2n}(\mathbb C)$.
What are the matrices ...