# Questions tagged [nt.number-theory]

Prime numbers, diophantine equations, diophantine approximations, analytic or algebraic number theory, arithmetic geometry, Galois theory, transcendental number theory, continued fractions

Prime numbers, diophantine equations, diophantine approximations, analytic or algebraic number theory, arithmetic geometry, Galois theory, transcendental number theory, continued fractions

4,148
questions with no upvoted or accepted answers

135
votes

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answers

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(1) In "Esquisse d'un programme", Grothendieck conjectures
Grothendieck-Teichmuller conjecture: the morphism
$$
G_{\mathbb{Q}} \longrightarrow Aut(\widehat{T})
$$
is an isomorphism.
Here $G_{\...

73
votes

0
answers

3k
views

For $d$ a non-zero integer, let $E_d$ be the elliptic curve
$$
E_d : y^2 = x^3+dx.
$$
When we let $d$ be $p = 2^{2^k}+1$, for $k \in \{1,2,3,4\}$, sage tells us that, conditionally on BSD,
$$
\# Ш(E_p)...

63
votes

0
answers

3k
views

Consider an elliptic curve $E$ defined over $\mathbb Q$. Assume that the rank of $E(\mathbb Q)$ is $\geq2$. (Assume the Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture if needed, so that analytic rank $=$ algebraic ...

55
votes

0
answers

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Singular cohomology and algebraic de Rham cohomology are both functors from the category of smooth projective algebraic varieties over $\mathbb Q$ to $\mathbb Q$-vectors spaces. They come with the ...

50
votes

0
answers

2k
views

In this Numberphile video (from 3:36 to 7:41), Neil Sloane explains an amazing sequence:
It is the lexicographically first among the sequences of positive integers without triple in arithmetic ...

41
votes

0
answers

2k
views

This question is about a remark made by van der Geer and Schoof in their beautiful article "Effectivity of Arakelov divisors and the theta divisor of a number field" (from '98) (link).
Let ...

39
votes

1
answer

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views

In a result I am currently studying (completely unrelated to number theory), I had to examine the solvability of the equation $n = ab+ac+bc$ where $n,a,b,c$ are positive integers $0 < a < b < ...

33
votes

0
answers

2k
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In 1949 Julia Robinson showed the undecidability of the first order theory of the field of rationals by demonstrating that the set of natural numbers $\Bbb{N}$ is first order definable in $(\Bbb{Q}, +,...

32
votes

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It is easy to show, with an explicit construction, that a homogeneous cubic function $f: \mathbb{Z}^2 \to \mathbb{Z}$ is not injective. I am seeking a proof of the same result without the condition ...

32
votes

0
answers

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The Hofstadter–Conway \$10000 sequence is defined by the nested recurrence relation $$c(n) = c(c(n-1)) + c(n-c(n-1))$$ with $c(1) = c(2) = 1$. This sequence is A004001 and it is well-known that this ...

32
votes

0
answers

982
views

The adèles $\mathbb A$ arise naturally when considering the Berkovich space $\mathcal M(\mathbb Z)$ of the integers. Namely, they are the stalk $\mathbb A = (j_\ast j^{-1} \mathcal O_\mathbb Z)_p$ ...

32
votes

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answers

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In a recent answer Max Alekseyev provided two recurrences of the form mentioned in the title which stay integer for a long time. However, they eventually fail.
QUESTION Is there any (added: ...

31
votes

0
answers

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For the Dirichlet character $\chi(a)=(\frac a3)$ (which is the Legendre symbol), we have
$$L(2,\chi)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{(\frac n3)}{n^2}=0.781302412896486296867187429624\ldots.$$
Note that this ...

31
votes

0
answers

2k
views

It was proved by Poonen that $\mathbb{Z}$ is definable in the structure $(\mathbb{Q}, +, \cdot, 0, 1)$ using $\forall \exists$ formula. Koenigsmann has shown that $\mathbb{Z}$ is in fact definable by ...

30
votes

0
answers

716
views

Let $N$ be a positive integer and let $P \subset \mathbb{C}$ be a polygon whose vertices are of the form $(a_1+b_1 i)/N$, $(a_2+b_2 i)/N$, ..., $(a_r+b_r i)/N$, with $a_j + b_j i$ being various ...

28
votes

0
answers

529
views

I will first ask the question which can be stated very simply. Afterwards I will explain some motivation and give references to related sequences.
Consider the sequence defined by
$$b_n = \frac{(...

28
votes

0
answers

1k
views

Consider the formal product
$$F(t,x,z):=\prod_{j=0}^{\infty}(1-tx^j)^{z-1}.$$
(a) If $z=2$ then on the one hand we get Euler's
$$F(t,x,2)=\sum_{n\geq0}\frac{(-1)^nx^{\binom{n}2}}{(x;x)_n}t^n,$$
on the ...

28
votes

0
answers

865
views

Let's say that a real number has a simple trigonometric representation, if it can be represented as a product of zero or more rational powers of positive integers and zero or more (positive or ...

28
votes

0
answers

933
views

Recall that a family of graphs (indexed by an infinite set, such as the primes, say) is called an expander family if there is a $\delta>0$ such that, on every graph in the family, the discrete ...

28
votes

0
answers

1k
views

Let $\Delta$ be a fundamental quadratic discriminant, set $N = |\Delta|$,
and define the Fekete polynomials
$$ F_N(X) = \sum_{a=1}^N \Big(\frac{\Delta}a\Big) X^a. $$
Define
$$ f_N(X) = \frac{F_N(X)}{...

28
votes

0
answers

2k
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An elliptic fibration is a proper morphism $Y\rightarrow B$ between varieties such that the fiber over a general point of the base $B$ is a smooth curve of genus one.
It is often required for the ...

27
votes

0
answers

652
views

This re-asks a question I posed on MSE:
Q. Does this infinite product converge?
$$
\frac{2}{3}\cdot\frac{7}{5}\cdot\frac{11}{13}\cdot\frac{19}{17}\cdot\frac{23}{29}\cdot\frac{37}{31} \cdot \cdots \...

27
votes

0
answers

1k
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Shtukas were defined by Drinfeld as a generalization of Drinfeld modules. While the relationship between the definitions of Drinfeld modules and shtukas is not obvious, one does have a natural ...

26
votes

0
answers

509
views

It is well-known that any positive rational number can be written as the sum of finitely many distinct unit fractions. This is easy since
$$\frac1n=\frac1{n+1}+\frac1{n(n+1)}\quad\text{for all}\ n=1,2,...

26
votes

0
answers

770
views

Facebook has a new tool to estimate the average path length between you and any other person on Facebook. An interesting aspect of their method is the use of the Flajolet-Martin algorithm.
In the ...

26
votes

0
answers

2k
views

Let $K$ be a degree $n$ extension of ${\mathbb Q}$ with ring of integers $R$. An order in $K$ is a subring with identity of $R$ which is a ${\mathbb Z}$-module of rank $n$.
Question: Let $p$ be an ...

25
votes

0
answers

543
views

In an answer to the question Tools for the Langlands Program?, Emerton, in his usual illuminating manner, remarks on the reciprocity aspect of Langlands Program: "...As to constructing Galois ...

25
votes

0
answers

857
views

The question in brief: When does a subset $S$ of the complex $n$th roots of unity have the property that
$$\prod_{\alpha\, \in \,S} (z-\alpha)$$
gives a polynomial in $\mathbb R[z]$ with ...

24
votes

0
answers

896
views

Is 40 the largest number for which all the 0 digits in the decimal form of $n!$ come at the end?
Motivation: My son considered learning all digits of 40! for my birthday. I told him that the best way ...

24
votes

0
answers

1k
views

The title is a talk given by Sir M. Atiyah in a conference with the following abstract:
I will explain a deep analogy between 4-dimensional smooth geometry (Donaldson theory)...

24
votes

0
answers

853
views

I am now reading the paper An explicit expansion formula for the powers of the Euler Product in terms of partition hook lengths by Guo-Niu Han. The author rediscovered what he calls the Nekrasov-...

23
votes

0
answers

847
views

This is a direct follow-up to Conjecture on irrational algebraic numbers.
Take the decimal expansion for $\sqrt{2},$ but now think of it as the base $11$ expansion of some number $\theta_{11}.$ Is ...

23
votes

0
answers

777
views

By Eichler-Shimura over totally real fields I mean the following conjecture.
Conjecture. Let $K$ be a totally real field. Let $f$ be a Hilbert eigenform with rational eigenvalues, of parallel weight $...

22
votes

0
answers

1k
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The terms of the sequence A276123, defined by $a_0=a_1=a_2=1$ and $$a_n=\dfrac{(a_{n-1}+1)(a_{n-2}+1)}{a_{n-3}}\;,$$ are all integers (it's easy to prove that for all $n\geq2$, $a_n=\frac{9-3(-1)^n}{2}...

22
votes

0
answers

1k
views

Suppose one has an elliptic curve $E$ over $\mathbb{Q}$ with conductor $N < k^3$ for some (large) positive $k$, with the property that its Fourier coefficients satisfy
$$
a_p=0, \; \mbox{ for all }...

22
votes

0
answers

767
views

This is a variation on Poonen's question, taking Buzzard's fabulous example into account. It was earlier a part of this other question.
Question. Is there a smooth proper scheme $X\to\operatorname{...

21
votes

0
answers

6k
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Now that a week has passed since Zhang posted his preprint Discrete mean estimates and the Landau–Siegel zero on the arXiv, I'm wondering if someone can give a high-level overview of his strategy. In ...

21
votes

0
answers

702
views

Define the Erdős polynomial to be $f_n(x):= \sum \limits_{0 \leq i,j \leq n}^{}{x^{ij}}$ (the name is motivated by http://oeis.org/A027424).
For example for $n=5$, the polynomial is given by $x^{25}+...

21
votes

0
answers

756
views

Kronecker's Jugendtraum (Hilbert's 12th problem) asks us to find for any number field $K$ an explicit collection of complex-valued functions whose explicitly described special values generate the ...

21
votes

0
answers

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In the case of $\dfrac{1}{7^{800}}$ it's easy, to find the $2^{2020}$ decimal, but what about the simplest of the irrational numbers.
Question: Do we know how to determine the $2^{2020}$ decimal of $\...

21
votes

0
answers

739
views

Let $k$ be a finite abelian extension of $\mathbb{Q}$. Class field theory states that $k$ corresponds to some open subgroup of finite index $U_k \subset \mathbb{A}_{\mathbb{Q}}^*/ \mathbb{Q}^*$ where $...

21
votes

0
answers

578
views

It is well know that the integral versions of the Hodge and Tate conjectures can fail. I once heard an off hand comment however that they should only fail by a "bounded amount". My question is what ...

21
votes

0
answers

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views

From the works of Borel and Quillen there is a connection between the $K$-theory of the ring of integers $\mathfrak{o}_K$ in a number field $K$ and the arithmetic of the number field. In fact, it is ...

21
votes

0
answers

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Assume that you have proved the two inequalities of class field theory, and that you want to show that the Hilbert class field, i.e., the maximal unramified abelian extension, of a number field $K$ ...

21
votes

0
answers

2k
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For integers $n\ge2$ and $k\ge2$, fix the notation
$$
[m]=\sin\frac{\pi m}{nk+1} \quad\text{and}\quad
[m]!=[1][2]\dots[m], \qquad m\in\mathbb Z_{>0}.
$$
Consider the following trigonometric numbers:...

20
votes

0
answers

804
views

Most standard summaries of the literature on irrationality measure simply say, e.g., that
$$
\left| \pi - \frac{p}{q}\right| > \frac{1}{q^{7.6063}}
$$
for all sufficiently large $q$, without giving ...

20
votes

0
answers

897
views

This is an experiment: there is a question I want to mention in an article I'm writing, and I am not sure it's a sensible question, so I will ask it here first, in the hopes that if it's insensible ...

20
votes

0
answers

871
views

The degree 3 modular equation for the Jacobi modular invariant
$$
\lambda(q)=\biggl(\frac{\sum_{n\in\mathbb Z}q^{(n+1/2)^2}}{\sum_{n\in\mathbb Z}q^{n^2}}\biggr)^4
$$
is given by
$$
(\alpha^2+\beta^2+6\...

19
votes

0
answers

981
views

Let $X$ be a (not necessarily smooth or proper) variety over a number field $k$. Suppose we are given
A subquotient $V_{dR}$ of the algebraic de Rham cohomology $H_{dR}^i(X)$ (defined in the non-...

19
votes

0
answers

492
views

Let $f(x)$ be a polynomial of degree $d$ with integer coefficients such that $f(x)\geqslant 0$ for all real $x$. Is it necessarily true that there exists an integer $N(d)$ such that $N(d)\cdot f$ is a ...