# Questions tagged [integer-sequences]

For questions about sequences of integers. References are often made to the online resource oeis.org.

227
questions

**3**

votes

**1**answer

194 views

### The sequence $a(n)=(2^n \bmod p)^{p-1} \bmod p^2$

Related to this question.
Let $p$ be prime and $n$ positive integer.
Define $a(n)=(2^n \bmod p)^{p-1} \bmod p^2$
Let $D(n)$ be the base $2$ discrete logarithm of $a(n)$, i.e.
given $p,a(n)$ we have $2^...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

213 views

### Discrete logarithm and the sequence $a(n)=(g^n \bmod p)^{p-1} \bmod p^2$

Let $p$ be prime and $g,n$ integers.
Define $a(n)=(g^n \bmod p)^{p-1} \bmod p^2$
By mod p we don't mean congruence, but the reduction modulo $p$ operator. $A \bmod ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

189 views

### Sequences over finite fields

Let's we have finite field $F_q$ for some prime $q=2^M-1$.
I am looking for special sequence {$a_{i}$, $i \in {1,..,q-1}$},
($\{a_{1},...,a_{q-1}\}=F_q/\{0\}$) with the following properties:
$r_{1}=...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

238 views

### sum of odious numbers to the power of k

In number theory, an odious number is a positive integer that has an odd number of $1$s in its binary expansion.
The first odious numbers are:
$1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14, 16, 19, 21, 22, 25, 26, 28, ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

236 views

### Convergence of rivers of numbers

$\DeclareMathOperator{\river}{river}\DeclareMathOperator{\leadingsum}{ls}\DeclareMathOperator{\digitsum}{ds}\newcommand{\qed}{\square}
$A 1999 British Informatics Olympiad question asks about ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

113 views

### Upper bounds for a sequence of integers

Given $\alpha\geq0$ we consider the sequence
$$
C_k=k^\alpha\sum_{j=0}^{k-1}C_jC_{k-1-j}
$$
with $C_0=1$. I'm interested in upper bounds (in terms of $\alpha$) for such a sequence. I know that when $\...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

89 views

### Writing integers as sequences of products by 2 and integer divisions by 3

For any integer, we consider its decompositions into sequences of products by $2$ and integer division by $3$.
For instance:
$$
100 = 2 \cdot 2 \cdot 2 \cdot 2 \cdot 2 \cdot 2 \cdot 2 \cdot 2 \cdot 2 \...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

181 views

### Subwords of the infinite Fibonacci word

Let $W = 01001010010010 \ldots$ be the infinite Fibonacci word, A003849 in the OEIS. Let $B(m)$ be the set of $m+1$ subwords of $W$ that have length $m$, and for each such subword $u$, let $p(u)$ be ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

36 views

### Calculating ordinal numbers for sorted sequences

given a set $\mathcal{S}=\lbrace\,\sigma\in\mathbb{N}_0^k\ \ \big|\ \ i\lt j\implies\sigma\left[i\right]\le\sigma\left[j\right]\,\rbrace$ of fixed size sequences of natural numbers whose entries are ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

153 views

### Is this Laurent phenomenon explained by invariance/periodicity?

In Chapter 4 of his Tracking the Automatic
Ant, David Gale
discusses three families of recursively defined sequences of numbers, all
due to Dana Scott and inspired by the Somos sequences:
Sequence 1. ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

245 views

### Why does this “factorial sequence” appear in the OEIS?

For a reciprocal of a polynomial, $f = \frac{1}{p}$, we (presumably) may construct a sequence $(c_n)_{n=0}^\infty$ such that for all $N\ge 0$
$$f(k)k! = \sum_{n=0}^{N-1} c_n(k-n)! + O((k-N)!). $$
I ...

**16**

votes

**0**answers

827 views

### The easily bored sequence

If we want to compare the repetitiveness of two finite words, it looks reasonable, first of all, to consider more repetitive the word repeating more times one of its factors, and secondarily to ...

**17**

votes

**2**answers

879 views

### A conjecture harmonic numbers

I will outlay a few observations applying to the harmonic numbers that may be interesting to prove (if it hasn't already been proven).
From the Online Encyclopedia of Positive Integers we have:
$a(n)$ ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

130 views

### Factor-counting sequence

Define a non-negative integer sequence $\{\mathcal{F}_n\}$ as follows: start with 1 and, at each step, insert the number of entries already present in the sequence which are factors of the last one.
...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

122 views

### Properties of a certain sequence

During research I came to the following sequence:
Let $\lambda>1$
and define $n_{k+1}=\text{IntergerPart}[\lambda\cdot n_k]$ where we assume that $n_0$ is sufficently large integer, so that the ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Biased random Fibonacci sequences

I have recently been toying (very superficially) with the random Fibonacci sequence, i.e., defined by $F_0=1=F_1=1$ and
$$
F_{n} = F_{n-1} + \varepsilon_n F_{n-2}
$$
where $(\varepsilon_n)_{n\geq 2}$ ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

242 views

### Quadratic progressions with very high prime density

In my previous MO question (see here), I solved the case for arithmetic progressions $f_k(x)=q_k x+1$. The solution is this:
The list of sequences $f_k(x)$, each one corresponding to a specific
$k$, ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

22 views

### Raggedness measure of a sequence

This surely has been done, maybe I googled the wrong adjective...
Define a raggedness measure $r$ of a sequence $S$ in this way:
Two members $S_i,S_j$ of the sequence (who don't have to be adjacent!) ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

97 views

### Question related to sequence of recurrence relation $a_k=\operatorname{rad}(a_{k-1}+a_{k-2})$ for $k\ge 2$ where $a_0=0,a_1=1$

Define radical of an integer Wiki
$$\displaystyle{\mathrm{rad}}(n)=\prod_{{\scriptstyle p\mid n\atop p\:{\text{prime}}}}p$$
Example $n=504=2^3\cdot3^2\cdot7$ therefore ${\displaystyle \operatorname{...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

273 views

### Why can one compute the sum of divisors of $n$ without factoring $n$?

Question links to paper
which states:
$$
\sigma(n)= \frac{6}{n^2(n-1)}\sum_{k=1}^{n-1}(3n^2-10k^2)\sigma(k)\sigma(n-k) \qquad (1)
$$
where $\sigma(n)$ is the sum of divisors of $n$.
Another similar ...

**22**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Parity of the multiplicative order of 2 modulo p

Let $\operatorname{ord}_p(2)$ be the order of 2 in the multiplicative group modulo $p$. Let $A$ be the subset of primes $p$ where $\operatorname{ord}_p(2)$ is odd, and let $B$ be the subset of primes $...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

117 views

### Formally confirm a formula for a certain three-dimensional constrained integral over the unit cube

The result of the three-dimensional constrained integration (for the Hilbert-Schmidt two-qubit absolute separability probability) over the unit cube $[0,1]^3$
\begin{equation} \label{one}
\int_0^1 \...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

291 views

### $\pi(x+200)-\pi(x)\leq 50$?

Is it true, that $\forall x \in \mathbb N, \pi(x+200)-\pi(x) \leq 50 $ ?
$$\pi(x)=\text{card}(\{n \in [0,x] \cap \mathbb N, n\text{ is prime}\})$$

**1**

vote

**0**answers

129 views

### On smoothness and roughness of a number related to triangular numbers

Define $\triangle_n$ to be the $n$th triangular number.
Define $$M_n=(2\triangle_n-1)2\triangle_n(2\triangle_n+1)=2\triangle_n(4\triangle_n^2-1).$$
Define $(\ell,k)$-smough numbers to be numbers that ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

269 views

### On $\sum_{k=1}^nk^3 = x^3 + y^3$ with $x,y \ge 1$

My question is related to https://oeis.org/A269839.
It is well-known that there are parametric families of solutions for cubes that are sums of consecutive cubes: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1603.08901.pdf. ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

218 views

### Sequences for which $\prod (1-z^n)^{a(n)}$ is a polynomial

This is mostly a reference request.
I'm working with complex coefficients, although all I have in mind have integer coefficients.
Let $a=(a(n))_{n\ge 1}$ be a sequence, say of integers (I have non-...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

169 views

### On nontotient Fibonacci numbers

This question is related to sequence of numbers $t$ such that $F_{6t}$ is a nontotient where $F_n$ represents the sequence of Fibonacci numbers for $n\geq 0$.
The online encyclopedia Wikipedia has the ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

154 views

### Some conjectural congruences involving Domb numbers

The Domb numbers are given by
$$D_n=\sum_{k=0}^n\binom{n}{k}^2\binom{2k}k\binom{2(n-k)}{n-k}\ \ \ (n=0,1,2,\ldots).$$
Such numbers have combinatorial interpretation, see, e.g., http://oeis.org/A002895....

**2**

votes

**0**answers

117 views

### A question on $a_i(n) = a_i(\pi(n)) + a_i(n-\pi(n))$ with $a_i(n) = 1$ for $n \le i$

Let $a_i(n) = a_i(\pi(n)) + a_i(n-\pi(n))$ with $a_i(n) = 1$ for $n \le i$ where $\pi(n)$ is the prime-counting function.
By definition, it is obvious that $a_1(n) = n$ and $a_2(n)$ is https://oeis....

**2**

votes

**2**answers

277 views

### Why are attempts to define chaos with discrete states so scarce?

Interestingly, the theory of nested recurrence relations has been correlated with “discrete chaos” by Golomb (1991) and Tanny (1992).
And in literature, there are very few studies that have different ...

**18**

votes

**0**answers

711 views

### A question related to Hofstadter-Conway \$10000 sequence

Hofstadter-Conway \$10000 sequence is defined by nested recurrence relation $$c(n) = c(c(n-1)) + c(n-c(n-1))$$ with $c(1) = c(2) = 1$. This sequence is https://oeis.org/A004001 and it is well-known ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

115 views

### (Translation request) Hypotheses of the Blom-Fredberg bounds on denumerants?

I don't know Swedish and I'm not finding the article "G. Blom and C. E. Froberg, On money changing" translated into English... so I tried to read the original (Swedish) with the help of ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

205 views

### On the growth and bounds for a certain sequence of integers known as Bogotá numbers

A Bogotá number is a non-negative integer equal to some smaller number, or itself, times its digital product, i.e. the product of its digits. For example, 138 is a Bogotá number because 138 = 23 x (2 ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

150 views

### My research paper involves computing additional terms of an existing OEIS sequence. Should I first amend the sequence or publish the results?

In the course of my research I computed terms of an existing OEIS sequence that are currently unknown. Having prepared my paper for publication, I am now faced with a (small) dilemma:
Do I first ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

160 views

### A recursion which defines polynomials with integer coefficients?

Let $[n]=1+q+\dots+q^{n-1}$ and $u(n)=\prod_{j=1}^n \gcd([j],[n])$.
Define
$$r(n)=\sum_{d|n,d>1}{(-1)^d \frac{u(n)}{du(\frac{n}{d})^d}r\Big(\frac{n}{d}\Big)^d}+\frac{(1-q)^{n-1}u(n)}{n[n]}$$ with $...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

129 views

### A binomial coefficient identity involving two parameters

In a recent calculation I obtain a result involving the following expression depending on two integers $n,m\geq 0$:
$$S(n,m):=\frac{(n+m+1)!}{n!m!}\sum_{l=0}^{n+m}\frac{1}{n+m-l+1}\sum_{\substack{j+k=...

**11**

votes

**3**answers

632 views

### Series and sequences in physical systems & closed form expressions

I gave a colloquium a while ago about physics inspiring recent developments in mathematics and as is almost borderline cliche in such talks, I mentioned the Fibonacci sequence with closed form ...

**6**

votes

**3**answers

791 views

### What is the asymptotic of the irregular blue curve? Is it $(8x)^{1/2}$ or is it something else?

From Terry Tao's post here there is the statement:
"Conversely, if one can somehow establish a bound of the form
$$\displaystyle \sum_{n \leq x} \Lambda(n) = x + O( x^{1/2+\epsilon} ) \tag{1}$$
...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

148 views

### Distinct distances between adjacent equal elements

Let's call a sequence $a_1, \ldots, a_n$ suitable if for any positive integer $d$ there is at most one index $i$ such that $a_i = a_{i + d}$ and all elements $a_{i + 1}, \ldots, a_{i + d - 1}$ are not ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

44 views

### A distribution of maximum of sums if add to the minimal

Consider a vector of $n$ integer variables with initial values of 0. Each step we take random $w_i\thicksim NB(q, l)$ (independent randon values with the same negative binomial distribution) and add ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

92 views

### When is $\lfloor C^n \rfloor \mod b$ efficiently computable?

For real irrational $C > 1 $ and natural $n,b$, define
$a(C,n,b)=\lfloor C^n \rfloor \mod b$
Q1 For which $C,b$ is $a(C,n,b)$ computable in time polynomial
in $\log{n}$?
Searching in OEIS ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

99 views

### How many flips of a fair coin are needed to get at least one run of at least $k$ consecutive heads with probability $\ge1/2$?

The following question was asked today:
How many flips $n$ of a fair coin are needed to get at least one run of at least $k$ consecutive heads with probability $P_{k,n}\ge1/2$?
The question was ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

50 views

### On a type of equations that involve certain multiplicative functions and polynomials, in relation to their number of solutions

Past weekend I was interested in the sequence A058891 from the On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, from this, inspired by the equation due to Benoit Cloitre (2002) that shows the comments, I ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

106 views

### Roots of a family of 4-parameter polynomials

Let $k, \ell, p$ and $q$ be positive integers, with $q>p>1$ and $\gcd(p,q)=1$. Let $f(x)$ the polynomial given by
$$
f(x)=x^q-kx^{q-p}-\ell.
$$
This polynomial is related to a family of two-...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

110 views

### Primitive roots modulo primes related to Fibonacci numbers or Lucas numbers

The Fibonacci numbers $F_0,F_1,F_2,\ldots$ and the Lucas numbers $L_0,L_1,L_2,\ldots$ are given by
$$F_0=0,\ F_1=1,\ \text{and}\ F_{n+1}=F_n+F_{n-1}\ (n=1,2,3,\ldots)$$
and
$$L_0=2,\ L_1=1,\ \text{...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

59 views

### Ordered $m$-tuples with fixed number of changes

Given $1\leq k\leq m$, $2\leq d\leq c i\ln i$ and $2\leq i\leq c'\ln(mi\ln i)$ at some $c,c'>0$ how many sequences (lower and upper bounds) are of form $$z_1,\dots,z_m$$ on the condition that
$$0\...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

662 views

### Arithmetic progressions in stopping time of Collatz sequences

Inspired by the question here, we did a few more simulations of numbers of some specific forms and noticed a pattern.
We consider the original $3n+1$ transform where we divide by $2$ if it's even and ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

286 views

### A question about integer triples

How can we generate all integer solutions of the equation
$$(qr+rp+pq)(x^2+y^2+z^2) = (p^2+q^2+r^2)(yz+zx+xy),$$
given that $p,q,r$ are integers?
Clearly if any one of $(x,y,z), (x,z,y), (y,z,x), (...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

225 views

### Are there infinitely many primes of the form $\frac{3a^2-a}{2}+b^4$?

I was inspired from a theorem due to Iwaniec and Friedlander, see [1], to ask the following conjecuture involving integers.
Conjecture. There are infinitely many prime numbers of the form $$\frac{3a^...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

173 views

### Solutions of the equation $\psi(\sigma(n))=2n$, where $\sigma(n)$ is the sum of divisors function and $\psi(n)$ the Dedekind psi function

For integers $m\geq 1$ let $\sigma(m)$ the sum of divisors function $\sum_{1\leq d\mid m}d$ and let $\psi(m)$ the Dedekind psi function (as reference I add the Wikipedia Dedekind psi function), then ...