# Questions tagged [arithmetic-functions]

The arithmetic-functions tag has no usage guidance.

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### Closed Form Formula for Adding two Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) Numbers [on hold]

Formal Verification of decimal arithmetic computations hardware/software requires some sort of function decomposition. None of the numerous decomposition types (Taylor, Horner, Shannon, Davio, etc.) ...

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### Can we write each positive integer as $x^2+y^2+\varphi(z^2)$?

As odd squares are congruent to $1$ modulo $8$, any integer of the form $4^k(8m+7)$ with $k,m\in\mathbb N=\{0,1,2,\ldots\}$ cannot be written as the sum of three squares.
To avoid such congruence ...

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414 views

### Is the sum $\sum_{d\mid n}\frac1{d+1}$ never integral?

Recall that a positive integer $n$ is a perfect number if and only if
$$\frac{\sigma(n)}n=\sum_{d\mid n}\frac1d=2.$$
QUESTION: Is my following conjecture true?
Conjecture. (i) We have $\sum_{d\mid ...

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39 views

### Uniformity in Wirsing's Mean Value Theorems

In two important papers of Wirsing, namely "Das asymptotische Verhalten von Summen über multiplikative Funktionen" (1961) and its follow up (1967), several results on mean values of multiplicative ...

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### Does this multiplicative function have a name? If so, what is known about it?

It is well-known that the Euler $\phi$-function is multiplicative: that is, for co-prime positive integers $m,n$ we have $\phi(mn) = \phi(m)\phi(n)$. Thus it is defined by its values on prime powers. ...

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### Euler's totient function and Riemann hypothesis

I am looking for an upper-bound of the Euler's totient function $\varphi$ which would be equivalent to the Riemann hypothesis (RH). There is the following Nicolas' criterion about primorial numbers $...

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117 views

### Is there a way to reduce this problem to two variables through functions coming from arithmetic?

Consider following diophantine equation in $\mathbb Z[x,y,z]$ in three integer variables $x,y,z$
$$x^2+L(y,z)x+L_1(y)L_2(z)=0$$ where $L(y,z)$ is a non-homogeneous linear polynomial in $y,z$ and $L_1(...

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170 views

### A conjecture regarding odd perfect numbers

(Note: I asked this question in MSE this June 2018 but did not receive any responses there. I have therefore cross-posted it here, hoping that it gets answered.)
Let $\sigma(z)$ denote the sum of ...

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**1**answer

335 views

### Goldbach's conjecture for the Liouville function

Is it true that for every even integer $N > 2$, there exist positive integers $a,b$ such that $a + b = N$ and $\lambda(a) = \lambda(b) = -1$ ?
Here $\lambda$ is the Liouville function.

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145 views

### The number of solutions of the equation $ax_1x_2+by_1y_2=n$

The equation $x_1x_2+y_1y_2=n$ is well-studied (Ingham, Heath-Brown, Deshouillers & Iwaniec, Ismoilov) because it arises in an additive divisor problem. The number of solutions in positive ...

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396 views

### Reference for inequality for $\sum\limits_{d \mid n}\frac{\log d}{d}.$

Let $f(n)=\sum\limits_{d \mid n}\frac{\log d}{d}.$
It is not hard to see that $f(n)\ll(\log\log n)^2$. Is there any reference for this inequality?
EDT 1: A possible answer is Analysis of the ...

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102 views

### Primes approximated by eigenvalues?

Let the matrix $T$ be defined by:
$$\displaystyle T(n,k) = -\varphi^{-1}(\operatorname{GCD}(n,k))$$
where $\varphi^{-1}$ is the Dirichlet inverse of the Euler totient function.
$$\varphi^{-1}(n) = \...

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328 views

### On $\varphi(m)\varphi(n)\equiv0\pmod{m+n}$

Euler's totient function $\varphi$ is multiplicative, and it plays important roles in number theory.
QUESTION: Is it true that for each integer $m>6$ we have $\varphi(m)\varphi(n)\equiv0\pmod{m+n}$...

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79 views

### Existence of equation about the product of the divisor sum function

Let $\sigma_k(n)$ be the sum of the $k$-th powers of the positive divisors of $n$ and $\mu(n)$ be the Möbius function.
As Arithmetic function - Wikipedia mentioned, there is an equation that $$\...

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141 views

### The Euler's totient function and the product of distinct primes dividing $n$ versus the Heronian means

For integers $n\geq 1$ with $$\operatorname{rad}(n)=\prod_{\substack{p\mid n\\p\text{ prime}}}p$$ we denote the squarefree kernel or radical of an integer $n$ (see if you want this Wikipedia). And $\...

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106 views

### Is there a closed form for the discrete convolution of $\sigma_1$ and $\sigma_2$?

I am trying to find a closed form for the following sum:
$$\sum_{k = 1}^{n-1}\sigma_1(k) \sigma_2(n-k)$$
where $\sigma_i$ is the sum of divisors and $\sigma_2$ is the sum of squares of divisors.
...

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408 views

### Evaluating the sum of $kl^2$ over $p,q,k,l$ such that $pk +ql = n$

I have come across the following sum:
$$\sum_{\substack{p, q, k, l \in \mathbb{N} \\ k > l \\ pk + ql = n}}kl^2$$
and I am trying to simplify it, hoping to get a nice formula in terms of $n$ and ...

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294 views

### A special kind of multiplicative function $f: \mathbb N \to \mathbb N$ such that $f(p)=p+k$ for all odd prime $p$, where $k>1$ is a fixed odd integer

For which odd positive integer $k$, can we find a multiplicative function $f: \mathbb N \to \mathbb N$ satisfying the following conditions :
$f(p)=p+k$ for all large enough odd prime $p$ and the set $...

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84 views

### Name and theory of multi-valued functions $F:\mathbb{N}^k \rightarrow \mathbb{N}^l$

In computability theory there are considered mostly single-valued functions $f:\mathbb{N}^k \rightarrow \mathbb{N}$. (Let $\mathbb{N}$ be a placeholder for $\mathbb{N}$ or any initial segment $[0,n]$ ...

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121 views

### Tighter upper bound for $\sum_{i=1}^kA_i\log(\frac{A_i}{e})$

What is the tightest upper bound one can obtain for the following expression
$$\sum_{i=1}^kA_i\log(\frac{A_i}{e})$$ subject to $\sum_{i = 1}^k A_i = C$ in terms of $C$ and $k$?
A very loose upper ...

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297 views

### The importance of relations between automorphic forms and arithmetic functions

As I understand things, one of the classical reasons to care about modular forms was their relation to interesting arithmetic functions/counting questions, i.e. on sums of squares and partitions. When ...

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920 views

### A mystery sequence

This question arose from the recent one, roots of a polynomial linked to mock theta function?. Let
$$
g(x):=\sum_{k=0}^\infty x^k\prod_{j=1}^{k-1}(1 + x^j)^2\\=1+x+x^2+3 x^3+4 x^4+6 x^5+10 x^6+15 x^7+...

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143 views

### Representation of a number as a sum of co-prime numbers

Conventions
We will call the following product the canonical expansion of $a$:
$$a = \prod\limits_{p_i\in\mathbb{P}}p_i^{\alpha_i}.$$
If $a$ and $b$ are co-prime we write
$$a \perp b.$$
$\beth$-...

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### An arithmetic function involving arbitrary (but fixed) number of divisors

I need at least basic information about generating functions of the following class of arithmetic functions, grouped by levels $k$.
Fix some $k$ and some family $\varepsilon_*=(\varepsilon_\sigma)_{\...

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### What is known about Carmichael function distribution and growth?

Let $\lambda(n)$ be the Carmichael Lambda Function of $n$.
We know that for every $m$ there is the largest $n_m\in\Bbb N$ such that for every $n>n_m$ we have $\lambda(n)\neq m$ and $\lambda(n_m)=m$...

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### Congruences for the non-divisors of Euler's $\phi(n)$

If $n$ is composite, then $\phi(n) < n-1$: hence, there is at least one number $d$ which does not divide $\phi(n)$ but divides$(n-1)$. We shall call $d$ the totient divisor of $n$. The purist will ...

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### Counting different residue classes of certain form modulo $4abc-1$?

I posted http://math.stackexchange.com the question and after a while I did not received any reply, so I thought maybe I re-post it here again, maybe some people are interested.
I like to calculate ...

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133 views

### Mersenne number with small Carmichael function

Let $\lambda(\cdot)$ be the Carmichael function. I'm trying to understand the magnitude of the smallest values of $\lambda(2^n - 1)$, when $n$ runs over the positive integers. Precisely my question is:...

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871 views

### Does 53 diverge to infinity in this Collatz-like sequence?

This function has been explored a bit at MSE (in June 2016):
\begin{eqnarray}
f(n) &=& (n-1)^2 \; \textrm{if} \; (n \bmod 4) = 1\\
f(n) &=& \lfloor n/4 \rfloor \; \textrm{otherwise}
\...

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323 views

### Does anyone recognize this exponential sum?

For $a$, $b$ two integers, let $(a,b)$ denotes their gcd. We define the following exponential sum :
$$G_q(n):=\sum_{d|q,~(d,q/d)=1}{e^{2i\pi n\frac{dd'}{q}}}$$
for $n$ a non-negative integer and $q$ ...

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### The properties of Pos

Given $n\in\mathbb{N}$, and $f:\mathbb{N}^*\rightarrow \mathbb{N}$, let define $Pos$ as:
$$Pos(f)(n)= |\{x \leq n, f(x)=f(n)\}|$$
When given $n\in\mathbb{N}$, this function gives the 'position' of $...

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232 views

### On even almost perfect numbers other than powers of two

(Note: This question is an improved version of and has been cross-posted from this MSE post.)
Let $\sigma(x)$ denote the sum of the divisors of $x$. If $\sigma(x) = 2x - 1$, then we call $x$ an ...

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### Asymptotics of product of Euler's totient function (A001088)?

Conjecture:
\begin{align}
\lim_{n\to \infty } \, \frac{\left(\prod _{k=1}^n \phi (k)\right){}^{1/n}}{n}\sim 0.2059\text{...}
\end{align}
The numerical result from 100000 terms is:
My questions are:
...

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451 views

### Are there multiplicative functions which are not rational?

Vaidyanathaswamy calls an arithmetic function rational if it is the convolution of some finite collection of functions which are either completely multiplicative or inverse to a completely ...

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### Sum of digits of a power [closed]

Are there any explicit formula for a sum of digits for a power in the given base? A problem to be specific: find a sum of digits for a number $2^{100}$ in the system with a base 5. In the system with ...

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### A question about $(0,1]$-valued multiplicative functions

Suppose $f:\mathbb{N}\to [0,1]$ is a multiplicative function (i.e. $f(nm)=f(n)f(m)$ whenever $m$ and $n$ are coprime). Suppose $f$ has non-zero mean, which means
$$
\lim_{N\to\infty}\frac{1}{N} \sum_{...

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756 views

### Is the set of multiplicatively even numbers thick?

A positive integer is multiplicatively even (odd) if, when decomposed into primes, the sum of the exponents is even (odd).
A subset of the integers is thick if it contains arbitrarily long intervals $\...

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### Discrete “difference” equations that involve changes in both shift and scale

A standard use of the Z-transform ($F(z) = \sum_n (f[n] \cdot z^{-n} )$) is to understand the effect of a difference equation on a signal. For instance:
$y[n] = x[n] + y[n-1]$
$Y(z) = X(z) + Y(z) \...

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145 views

### estimate an sum

I need estimate the following sum:
$\sum_{d=1}^{n}\frac{\mu(d)}{d}\sum_{k=1}^{\lfloor n/d\rfloor}\frac{1}{k}\frac{q^k}{1-q^{-kd}}$, where $q>1$ and $\mu$ is the Möbius function.
To obtain the ...

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273 views

### Infinite sums with Mobius Inversion : can we have uniform convergence of inversion formula?

My question is on Mobius inversion formula convergence/properties when used with infinite sums of function.
Lets consider (on $\mathbb{R}^{+}$):
$$S(x)= \sum\limits_{n=1}^{\infty} f(nx)$$
We call $...

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158 views

### Existence of arithmetic function satisfying a certain property

I was interested in an arithmetic function satisfying a certain property, I am not sure at the moment if such thing even exists or not. But I was wondering maybe I could get some hint or idea or input ...

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### sum over primes involving divisor function (variation of the Titchmarsh divisor problem)

This question was also asked on MSE.
Does there exist an asymptotic estimate for the following sum over primes
$$
\sum_{p\leq x} \frac{\tau(p-1)}{p}\;,
$$
where $\tau(n)=\sum_{d|n}1$ is the divisor ...

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### All all hypo-multiplicative functions linear combinations of quasi-multiplicative functions?

A function is called quasi-multiplicative by many authors if $f(m)f(n)=f(1)f(mn)$, a slight generalization of multiplicativity. (Basically a multiplicative function times a constant is a quasi-...

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250 views

### A closed formula for this arithmetic function

The following function comes up in my research as part of a sufficient condition for capability of $p$-group of class two and prime exponent. Given a nonnegative integer $m$, express $m$ as a ...

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### $n\varphi(n)\equiv 2\pmod{\sigma(n)}$ as a primality test

It is known from Subbarao, "On two congruences for primality" that $n>22$ is a prime iff $$n\sigma(n)\equiv 2\pmod{\varphi(n)},$$ where $\varphi(n)$ is Euler's function and $\sigma(n)$ is sum of ...

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239 views

### Are all known $k$-multiperfect numbers (for $k > 2$) not squarefree?

I asked the following question in MSE four ($4$) days ago, but so far nobody has posted an answer.
The gist of the question is as follows:
Are all known $k$-multiperfect numbers (for $k > 2$...

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185 views

### What proportion of the positive integers satisfy $I(n^2) < (1 + \frac{1}{n})I(n)$, where $I(x)$ is the abundancy index of $x$?

Let $\sigma(x)$ denote the classical sum-of-divisors function, and let
$$I(x) = \frac{\sigma(x)}{x}$$
be the abundancy index of the positive integer $x$.
My question is this: What proportion of ...

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711 views

### Menon’s identity

I also put this question in stackexchange, but remained unanswered. https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/506996/menons-identity
Let $G$ be a group of order $n$. Consider an action of $U_n$, the ...

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282 views

### What proportion of the positive integers satisfy $I(n) < \frac{2n}{n + 1} \leq I(n^2) < 2$?

Let
$$I(x) = \frac{\sigma(x)}{x}$$
be the abundancy index of the positive integer $x$. Note that $\sigma(x)$ is the classical sum-of-divisors function. For example,
$$\sigma(12) = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + ...

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291 views

### Maximal order of Hooley's Delta function?

There is a large literature on Hooley's
$$
\Delta(n)=\max_u\sum_{d|n,\ e^u\le d< e^{u+1}}1
$$
giving its normal and average order. What is known of its maximal order?
Clearly $\Delta(n)\le d(n)$ ...