Questions tagged [bernoulli-numbers]

The Bernoulli numbers are the rational numbers $B_n$ defined as the coefficients in the expansion $\frac{x}{e^x-1} = \sum_{n \geq 0} B_n \frac{x^n}{n!}$. They vanish when $n$ is odd and greater than $2$. They appear in the values at integers of the Riemann $\zeta$ function. These classical numbers play an important role in number theory and in several other places in mathematics.

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References for the heuristics on the uniform distribution of the Bernoulli Numbers modulo a prime

I'm interested in the distribution of the Bernoulli numbers $B_{2},\ldots B_{p-3} \bmod p$ for a prime $p$. In the books on the cyclotomic fields (for example the book of Washington, Lang, etc) there ...
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Claim on divisibility of a power sum

Let $x,y,z$ are integer and $x,y>0$ Define $S(x,y)=1^y+2^y+3^y+...+x^y$ Can it be shown that If given $z\ne0$ then $S(x,y)\equiv z\pmod{x}$ have finitely many solution of $x$ with respect ...
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Analogues over finite fields of certain integers defined multiplicatively in $\mathbb Z$

For any irreducible polynomial $f$ of degree $d$ in finite field $\mathbb F$ we have that $$x^{|\mathbb F|^d}-x\equiv0\bmod f$$ and thus the polynomial $x^{|\mathbb F|^d}-x$ is the analog of factorial ...
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Exact and simple expressions for the (inverse) of the $n$-th Bernoulli number

Of course, there are many known equations and approximations relating to the $n$-th Bernoulli number like $$B^{-{}}_m = \sum_{k=0}^m \sum_{v=0}^k (-1)^v \binom{k}{v} \frac{v^m}{k + 1}$$ or $$|B_{2 n}| ...
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show that $n\Upsilon_{n-1} \equiv -1 \pmod{n}$ iff $n$ is prime

Agoh conjecture: let $n$ be a positive integer with $n \ge 2$, then $$nB_{n-1} \equiv -1 \pmod{n}\iff n\text{ is prime} $$ The idea of ​​$\Upsilon$ number comes from my power sum formula and ...
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Bilinear recurrence relation between even Bernoulli numbers

Throughout this question $n$ is a positive integer greater than 1. Consider the following well-known identity by Euler, $$\sum_{k=1}^{n-1} \binom{2n}{2k}B_{2k}B_{2n-2k}=-(2n+1)B_{2n}.$$ Rather ...
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A question on Bernoulli polynomials

Denote by $B_r$ the $r$-th Bernoulli polynomial. Are there any positive integers $r, x$ such that. $B_r(x)$ divides $B_r(x+1)$ or vice versa ?
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Coefficients of shifted Bernoulli polynomials

I stumbled across the following curious empirical properties of the Bernoulli polynomials $B_n(x)$. Can anyone provide a reference or proof? Let $k\in\mathbb{Z}$, $k\geq 2$. Then (empirically): The ...
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2-adic valuation of $L(0,\chi)$ for a Dirichlet character

Let $\chi : (\mathbb Z/f\mathbb Z)^\times \to K = \mathbb Q(\mu_{\phi(f)})$ be a primitive Dirichlet character. Assume moreover that it is not quadratic, that is, $\chi^2$ is not the trivial character....
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What is this sequence?

This is again a question that I asked at Stack Exchange, but got no answer so far, so I am trying here. Let: $$ a_n=\sum_{k\ge0}(k+1) {n+2\brack k+2}(n+2)^kB_k$$ $B_k$ is the Bernoulli number. ${n\...
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Bernoulli sum meets golden number

Let $B_n$ denote the Bernoulli numbers and let $\phi=\frac{1+\sqrt{5}}2$ be the golden ratio. I encountered the following infinite sum and would like to ask: Question. Is this true? If so, any ...
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Roots of Bernoulli polynomials - a pattern

Contemplating a question on math.SE, I have stumbled on this: Here, the point labeled $n$ is that root of the $n$th Bernoulli polynomial which has smallest positive imaginary part. Does anyone know ...
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Transformation converting power series to Bernoulli polynomial series

I wonder, can anyone describe an expression or formula of a transform that converts $$\sum_{k=0}^\infty \frac{a_k x^k}{k!}$$ into $$\sum_{k=0}^\infty \frac{a_k B_k(x)}{k!}$$ where $B_k(x)$ are ...
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Any reference for the series expansion of $\Bigr[-\log(1-t)\Bigr]^x$?

Any reference that we can find the following $$\Bigr[-\log(1-t)\Bigr]^x = t^x + x t^x \sum_{k=0}^\infty \psi_k(x+k)\,t^{k+1}; \quad \mbox{for all} \, x\in \mathbb R, \, |t|<1$$ where $\psi_k(.)$ ...
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Values of Bernoulli polynomials at roots of unity

I am wondering if there are any nice results on the values of Bernoulli polynomials at roots of unity, besides those at 1 or -1.
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Connection between Bernoulli numbers and Riemann-Siegel theta function?

I have come across a strange approximation for the Riemann-Siegel theta function involving the Bernoulli numbers - namely that $$\frac{1}{2} \log \left| B_{2 n}\right|\approx \vartheta (2n)\ ,\quad n ...
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divisibility by Bernoulli numbers of discriminant of Hecke algebra over the space of modular forms of level 1

For the space of modular forms and the space of cusp forms (here I only care about the level $1$ case), we have the action by Hecke algebras. Therefore, we can calculate the discriminant of this ...
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Estimate of the sum Taylor's coefficients

Let $f(x) = \begin{cases}\ln\frac{x}{e^x-1}, \quad x > 0; \\ 0, \quad\qquad x=0; \\ \ln\frac{x}{e^x-1}, \quad x < 0. \end{cases}$ Power series in 0: $f(x) = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} a_n x^n = -\frac{...
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Probability of the maximum of a throw of an infinite number of $n$-sided dice being $k$ [closed]

Let $X$ be the random variable obtained as the maximum of a throw of $m$ dice (each of which is $n$-sided). In other words, $X = \max\{l_1,\cdots, l_m\}$ where $l_i$ can take any value between $1$ and ...
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Why do $12$ and $120$ occur very often in the denominators of $\zeta(-n)$ for odd $n$?

$\zeta(-n) = - \dfrac{B_{n+1}}{n+1}$ $\zeta(-2n) = 0$ $\zeta(-1) = - \dfrac{1}{12}$ $\zeta(-3) = \dfrac{1}{120}$ $\zeta(-5) = - \dfrac{1}{252}$ $\zeta(-7) = \dfrac{1}{240}$ $\zeta(-9) = - \dfrac{...
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How naturally can functions defined by parametric integrals be interpolated from $\mathbb N$ to $\mathbb R^+$?

It is well known that several definite integrals $I_n$ containing a parameter $n\in\mathbb N$ can be expressed recursively (e.g. doing integration by parts) in terms of $I_{n-1} $ or $I_{n-2} $, and ...
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For a given even integer $k >14$ is there always a prime $p$ such that $k \leq p-3$ and $p|B_k$?

Let $k$ be a sufficiently large positive even integer. (I think $k > 14$ should do.) Can one always find a prime $p$ such that $p$ divides the numerator of the $k$-th Bernoulli number $B_k$ and $k \...
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What is $p$-adic Fourier series?

Q1: Can we define Fourier series for a function $\mathbb{Z}_p\to \mathbb{Q}_p$? Q2: There are (in a real case) Bernoulli polynomials which have the most simple Fourier expansion: $$B_n(\{x\})=-\frac{...
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zeta(3) in Euler's Section 153

Jeffery Lagarias, in his recent article Euler's constant: Euler's work and modern developments in the AMS Bulletin, mentions that Euler obtained $\zeta(3)={{2\pi^3 b(3/2)}\over 3}$ for some "Bernoulli ...
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computing Bernoulli numbers

Is there a good way to compute the ratio ( B[n] / n! ) that occurs so often in power series coefficients? Good in the sense that you get an answer that does not overflow a double; the largest n such ...
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Sign of coefficients

Let $a_0,a_1,\dots$ be the sequence satisfying $$ \left(\sum_{n=0}^\infty a_n x^n\right)\left(\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n+1}\right)=1. $$ This means that $a_0=1$ and $a_{n+1}=-\sum_{j=0}^n\frac{a_j}...
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p-adic poly-Bernoulli numbers

We can define p-adic Bernoulli polynomials by using q-integral on $\mathbb{Z}_p$ and Taekyun Kim's method. But how can we define p-adic poly-Bernoulli numbers and polynomials by using integral on $\...
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Coefficients in Hirzebruch polynomial and divisibility of Bernoulli numbers: reference request

I seek a reference for the fact that "coefficients of the Hirzebruch $L$-polynomial have odd denominators". The coefficients are $$\frac{2^{2k}(2^{2k-1}-1)B_k}{(2k)!}$$ where $B_k$ is the Bernoulli ...
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Riemann's $\zeta$ function and the uniform distribution on $[-1,0]$

https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/64566/riemanns-zeta-function-and-the-uniform-distribution-on-1-0 Stackexchange isn't getting really excited about this, so here it is. The $n$th cumulant of ...
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Why do Bernoulli numbers arise everywhere?

I have seen Bernoulli numbers many times, and sometimes very surprisingly. They appear in my textbook on complex analysis, in algebraic topology, and of course, number theory. Things like the criteria ...
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A conjecture on p-divisibility of Bernoulli numbers

Is anyone aware of the history of the following conjecture on the $p$-divisibility of (the numerators) of Bernoulli numbers? CONJECTURE: For $p$ an odd prime, and $k$ even with $2 \leq k \leq p-3$, $...
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What does the generating function $x/(1 - e^{-x})$ count?

Let $x$ be a formal (or small, since the function is analytic) variable, and consider the power series $$ A(x) = \frac{x}{1 - e^{-x}} = \sum_{m=0}^\infty \left( -\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{(-x)^n}{(n+1)!}...