# Questions tagged [arithmetic-functions]

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106
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### Periodic sequences of integers generated by $a_{n+1}=\frac{\operatorname{rad}(pa_{n})}{p}+\frac{\operatorname{rad}(qa_{n-1})}{q}$

Let's define the radical of the positive integer $n$ as
$$\operatorname{rad}(n)=\prod_{\substack{p\mid n\\ p\text{ prime}}}p$$
and consider the sequence
$$a_{n+1}=\frac{\operatorname{rad}(p\cdot a_{n})...

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80
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### A definition related to pseudoprimes and the Dedekind psi function

In this post we consider that $\psi(k)$ denotes the Dedekind psi function. Wikipedia has an artcle dedicated to this arithmetic function Dedekind psi function defined for a positive integers $m>1$ ...

3
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198
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### On the density of a particular subset of integers

Given a positive integer $n$ in the standard form
$$n=\prod_k p_k^{\alpha_k}$$
and the arithmetic function (investigated by Erdős in this paper)
$$A(n)=\sum_k \alpha_k p_k$$
let's define the subset $E$...

18
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1
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557
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### For which $n$ is $\sum_{k=1}^n 1 / \varphi(k)$ an integer?

For which positive integers $n$ is the sum $\sum_{k=1}^n 1 / \varphi(k)$ an integer? Here $\varphi$ is the Euler totient function.
The question is a "totient-analog" of the well-known result ...

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### Number of different factorizations

I define $\nu(n)$ the number of different factorizations for an integer $n$. I know there are papers about $\delta(n)$ the number of dividers for an integer $n$ (Landau, Euler, Dirichlet) but I still ...

3
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2
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208
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### Help with R. Ryan's "A simpler dense proof regarding the abundancy Index."

I'm reading Richard Ryan's article "A simpler dense proof regarding the abundancy index" and got stuck in his proof for Theorem 2. The Theorem is stated as follows:
Suppose we have a ...

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123
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### How to estimate sums over arithmetic progressions?

For $x>1$
$$
N(x)=\sum_{0<n<x \\n \equiv 1 \pmod 4\\ n\text{ squarefree}} 1
$$
How to estimate $N(x)$'s order? (Like $N(x) \sim Ax$)
Furthermore, for $n=p_1p_2\cdots p_v$, define $\alpha (n)=...

6
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256
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### Arithmetic properties of positively reduced $2\times 2$-matrices

Call a $2\times 2$ matrix with coefficients in $\{0,1,2,3,\ldots\}$
positively reduced if any row or column reduction (given by replacing a row/column by itself minus the other row/column) produces
at ...

4
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### Joint mean values of arithmetic functions in sequences and families of sequences

This is a bit of a follow up question to this question I asked a couple days ago. The main content of that post can be phrased as asking for a nontrivial lower bound on the sum
$$
\sum_{n\leq x} \...

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### Correlating the von Mangoldt function with periodic sequences

The Dirichlet inverse of the Euler totient function is:
$$\varphi^{-1}(n) = \sum_{d \mid n} \mu(d)d \tag{1}$$
and the von Mangoldt function can be expanded/computed as:
$$\Lambda(n) = \sum\limits_{k=1}...

3
votes

1
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125
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### Is it possible to find an estimate of $\sum_{k=1}^n\frac1{\varphi(k\cdot p_k)}$?

Is it possible to find an estimate of the summation
$$s(n)=\sum_{k=1}^n\frac1{\varphi(k\cdot p_k)}$$
where $\varphi(n)$ is the totient function and $p_k$ the k-th prime?
The corresponding series seems ...

11
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730
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### Have any proposals been advanced for the analytic continuation of the divisor function?

While I was working on the evaluation of a certain series, the following limit came up:
\begin{align} \lim_{n \to 1} \frac{d(n)-1}{n(n-1)} &= \lim_{n \to 1} \frac{d'(n)}{2n-1} \\
&= d'(1) .\...

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313
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### Polynomials for the indicator function

The (one-variable) indicator function (or characteristic function) is defined as
$f_{t^*}:\mathbb{Z}_q\to \mathbb{Z}_q$ satisfying that
$f_{t^*}(t)=1$ if $t=t^*$ and $f_{t^*}(t)=0$, otherwise. (Here $...

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407
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### Prove that two functions are equal only when $s \equiv \pm r^{\pm 1} \pmod{q}$

Let us fix a positive integer $q$, and let us define a functions $P: \mathbb{Z}\times \mathbb{N} \to \mathbb{Z}$ as follows:
$$ P(s,t) := \sum_{j=1}^t \left\lfloor \frac{j (s-1) + t}{q} \right\rfloor$$...

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293
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### Mertens Bound and the Riemann Hypothesis

Let $M(x)$ denote the Mertens function ($M(x)=\sum_{i=1}^{x}\mu(i)$ where $\mu(i)$ is the Möbius function) and let $\Lambda(i)$ denote the Mangoldt function ($\Lambda(i)$ equals $\log(p)$ if $i=p^{m}$ ...

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### What is known about absolute convergence of Dirichlet inverses?

Given an arithmetic function $f$ such that the partial sums $\sum_{n \leq x} |f(n)|$ converge as $x$ approaches $\infty$, are there any results concerning the convergence properties of the series of ...

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### The number of elements with order less than $k$ in a larger cyclic group

I am working on a problem where it has become important to count (or at least bound from above and below) the number of elements of ${\bf Z}/n{\bf Z}$ that have order less than a given $k$, where $2\...

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204
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### Are the numbers $\varphi(n^2)\sigma(n^2)\ (n=1,2,3,\ldots)$ pairwise distinct?

Let $\varphi$ be Euler's totient function, and let $\sigma(n)=\sum_{d\mid n}d$ for $n=1,2,3,\ldots$. Both $\varphi$ and $\sigma$ are multiplicative functions. It is easy to see that the numbers
$$\...

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170
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### Sign changes of a sequence

Let $f$ be an arithmetical function. Suppose that $f(n)>0$ if $n$ is in an integer set $A$ and that $f(n)<0$ for another integer set $B.$ Is there a result from number theory or an elementary ...

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311
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### Where can I find the problem by Lagarias?

Jeffrey Lagarias proved, unconditionally, that:
$$
\sigma(n)<H_n+2\exp(H_n)\log(H_n)\qquad n>1
$$
This was posed as a problem in:
J. C. Lagarias, Problem 10949: A generous bound for divisor ...

2
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1
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570
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### $\frac{\sigma(n)}{n} < e \ln \ln (n)$ is true?

In Guy Robin, Grandes valeurs de la fonction somme des diviseurs et hypothèse de Riemann, J. Math. Pures Appl. 63 (1984), 187–213 (pdf)
we find the following result:
If the Riemann hypothesis is true ...

3
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1
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127
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### Arithmetical function comparable to sine function [closed]

I was wondering if there exists or can we construct (using known arithmetic functions) an arithmetical function that has the same behaviour of the function sine or comparable to it (I mean that ...

4
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222
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### Generalization of the The Liouville Lambda function

Let $n=p^{\alpha_1}_1 \cdots p^{\alpha_m}_m,$ and define
$$\lambda_k(n)= (-1)^{ [\frac{\Omega(n)}{k} ]},$$
where $\Omega(n)= \alpha_1 + \cdots + \alpha_k,$ and $[\cdot]$ is the floor function.
For $...

5
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438
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### Does the equation $\sigma(\sigma(x^2))=2x\sigma(x)$ have any odd solutions?

This question was posted in MSE in early August 2020. It did garner several upvotes, but did not receive any responses. I have therefore cross-posted it here, hoping that it gets answered.
Let $\...

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152
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### Is $T(n)=\sum_{k=1}^{n}\frac{\lambda(k)\Lambda(k)}{k} \geq 0$ and what is the upper bound of $T(x)=\sum_{n\leq x} \lambda(n)\Lambda(n) $?

Let $\Lambda(n)$ denote the von Mangoldt function: $\Lambda(n)=\log p$ when $n=p^e$ is a prime power ($e\ge 1$) and $\Lambda(n)=0$ otherwise.
and $\lambda(n)$ be Liouville Function, , I'm interested ...

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### Arithmetic expansion of harmonic sum

Note: I have modified the initial question as follows:
Let $w_1, w_2, \ldots, w_d$ be positive weights, and $x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_d$ be positive variables. Now, let us consider the following harmonic ...

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3
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634
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### Is the number of solutions of $\phi(x)=n!$ bounded? If yes, what is its bound?

Pillai showed in 1929 that the function $A(n)$ giving the number solutions of the equation $\phi(x)=n$ is unbounded in (S. Pillai, On some functions connected with $\varphi(n)$, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. ...

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228
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### On the density map of the abundancy index

Let $σ$ be the sum-of-divisors function. Let $σ(n)/n$ be the abundancy index of $n$. Consider the density map $$f(x) = \lim_{N \to \infty} f_N(x) \ \ \text{ with } \ \ f_N(x) = \frac{1}{N} \#\{ 1 \...

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### On variations of a claim due to Kaneko in terms of Lehmer means

This post is cross posted from Mathematics Stack Exchange, due that there was a mistake from my part (see the excellent partial answer and my thread of edits of my question on MSE) this post on ...

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### Write large $n$ as $n_1+\ldots+n_k\ (n_1<\ldots<n_k)$ with $\varphi(n_1),\ldots,\varphi(n_k)\in\{x^k:\ x\in\mathbb Z\}$

Let $\varphi$ denote Euler's totient function.
QUESTION. Is it true that for each positive integer $k$ large integers $n$ can be written as $n_1+\ldots+n_k$ with $n_1,\ldots,n_k$ distinct positive ...

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122
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### On the equation that involves the Dedekind psi function $\psi(x)=n$ with unique solution $x$, for a fixed integer $n\geq 1$

The Dedekind psi function is defined for a positive integer $m>1$ as
$$\psi(m)=m\prod_{\substack{p\mid m\\p\text{ prime}}}\left(1+\frac{1}{p}\right)\tag{1}$$
with the definition $\psi(1)=1$. See ...

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2
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171
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### What is the dirichlet series of $f(n)=\sum_{d | n}(\log d) / d$ function? [closed]

My opinion is ;
We may use id(d)=d arithmetic function and log*id dirichlet convolution in the question.
i thought that ; when we multiply and divide n with $(\log d) / d$ we obtain
$F(S)=\sum_{n=...

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172
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### When is $\phi(a^n+b^n+c^n)=0\mod n$?

A corollary Zsigmondy's Theorem leads to the following congruence (one can look to $(24)$),$\phi(a^n+b^n)=0\mod n$ whenever $a, b$ are coprime and $n \neq 2$ and $(a,b)\neq(1,1)$. (Here $\phi$ is the ...

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1
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152
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### Bounds for two arithmetic functions, when one assumes that $n$ are odd perfect numbers

For an integer $n>1$ in this post we denote the Dedekind psi function as $\psi(n)=n\prod_{\substack{p\mid n\\p\text{ prime}}}\left(1+\frac{1}{p}\right)$ and the product of distinct primes dividing ...

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### Is there a smallest $r$ such that $n+\varphi(n)=\displaystyle \prod_{i=1}^r q_i$ always has solutions for mutually different odd primes $q_i $?

While discussing with Peter in one of the chatrooms on MSE I proposed an idea to try to find smallest natural number $r$ such that $n+\varphi(n)=\displaystyle \prod_{i=1}^r q_i$ has solutions for ...

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### Set of primes $p_{1}\equiv 3 \bmod p_{2}$ such that $\phi(2^{\frac{{p_1}-3}{p_2}}-1)\equiv 0 \bmod p_1$ with $p_1,p_2\equiv 3\bmod 4$?

let $p_1$ and $p_2$ be positive primes such that $p_1,p_2 \equiv 3\bmod 4$
and $\phi$ is the Euler totiont function , I want to find the Set of primes $p_{1}\equiv 3 \bmod p_{2}$ such that $\phi(2^...

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225
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### If some numbers satisfy this divisibility condition with $\sigma$ and $\varphi$, are they necessarily multiples of $6$?

After doing some computations of the divisibility of $\sigma(n)$ by $n+ \varphi(n)$, mostly with Peter´s help, we found these solutions:
$n=2, 456, 828, 7584 ,33462 , 1357440, 1596048 ,1964544 ,...

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### Is this arithmetic function strictly positive and unbounded?

As requested by Mathphile, since there have been efforts but no complete solutions to some questions raised when this question was asked on MSE, and since we think that here the question is more ...

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### How to explain this property of totient?

I am running a program to search for solutions of $$\varphi(pm+1)=\varphi(pm+p+1).$$
So far, for $m=1,\ldots,327$ solutions have been found (some relatively large).
(in the body of the question, $p$ ...

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### Given $\,m=\prod_k {p_k}^{\alpha_k}\,$ and the function $\,g(m)=\sum_k \alpha_k(p_k-1)^2$, find all solutions of the equation $\,g(2n)=n$

Let's consider the unique decomposition of a natural number $\,m\,$ into its prime factors:
$$\prod_k {p_k}^{\alpha_k}$$
Then, let's define the following arithmetic function (completely additive) $\,g:...

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### The asymptotic of $|\{1\leq n\leq x|\gcd(n,S(n))=1\}|$, with $S(n)$ the sum of remainders, and get idea for other miscellany problem

Let $n\geq 1$ be an integer. In this post we denote the sum of remainders function as $$S(n)=\sum_{k=1}^n n \bmod k,$$ for example $S(1)=S(2)=0+0$ and $S(5)=0+1+2+1+0=4$. In the literature there are ...

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52
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### On a type of equations that involve certain multiplicative functions and polynomials, in relation to their number of solutions

Past weekend I was interested in the sequence A058891 from the On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, from this, inspired by the equation due to Benoit Cloitre (2002) that shows the comments, I ...

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205
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### On an inequality involving the Lambert $W$ function and the sum of divisors function

Let $W(n)$ be the principal/main branch of the Lambert $W$ function (this is the Wikipedia related to this special function). I was inspired in Robin equivalence to the Riemann hypothesis (see [1]) ...

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### Alternating series of arithmetic function values

Some time ago I asked about alternating sums like
$\sum_{n\leq x}(-1)^n \phi(n)$ where $\phi(n)$ is Euler's totient
and the similar sum involving $\sigma(n)$ where $\sigma(n)=\sum_{d|n}d.$
Certain ...

7
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1
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641
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### Generalization of a problem, involving radicals and the floor function, proposed by Ramanujan to the Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society

The section Solved problems from the Wikipedia Floor and ceiling functions shows several problems proposed by Ramanujan ([1]). The purpose of this post, if possible, is try to get the generalization ...

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194
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### Strong uniqueness of Euler's totient function

Let $f:\mathbb N\to \mathbb C$ be some arithmetical function. Define $\varphi_f(n)$ by the following formula:
$$
\varphi_f(n)=\sum_{\substack{k\leq n \\ (k,n)=1}}f(k).
$$
In other words, $\varphi_f(...

4
votes

1
answer

461
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### A curious conjecture: $\{\varphi(m^2)/\varphi(n^2):\ m,n=1,2,3,\ldots\}=\{r>0:\ r\in\mathbb Q\}$

Let $\varphi$ denote Euler's totient function. It is easy to see that all those numbers
$$\varphi(n^2)=n\varphi(n)\ \ (n=1,2,3,\ldots)$$
are pairwise distinct.
I have the following surprising ...

2
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### $\varphi(m+n)\mid n$ for some positive integer $n$

Let $\varphi$ be Euler's totient function.
If $p$ is a prime, then $\varphi(1+n)=n$ for $n=p-1$.
Question. Is it true that for each integer $m>1$ there is a positive integer $n\le m^2-m$ such that ...

5
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224
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### Can we write each positive integer as $x^2+y^2+\varphi(z^2)$?

As odd squares are congruent to $1$ modulo $8$, any integer of the form $4^k(8m+7)$ with $k,m\in\mathbb N=\{0,1,2,\ldots\}$ cannot be written as the sum of three squares.
To avoid such congruence ...

11
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888
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### Is the sum $\sum_{d\mid n}\frac1{d+1}$ never integral?

Recall that a positive integer $n$ is a perfect number if and only if
$$\frac{\sigma(n)}n=\sum_{d\mid n}\frac1d=2.$$
QUESTION: Is my following conjecture true?
Conjecture. (i) We have $\sum_{d\mid ...