# Questions tagged [positivity]

The positivity tag has no usage guidance.

132
questions

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### Positivity of a one-variable rational function

Let's consider the $1$-variable rational function
$$F(z):=\frac{1-z}{(z^3 - z^2 + 2z - 1)\,(z^3 + z^2 + z - 1)}.$$
Numerical evidence convinces me of the truth of the following.
QUESTION. Can you ...

3
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0
answers

249
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### Inequalities involving traces of products of hermitian positive semidefinite matrices

$\DeclareMathOperator{\tr}{tr}$
Fix an integer $n \geq 2$. Let $A_1, \dotsc, A_n$ be hermitian positive semidefinite matrices, with each $A_i$ being $m$ by $m$.
Consider the symmetric group $S_n$ on $...

9
votes

1
answer

189
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### Symmetric polynomials that detect positivity

Imagine there are numbers $a_1,\ldots,a_n \in \mathbb R$ and you want to know whether they are all positive. You cannot access the numbers themselves, but you can choose any symmetric polynomials you ...

1
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1
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38
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### Cofactor an geometrical mean in $\mathit{SPD}_3$: a Gårding-like inequality

The cofactor map $A\mapsto\widehat A$ is polynomial homogeneous of degree $n-1$ over $\mathbf M_n({\mathbb R})$. It can be polarized into an $(n-1)$-linear symmetric map. When $n=3$, this provides a ...

2
votes

1
answer

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### Cofactor matrices and positive semi-definiteness

If $A$ is an $n\times n$ matrix with real entries, let me write $\widehat A$ its cofactor matrix. Since the map $A\mapsto\widehat A$ is polynomial, homogeneous of degree $n-1$, it can be multi-...

6
votes

2
answers

227
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### Minimal injective extension is rigid

Let $V$ be an operator system.
Definition 1: A pair $(W, \kappa)$ is called extension of $V$ if $W$ is an operator system and $\kappa: V \to W$ is a unital complete isometry.
Definition 2: An ...

4
votes

1
answer

226
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### If a completely positive unital map admits a completely positive unital left inverse, it is a complete isometry

Let $T$ be an injective operator system and $U$ be an arbitrary operator system. Let $\varphi: T \to U$ be a unital completely positive map and $\psi: U \to T$ be a unital completely positive map with ...

0
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0
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### Ratio condition on polynomials

Consider the set
$$\mathscr{P}_n := \{ p \in \mathbb{R}[x] \mid p(A)\ge 0,~\forall A\in \mathsf{M}_n(\mathbb{R}),~A\ge 0 \}.$$
Recently, I and an undergraduate student showed that $p \in \mathscr{P}_2$...

0
votes

1
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97
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### Does positivity of the n(n-1)/2 principal minors formed from 2 x 2 submatrices ensure positive-definiteness of the n x n matrix itself?

I am interested in conditions under which an $n \times n$ matrix ($\rho$) is positive definite. Of course, one necessary and sufficient set of conditions is that the $n$ leading minors of $\rho$ each ...

3
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1
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288
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### Is there a feature mapping for this kernel $k(x,y) = (\frac{\min(x,y)}{\max(x,y)})^2$?

In the following paper:
https://perso.crans.org/besson/publis/mva-2016/MVA_2015-16__Kernel_Methods__Homework__Besson_Clement_Zerbib.en.pdf
problem 2, Kernel 9. it is shown that $K(x,y) = \frac{\min(x,...

4
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1
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176
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### Tensor product of positive linear maps is positive

Let $\pi_1: A_1 \to B_1$ and $\pi_2: A_2 \to B_2$ be positive linear maps between complex $*$-algebras. Is the mapping
$$\pi_1 \otimes \pi_2: A_1 \otimes A_2 \to B_1 \otimes B_2$$
again positive?
I.e.,...

3
votes

0
answers

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### Modular counting of integral points under sparse non-negativity

Given a polyhedron
$$Ax\geq b$$
where every entry of $A,b$ are non-negative and $A\in\{0,1\}^{m\times n}$ and there are $O(1)$ (say $\leq8$) non-negative entries per row of $A$ is it possible to ...

1
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0
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### Detecting non-negativity of a single constraint by polyhedral constraints - $II$

Let $$\langle a,x\rangle=b$$ be a linear constraint where $x\in\mathbb R^n$ and every entry in $a=(a_1,\dots,a_n)$ is in $\mathbb Z_{\geq0}^{n}$ (non-negative) and the entry $b$ is in $\mathbb Z_{\...

0
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1
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97
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### Detecting non-negativity of a single constraint by polyhedral constraints - $I$

We consider $$\langle a,x\rangle=b$$ (linear constraints) where $x\in\mathbb R_{\geq0}^n$ and every entry in $a=(a_1,\dots,a_n)$ is in $\mathbb Z_{\geq0}^{n}$ (non-negative) and the entry $b$ is in $\...

2
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1
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179
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### How to check positive-definiteness of this function?

Consider a real random vector $\vec X =(X_1, X_2)$ with characteristic function $\phi(\vec t) \equiv \mathbb{E} \big[ e^{i \vec t \cdot \vec X} \big]$ (where $\vec{t}=(t_1, t_2) \in \mathbb{R}^2$) ...

5
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1
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237
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### Non-unital Russo-Dye Theorem

Let $A$ be a C$^*$-algebra and let $\phi$ be a positive linear map from $A$ to $B(H)$ (bounded linear operators on Hilbert's
space). If $A$ is unital, then the Russo-Dye Theorem implies that $\|\phi\...

0
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0
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61
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### Formulas involving traces of products of singular hermitian positive semidefinite $2$ by $2$ matrices

While working on the Atiyah problem on configurations of points, I came across formulas involving products of traces of products of singular hermitian positive semidefinite $2$ by $2$ matrices.
To ...

7
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0
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204
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### Ample divisors on $T$-varieties

Question: how does one use a torus action to help decide whether a divisor or line bundle is ample?
In more detail: I have a (normal, but usually rather singular) $T$-variety $X$, where $T$ is an ...

10
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3
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### Positivity of Iwahori–Hecke algebra characters on the Kazhdan-Lusztig basis

$\DeclareMathOperator\tr{tr}$I'm interested in the irreducible characters of a finite Iwahori–Hecke algebra evaluated at the Kazhdan–Lusztig basis. These are Laurent polynomials.
Are the coefficients ...

12
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1
answer

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### Is there a straightforward generalization of min(x,y) to positive-semidefinite Hermitian matrices?

This is an open-ended question I have. Is there a function of two positive-semidefinite hermitian operators $\min(A,B)$ returning another positive-semidefinite Hermitian operator such that:
If A and ...

2
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0
answers

37
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### Does there always exist a(n uniform) polynomial that makes a positive definite symmetric matrix with polynomial entries into a sum of squares?

Suppose that I have a square and positive definite for every evaluation $x\in\mathbb{R}^{n}$ symmetric matrix $M(x)\in(\mathbb{R}[x])^{s\times s}.$
Does there always exist a polynomial $p(x)\in\...

-1
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1
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48
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### Seek help to formalize an argument to positiveness of function defined inductively by integral [closed]

I have on domain $[0,\infty)$ a known and positive function $f(x)$ and two unknown functions $g(x), h(x)$ that start positive when $x=0$.
I also know that if $h(x)$ is positive, then $g(x)$ is also ...

2
votes

1
answer

258
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### Is inverse Laplace Transform of a power of $s$ a positive function?

It's trivial that the Laplace Transform of a positive function is a positive function on $s$ domain. What about the inverse thought? What can we say about the positiveness of the inverse Laplace ...

0
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0
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177
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### The d(abc)-theorem, the abc-conjecture and positive definite kernels over the natural numbers?

I noticed in the work of Hector Pasten, Th.1.11 the $d(abc)$ theorem and have a question, after doing some experiments with sagemath.
Let $s_k(n) = \sum_{d|n}{ d^k }$ be the sum of divisiors $d$ of $n$...

14
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2
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### Square root of doubly positive symmetric matrices

I wonder whether the following property holds true: For every real symmetric matrix $S$, which is positive in both senses:
$$\forall x\in{\mathbb R}^n,\,x^TSx\ge0,\qquad\forall 1\le i,j\le n,\,s_{ij}\...

5
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0
answers

117
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### Extension of positive functionals

Let $X$ be a function space as $C(K)$ or $L^p$, with its usual norm and order, that is $f \le g$ if and only if $f(x) \le g(x)$ for a.e. $x$. If $M$ is a subspace of $X$ and $L:M \to \bf R$ is a ...

2
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131
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### Structure of the big cone and Seshadri constant on Fano manifolds

I would like to know something about the following two questions.
Given $X$ Fano manifold and $L$ an ample line bundle on $X$, we define
\begin{gather}
\sigma(L,x):=\sup\{t>0\, :\, \mu^{*}L-tE \,\,...

5
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### Reference request: a survey of (linear) Krein-Rutman theory

I'm looking for a survey article or book chapter where a rather exhaustive treatment of the Krein-Rutman theory of positive linear operators an ordered Banach spaces is given.
Motivation. Some ...

5
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0
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133
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### On strict positivity and Schmüdgen's Positivstellensatz

Schmüdgen's Positivstellensatz requires the polynomial to be strictly positive on a semialgebraic set. While trying to understand it, I am just wondering if the strictly positive condition can be ...

8
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199
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### Positive solutions for semilinear parabolic equations

Let $X$ be a Banach lattice. Consider the system
$$y'(t)=Ay(t)+f(t,y(t)) \qquad \text{in } (0,T) , \qquad y(0)=y_0, \qquad (*)$$
where $T>0$, $A$ generates an analytic positive semigroup $S(t)$ on $...

3
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0
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### Schur positive expression involving border-strip tableaux

Recall the power-sum expansion of Schur functions,
$$
s_\lambda = \sum_\mu \chi^{\lambda}(\mu) \frac{p_\mu}{z_\mu},
$$
in terms of Sn-character. These can be calculated
by the Murnaghan-Nakayama rule, ...

9
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1
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288
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### Hahn's approach to Hilbert's 17th problem?

The Wikipedia article on Hahn Series mentions mentioned that these were studied by Hahn "in his approach to Hilbert's seventeenth problem".
Is this correct? If so, what was this approach, ...

1
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1
answer

48
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### Positivity in extensions of ordered fields

Let $F$ be an ordered field and $f\in F[X]$ be a polynomial such that $f(x)>0$ for all $x\in K$. Is it possible that there is an extension $L\supseteq K$ of ordered fields and $y\in L$ such that $f(...

2
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0
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143
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### Formula for a completely positive map

Is there a family of completely positive maps $L(A,B)$ depending continuously on two nonzero, symmetric positive semidefinite $n\times n$ matrices $A$ and $B$, such that $L(A,B)$ maps $A$ to $B$ and ...

4
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278
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### Positivity of a finite sum involving Stirling numbers of the first kind

Past days I've been trying to prove that certain polynomials have positive coefficients. After a lot of thinking, I came up with a formula for each coefficient individually, and they are not that ugly....

2
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141
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### Vanishing of a global sections space

Let $X\hookrightarrow\mathbb P^n_k$ be a projective variety over $k$ of degree $\delta$ with respect to $\mathcal O(1)$, $x\in X(k)$ be a regular rational point (I think a closed point is also OK). ...

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### $\ell^\infty / ces_0$ as an ordered Banach space

Let
$ces_0:=\{\xi\in\ell^\infty : \lim_{n\to \infty}\frac{1}{n}\sum_{k=1}^{n}\xi_k=0\}$ and $q:\ell^\infty \to \ell^\infty/ces_0$ be the usual quotient map. The space $ces_0$ is closed in $\ell^\...

4
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### Positivity of q-analogs of central binomial coefficients?

With the usual $q-$notations
$[n]_q=1+q+\cdots+q^{n-1}=\frac{\,\,1-q^n}{1-q},$
$[n]_q!=[1]_q[2]_q\cdots[n]_q$ and
$\binom{n}k_q=\frac{[n]_q!}{[k]_q!\cdot[n-k]_q!}$
let
$$b(n,k,r,q)=\det\left(q^{r\...

1
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0
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### Preserving the strictly total positivity of special bases by using radial basis functions

Let $\left[\alpha,\beta\right]$ be a non-empty interval and consider an $\left(n+1\right)$-dimensional subspace $\mathbb{S}_{n}$ of $C^n\left(\left[\alpha,\beta\right]\right)$ such that $\mathbb{S}_{n}...

9
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1
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255
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### Nonnegative coefficients of a product of polynomials

Let $P(x_1,\dots,x_n)\in\mathbb{R}[x_1,\dots,x_n]$. Does there exist an algorithm to decide whether there is a nonzero polynomial $Q(x_1,\dots,x_n)\in\mathbb{R}[x_1,\dots,x_n]$ such that the product $...

3
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0
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239
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### On the existence of fixed points of a matrix iteration

Let $A\in\mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$ be a Hurwitz stable matrix (i.e. all eigenvalues of $A$ have negative real part). Let $\succeq$ denote the standard partial order in the cone of positive semidefinite ...

6
votes

1
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286
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### Positive-definiteness of radial sinc function in three dimensions

In dimension one, it is well known that $\mathcal{F}\chi_{(-1,1)}=\frac{\sin{x}}{x}$. This implies, in particular, that $\frac{\sin{x}}{x}$ is a definite positive function. I wonder if a similar ...

8
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### Maps which are both completely positive and positive

Definition:A linear map $f:\mathbb C^n\to \mathbb C^n$ is called positive if $\langle fa,a\rangle\ge0$ for all $a\in \mathbb C^n$. Equivalently, $f\in M_{n}(\mathbb C)$ is positive if it can be ...

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### When can a function be made positive by averaging?

Let $f: {\bf Z} \to {\bf R}$ be a finitely supported function on the integers ${\bf Z}$. I am interested in knowing when there exists a finitely supported non-negative function $g: {\bf Z} \to [0,+\...

6
votes

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108
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### Positive splitting of Sobolev convergence

Let $f,g,h \in H^1(\mathbb{R}^n)$ be non-negative Sobolev functions such that $f^2 = g^2 + h^2$. Let also $\{f_k\} \subseteq H^1(\mathbb{R}^n)$ be non-negative Sobolev functions such that $f_k \to f$ ...

0
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240
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### Dual of a stable locally free subsheaf is a locally free quotient sheaf

Let $X$ be a compact connected Kähler manifold, of dimension $d\geq3$, with Hermitian metric $\omega$; let $E$ be a vector bundle on $X$ of rank $r\geq2$.
By [1] definition 1.2:
A line bundle $L$ ...

1
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1
answer

93
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### Completeness of Lowner order in separable Hilbert space

Consider a separable Hilbert space $\mathcal{H}$, we can first define $T(\mathcal{H})$ the trace class of $\mathcal{H}$, then $D(\mathcal{H})$ to denote the interesection of positive operator and ...

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1
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187
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### positive real matrix-valued function as linear combination of positive-real functions

In my question I am considering $z$ as the complex variable in the $z$-transform $X(z)$ of a discrete-time sequence $x[n]$:
I have $M$ square complex matrices $\mathbf{R}_m$ of size $N\times N$.
I ...

1
vote

1
answer

260
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### Positive Solutions of second-order ODE

Consider second-order ordinary differential equations of the form
$u''(t)=a(t)u(t)-2$
I'm interested in general criteria on the function $a(t)$, which guarantee respectively rule out the existence ...

0
votes

1
answer

257
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### Stability of a matrix product

Motivation: I am working on a research problem and have been stuck for a while. I hope someone can help, as it requires only linear algebra. :)
Let $H$ be a real, invertible and positive semi-...