# Questions tagged [arithmetic-functions]

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76
questions

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### Write large $n$ as $n_1+\ldots+n_k\ (n_1<\ldots<n_k)$ with $\varphi(n_1),\ldots,\varphi(n_k)\in\{x^k:\ x\in\mathbb Z\}$

Let $\varphi$ denote Euler's totient function.
QUESTION. Is it true that for each positive integer $k$ large integers $n$ can be written as $n_1+\ldots+n_k$ with $n_1,\ldots,n_k$ distinct positive ...

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66 views

### On the equation that involves the Dedekind psi function $\psi(x)=n$ with unique solution $x$, for a fixed integer $n\geq 1$

The Dedekind psi function is defined for a positive integer $m>1$ as
$$\psi(m)=m\prod_{\substack{p\mid m\\p\text{ prime}}}\left(1+\frac{1}{p}\right)\tag{1}$$
with the definition $\psi(1)=1$. See ...

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110 views

### What is the dirichlet series of $f(n)=\sum_{d | n}(\log d) / d$ function? [closed]

My opinion is ;
We may use id(d)=d arithmetic function and log*id dirichlet convolution in the question.
i thought that ; when we multiply and divide n with $(\log d) / d$ we obtain
$F(S)=\sum_{n=...

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160 views

### When is $\phi(a^n+b^n+c^n)=0\mod n$?

A corollary Zsigmondy's Theorem leads to the following congruence (one can look to $(24)$),$\phi(a^n+b^n)=0\mod n$ whenever $a, b$ are coprime and $n \neq 2$ and $(a,b)\neq(1,1)$. (Here $\phi$ is the ...

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121 views

### Bounds for two arithmetic functions, when one assumes that $n$ are odd perfect numbers

For an integer $n>1$ in this post we denote the Dedekind psi function as $\psi(n)=n\prod_{\substack{p\mid n\\p\text{ prime}}}\left(1+\frac{1}{p}\right)$ and the product of distinct primes dividing ...

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219 views

### Is there a smallest $r$ such that $n+\varphi(n)=\displaystyle \prod_{i=1}^r q_i$ always has solutions for mutually different odd primes $q_i $?

While discussing with Peter in one of the chatrooms on MSE I proposed an idea to try to find smallest natural number $r$ such that $n+\varphi(n)=\displaystyle \prod_{i=1}^r q_i$ has solutions for ...

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71 views

### Set of primes $p_{1}\equiv 3 \bmod p_{2}$ such that $\phi(2^{\frac{{p_1}-3}{p_2}}-1)\equiv 0 \bmod p_1$ with $p_1,p_2\equiv 3\bmod 4$?

let $p_1$ and $p_2$ be positive primes such that $p_1,p_2 \equiv 3\bmod 4$
and $\phi$ is the Euler totiont function , I want to find the Set of primes $p_{1}\equiv 3 \bmod p_{2}$ such that $\phi(2^...

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219 views

### If some numbers satisfy this divisibility condition with $\sigma$ and $\varphi$, are they necessarily multiples of $6$?

After doing some computations of the divisibility of $\sigma(n)$ by $n+ \varphi(n)$, mostly with Peter´s help, we found these solutions:
$n=2, 456, 828, 7584 ,33462 , 1357440, 1596048 ,1964544 ,...

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380 views

### Is this arithmetic function strictly positive and unbounded?

As requested by Mathphile, since there have been efforts but no complete solutions to some questions raised when this question was asked on MSE, and since we think that here the question is more ...

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332 views

### How to explain this property of totient?

I am running a program to search for solutions of $$\varphi(pm+1)=\varphi(pm+p+1).$$
So far, for $m=1,\ldots,327$ solutions have been found (some relatively large).
(in the body of the question, $p$ ...

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127 views

### Given $\,m=\prod_k {p_k}^{\alpha_k}\,$ and the function $\,g(m)=\sum_k \alpha_k(p_k-1)^2$, find all solutions of the equation $\,g(2n)=n$

Let's consider the unique decomposition of a natural number $\,m\,$ into its prime factors:
$$\prod_k {p_k}^{\alpha_k}$$
Then, let's define the following arithmetic function (completely additive) $\,g:...

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148 views

### The asymptotic of $|\{1\leq n\leq x|\gcd(n,S(n))=1\}|$, with $S(n)$ the sum of remainders, and get idea for other miscellany problem

Let $n\geq 1$ be an integer. In this post we denote the sum of remainders function as $$S(n)=\sum_{k=1}^n n \bmod k,$$ for example $S(1)=S(2)=0+0$ and $S(5)=0+1+2+1+0=4$. In the literature there are ...

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41 views

### On a type of equations that involve certain multiplicative functions and polynomials, in relation to their number of solutions

Past weekend I was interested in the sequence A058891 from the On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, from this, inspired by the equation due to Benoit Cloitre (2002) that shows the comments, I ...

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183 views

### On an inequality involving the Lambert $W$ function and the sum of divisors function

Let $W(n)$ be the principal/main branch of the Lambert $W$ function (this is the Wikipedia related to this special function). I was inspired in Robin equivalence to the Riemann hypothesis (see [1]) ...

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67 views

### Alternating series of arithmetic function values

Some time ago I asked about alternating sums like
$\sum_{n\leq x}(-1)^n \phi(n)$ where $\phi(n)$ is Euler's totient
and the similar sum involving $\sigma(n)$ where $\sigma(n)=\sum_{d|n}d.$
Certain ...

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60 views

### Prove that the Mertens function is invariant under matrix inversion for $n>3$

Consider the lower triangular matrix $T$ with the definition:
$n \leq3 :$
$$T(n, 1)=1$$
$n>3:$
$$T(n,1)=x_n$$
$n \geq k:$
$n \leq 3:$
$$T(n,k)=1$$
$n \geq k:$
$n>3:$
$k=2 \text{ or } k=3:$
...

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155 views

### Strong uniqueness of Euler's totient function

Let $f:\mathbb N\to \mathbb C$ be some arithmetical function. Define $\varphi_f(n)$ by the following formula:
$$
\varphi_f(n)=\sum_{\substack{k\leq n \\ (k,n)=1}}f(k).
$$
In other words, $\varphi_f(...

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378 views

### A curious conjecture: $\{\varphi(m^2)/\varphi(n^2):\ m,n=1,2,3,\ldots\}=\{r>0:\ r\in\mathbb Q\}$

Let $\varphi$ denote Euler's totient function. It is easy to see that all those numbers
$$\varphi(n^2)=n\varphi(n)\ \ (n=1,2,3,\ldots)$$
are pairwise distinct.
I have the following surprising ...

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74 views

### $\varphi(m+n)\mid n$ for some positive integer $n$

Let $\varphi$ be Euler's totient function.
If $p$ is a prime, then $\varphi(1+n)=n$ for $n=p-1$.
Question. Is it true that for each integer $m>1$ there is a positive integer $n\le m^2-m$ such that ...

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214 views

### Can we write each positive integer as $x^2+y^2+\varphi(z^2)$?

As odd squares are congruent to $1$ modulo $8$, any integer of the form $4^k(8m+7)$ with $k,m\in\mathbb N=\{0,1,2,\ldots\}$ cannot be written as the sum of three squares.
To avoid such congruence ...

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608 views

### Is the sum $\sum_{d\mid n}\frac1{d+1}$ never integral?

Recall that a positive integer $n$ is a perfect number if and only if
$$\frac{\sigma(n)}n=\sum_{d\mid n}\frac1d=2.$$
QUESTION: Is my following conjecture true?
Conjecture. (i) We have $\sum_{d\mid ...

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61 views

### Uniformity in Wirsing's Mean Value Theorems

In two important papers of Wirsing, namely "Das asymptotische Verhalten von Summen über multiplikative Funktionen" (1961) and its follow up (1967), several results on mean values of multiplicative ...

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2k views

### Does this multiplicative function have a name? If so, what is known about it?

It is well-known that the Euler $\phi$-function is multiplicative: that is, for co-prime positive integers $m,n$ we have $\phi(mn) = \phi(m)\phi(n)$. Thus it is defined by its values on prime powers. ...

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933 views

### Euler's totient function and Riemann hypothesis

I am looking for an upper-bound of the Euler's totient function $\varphi$ which would be equivalent to the Riemann hypothesis (RH). There is the following Nicolas' criterion about primorial numbers $...

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120 views

### Is there a way to reduce this problem to two variables through functions coming from arithmetic?

Consider following diophantine equation in $\mathbb Z[x,y,z]$ in three integer variables $x,y,z$
$$x^2+L(y,z)x+L_1(y)L_2(z)=0$$ where $L(y,z)$ is a non-homogeneous linear polynomial in $y,z$ and $L_1(...

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380 views

### A conjecture regarding odd perfect numbers

(Note: I asked this question in MSE this June 2018 but did not receive any responses there. I have therefore cross-posted it here, hoping that it gets answered.)
Let $\sigma(z)$ denote the sum of ...

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358 views

### Goldbach's conjecture for the Liouville function

Is it true that for every even integer $N > 2$, there exist positive integers $a,b$ such that $a + b = N$ and $\lambda(a) = \lambda(b) = -1$ ?
Here $\lambda$ is the Liouville function.

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151 views

### The number of solutions of the equation $ax_1x_2+by_1y_2=n$

The equation $x_1x_2+y_1y_2=n$ is well-studied (Ingham, Heath-Brown, Deshouillers & Iwaniec, Ismoilov) because it arises in an additive divisor problem. The number of solutions in positive ...

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435 views

### Reference for inequality for $\sum\limits_{d \mid n}\frac{\log d}{d}.$

Let $f(n)=\sum\limits_{d \mid n}\frac{\log d}{d}.$
It is not hard to see that $f(n)\ll(\log\log n)^2$. Is there any reference for this inequality?
EDT 1: A possible answer is Analysis of the ...

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145 views

### Primes approximated by eigenvalues?

Let the matrix $T$ be defined by:
$$\displaystyle T(n,k) = -\varphi^{-1}(\operatorname{GCD}(n,k))$$
where $\varphi^{-1}$ is the Dirichlet inverse of the Euler totient function.
$$\varphi^{-1}(n) = \...

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352 views

### On $\varphi(m)\varphi(n)\equiv0\pmod{m+n}$

Euler's totient function $\varphi$ is multiplicative, and it plays important roles in number theory.
QUESTION: Is it true that for each integer $m>6$ we have $\varphi(m)\varphi(n)\equiv0\pmod{m+n}$...

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89 views

### Existence of equation about the product of the divisor sum function

Let $\sigma_k(n)$ be the sum of the $k$-th powers of the positive divisors of $n$ and $\mu(n)$ be the Möbius function.
As Arithmetic function - Wikipedia mentioned, there is an equation that $$\...

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250 views

### The Euler's totient function and the product of distinct primes dividing $n$ versus the Heronian means

For integers $n\geq 1$ with $$\operatorname{rad}(n)=\prod_{\substack{p\mid n\\p\text{ prime}}}p$$ we denote the squarefree kernel or radical of an integer $n$ (see if you want this Wikipedia). And $\...

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140 views

### Is there a closed form for the discrete convolution of $\sigma_1$ and $\sigma_2$?

I am trying to find a closed form for the following sum:
$$\sum_{k = 1}^{n-1}\sigma_1(k) \sigma_2(n-k)$$
where $\sigma_i$ is the sum of divisors and $\sigma_2$ is the sum of squares of divisors.
...

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423 views

### Evaluating the sum of $kl^2$ over $p,q,k,l$ such that $pk +ql = n$

I have come across the following sum:
$$\sum_{\substack{p, q, k, l \in \mathbb{N} \\ k > l \\ pk + ql = n}}kl^2$$
and I am trying to simplify it, hoping to get a nice formula in terms of $n$ and ...

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303 views

### A special kind of multiplicative function $f: \mathbb N \to \mathbb N$ such that $f(p)=p+k$ for all odd prime $p$, where $k>1$ is a fixed odd integer

For which odd positive integer $k$, can we find a multiplicative function $f: \mathbb N \to \mathbb N$ satisfying the following conditions :
$f(p)=p+k$ for all large enough odd prime $p$ and the set $...

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84 views

### Name and theory of multi-valued functions $F:\mathbb{N}^k \rightarrow \mathbb{N}^l$

In computability theory there are considered mostly single-valued functions $f:\mathbb{N}^k \rightarrow \mathbb{N}$. (Let $\mathbb{N}$ be a placeholder for $\mathbb{N}$ or any initial segment $[0,n]$ ...

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136 views

### Tighter upper bound for $\sum_{i=1}^kA_i\log(\frac{A_i}{e})$

What is the tightest upper bound one can obtain for the following expression
$$\sum_{i=1}^kA_i\log(\frac{A_i}{e})$$ subject to $\sum_{i = 1}^k A_i = C$ in terms of $C$ and $k$?
A very loose upper ...

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347 views

### The importance of relations between automorphic forms and arithmetic functions

As I understand things, one of the classical reasons to care about modular forms was their relation to interesting arithmetic functions/counting questions, i.e. on sums of squares and partitions. When ...

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961 views

### A mystery sequence

This question arose from the recent one, roots of a polynomial linked to mock theta function?. Let
$$
g(x):=\sum_{k=0}^\infty x^k\prod_{j=1}^{k-1}(1 + x^j)^2\\=1+x+x^2+3 x^3+4 x^4+6 x^5+10 x^6+15 x^7+...

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181 views

### Representation of a number as a sum of co-prime numbers

Conventions
We will call the following product the canonical expansion of $a$:
$$a = \prod\limits_{p_i\in\mathbb{P}}p_i^{\alpha_i}.$$
If $a$ and $b$ are co-prime we write
$$a \perp b.$$
$\beth$-...

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83 views

### An arithmetic function involving arbitrary (but fixed) number of divisors

I need at least basic information about generating functions of the following class of arithmetic functions, grouped by levels $k$.
Fix some $k$ and some family $\varepsilon_*=(\varepsilon_\sigma)_{\...

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254 views

### Congruences for the non-divisors of Euler's $\phi(n)$

If $n$ is composite, then $\phi(n) < n-1$: hence, there is at least one number $d$ which does not divide $\phi(n)$ but divides$(n-1)$. We shall call $d$ the totient divisor of $n$. The purist will ...

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139 views

### Mersenne number with small Carmichael function

Let $\lambda(\cdot)$ be the Carmichael function. I'm trying to understand the magnitude of the smallest values of $\lambda(2^n - 1)$, when $n$ runs over the positive integers. Precisely my question is:...

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906 views

### Does 53 diverge to infinity in this Collatz-like sequence?

This function has been explored a bit at MSE (in June 2016):
\begin{eqnarray}
f(n) &=& (n-1)^2 \; \textrm{if} \; (n \bmod 4) = 1\\
f(n) &=& \lfloor n/4 \rfloor \; \textrm{otherwise}
\...

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341 views

### Does anyone recognize this exponential sum?

For $a$, $b$ two integers, let $(a,b)$ denotes their gcd. We define the following exponential sum :
$$G_q(n):=\sum_{d|q,~(d,q/d)=1}{e^{2i\pi n\frac{dd'}{q}}}$$
for $n$ a non-negative integer and $q$ ...

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238 views

### The properties of Pos

Given $n\in\mathbb{N}$, and $f:\mathbb{N}^*\rightarrow \mathbb{N}$, let define $Pos$ as:
$$Pos(f)(n)= |\{x \leq n, f(x)=f(n)\}|$$
When given $n\in\mathbb{N}$, this function gives the 'position' of $...

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242 views

### On even almost perfect numbers other than powers of two

(Note: This question is an improved version of and has been cross-posted from this MSE post.)
Let $\sigma(x)$ denote the sum of the divisors of $x$. If $\sigma(x) = 2x - 1$, then we call $x$ an ...

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552 views

### Asymptotics of product of Euler's totient function (A001088)?

Conjecture:
\begin{align}
\lim_{n\to \infty } \, \frac{\left(\prod _{k=1}^n \phi (k)\right){}^{1/n}}{n}\sim 0.2059\text{...}
\end{align}
The numerical result from 100000 terms is:
My questions are:
...

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474 views

### Are there multiplicative functions which are not rational?

Vaidyanathaswamy calls an arithmetic function rational if it is the convolution of some finite collection of functions which are either completely multiplicative or inverse to a completely ...