# Questions tagged [nt.number-theory]

Prime numbers, diophantine equations, diophantine approximations, analytic or algebraic number theory, arithmetic geometry, Galois theory, transcendental number theory, continued fractions

Prime numbers, diophantine equations, diophantine approximations, analytic or algebraic number theory, arithmetic geometry, Galois theory, transcendental number theory, continued fractions

2,083
questions

33
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3
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let's consider a composite natural number $n$ greater or equal to $4$. Goldbach's conjecture is equivalent to the following statement: "there is at least one natural number $r$ such as $(n-r)$ ...

47
votes

2
answers

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Mathematica knows that:
$$\log(n) = \lim\limits_{s \rightarrow 1} \zeta(s)\left(1 - \frac{1}{n^{(s - 1)}}\right)\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\; (1)$$
The von Mangoldt function should then be:
$$\Lambda(n)=...

57
votes

1
answer

5k
views

In 2018, Zidane asked What is the smallest unsolved Diophantine equation? The suggested way to measure size is substitute 2 instead of all variables, absolute values instead of all coefficients, and ...

9
votes

0
answers

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Is the conjecture on A+B=C following correct ?
Conjecture: Let $A, B, C$ be three positive integer numbers such that $A+B=C$ with $\gcd(A, B, C) = 1$. By Fundamental theorem of arithmetic we write:
$...

163
votes

2
answers

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A. Is there natural numbers $a,b,c$ such that $\frac{a}{b+c} + \frac{b}{a+c} + \frac{c}{a+b}$ is equal to an odd natural number ?
(I do not know any such numbers).
B. Suppose that $\frac{a}{b+c} + \...

104
votes

6
answers

16k
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Let $n$ be a large natural number, and let $z_1, \ldots, z_{10}$ be (say) ten $n^{th}$ roots of unity: $z_1^n = \ldots = z_{10}^n = 1$. Suppose that the sum $S = z_1+\ldots+z_{10}$ is non-zero. How ...

13
votes

3
answers

1k
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Let $n=p_1^{e_1}\cdots p_k^{e_k}$ be an integer with $k$ prime factors. We know that the number of integers less than $n$ and coprime to it is
$$\Phi(n)=n-\sum_i\frac n{p_i}+\sum_{i \lt j}\frac n{...

12
votes

0
answers

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Assume Goldbach's conjecture. Then for every $n\ge 2$ there exists at least one non-negative integer $r\le n-2$ such that both $n+r$ and $n-r$ are primes. Let's write $r_{0}(n):=\inf\{r\le n-2, (n-r,n+...

47
votes

4
answers

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Let $K$ be a Galois extension of the rationals with degree $n$. The Chebotarev Density Theorem guarantees that the rational primes that split completely in $K$ have density $1/n$ and thus there are ...

44
votes

2
answers

6k
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It follows from a general theorem of Honda that the formal group with the logarithm
$$
x+x^{2^s}/2+x^{3^s}/3+x^{4^s}/4+\cdots
$$
has integer coefficients. I became interested in it because its $p$-...

42
votes

3
answers

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For fixed $n \in \mathbb{N}$ consider integer solutions to
$$x^3+y^3+z^3=n \qquad (1) $$
If $n$ is a cube or twice a cube, identities exist.
Elkies suggests no other polynomial identities are known.
...

25
votes

7
answers

6k
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Let $\pi_k(x)=|\{n\le x:n=p_1p_2\cdots p_k\}|$ be the counting function for the k-almost primes, generalizing $\pi(x)=\pi_1(x)$. A result of Landau is
$$\pi_k(x)\sim\frac{x(\log\log x)^{k-1}}{(k-1)!\...

21
votes

3
answers

2k
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For a prime $p\equiv 1\pmod{4}$, we can write $p=a^2+b^2=N(a+bi)$. Therefore
$$
a+bi=p^{1/2}e^{i\varphi}
$$
where $\varphi\in [0,2\pi]$. I know that Hecke proved that $\varphi$ is equidistributed. I ...

18
votes

3
answers

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Lagrange proved that every positive integer is a sum of 4 squares.
Are there general results like this for rings of integers of number fields? Is this class field theory?
Explicitly, suppose a ...

112
votes

8
answers

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Zagier has a very short proof (MR1041893, JSTOR) for the fact that every prime number $p$ of the form $4k+1$ is the sum of two squares.
The proof defines an involution of the set $S= \lbrace (x,y,z) \...

51
votes

6
answers

6k
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If $P=\sum_{\bf i} a_{\bf i}x^{\bf i}\in {\mathbb Z}[x_1,\dots,x_d]$, let $|P|=\sum_{\bf i}|a_{\bf i}|x^{\bf i}$ and $h(P)=|P|(2,\dots,2)$, so that there is only a finite number of $P$ with $h(P)\leq ...

39
votes

4
answers

6k
views

A number field $K$ is said to be monogenic when $\mathcal{O}_K=\mathbb{Z}[\alpha]$ for some $\alpha\in\mathcal{O}_K$. What is currently known about which $K$ are monogenic? Which are not? From Marcus'...

34
votes

3
answers

6k
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Consider the multiplication table for the numbers $1,2,\dots, n$. How many different numbers are there? That is, how many different numbers of the form $ij$ with $1 \le i, j \le n$ are there?
I'm ...

53
votes

3
answers

5k
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Let $A_n=\{a\cdot b : a,b \in \mathbb{N}, a,b\leq n\}$. Are there any estimates for $|A_n|$? Will it be $o(n^2)$?

44
votes

1
answer

4k
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Let $\mu(n)$ denote the Mobius function with the well-known Dirichlet series representation
$$
\frac{1}{\zeta(s)} = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{\mu(n)}{n^{s}}.
$$
Basic theorems about Dirichlet series ...

12
votes

2
answers

1k
views

Let $0 < a < 1$ be fixed, and integer $n$ tends to infinity. It is not hard to show that the number of integers $k$ coprime to $n$ such that $1\leq k\leq an$ asymtotically equals $(a+o(1))\...

517
votes

3
answers

52k
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Is there any polynomial $f(x,y)\in{\mathbb Q}[x,y]{}$ such that $f\colon\mathbb{Q}\times\mathbb{Q} \rightarrow\mathbb{Q}$ is a bijection?

74
votes

5
answers

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In a recent issue of New Scientist (16 Aug 2010), I was surprised to read that a part of Wiles' proof of Taniyama-Shimura conjecture relies on inaccessible cardinals.
Here's the article
Richard Elwes,...

56
votes

5
answers

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1) Can the Riemann Hypothesis (RH) be expressed as a $\Pi_1$ sentence?
More formally,
2) Is there a $\Pi_1$ sentence which is provably equivalent to RH in PA?
Update (July 2010):
So we have two ...

47
votes

4
answers

4k
views

Consider the integer lattice points in the positive quadrant $Q$ of $\mathbb{Z}^2$.
Say that a point $(x,y)$ of $Q$ is visible from the origin if the
segment from $(0,0)$ to $(x,y) \in Q$ passes ...

47
votes

1
answer

2k
views

Here's a problem that I thought of back in 1978 or so, and only a little progress has been made on it since then. I still think about it from time to time, but probably not that many people have ...

45
votes

5
answers

5k
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I was asked the following question by a colleague and was embarrassed not to know the answer.
Let $f(x), g(x) \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ with no root in common. Let $I = (f(x),g(x))\cap \mathbb{Z}$, that is, ...

35
votes

8
answers

11k
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I saw the functional equation and its proof for the Riemann zeta function many times, but usually the books start with, e.g. tricky change of variable of Gamma function or other seemingly unmotivated ...

34
votes

3
answers

3k
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This is probably common knowledge, alas I have to confess my ignorance.
In simpler more abstract language, does $\mathcal{O}_K$ being simply connected (having trivial etale $\pi_1$) imply $\mathcal{O}...

28
votes

1
answer

1k
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The Golomb space $\mathbb G$ is the set of positive integers endowed with the topology generated by the base consisting of the arithmetic progressions $a+b\mathbb N_0$ with relatively prime $a,b$ and $...

28
votes

4
answers

4k
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I expect this is a classical question, so feel free to point me to classical answers: what is the fastest-growing function $f(t)$ for which we know that
$$
|2^t - 3^{t'}| \ge f(\min(t,t')) \;?
$$
In ...

23
votes

5
answers

2k
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The proof that $\Gamma(z)\pm \Gamma(1-z)$ only has zeros for $z \in \mathbb{R}$ or $z= \frac12 +i \mathbb{R}$ has been given here:
Are all zeros of $\Gamma(s) \pm \Gamma(1-s)$ on a line with real ...

22
votes

5
answers

6k
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Call a point of $\mathbb{R}^d$ rational if all its $d$ coordinates are rational numbers.
Q1.
Are the rational points dense on the unit sphere $S :\; x_1^2 +\cdots+ x_d^2 = 1$, i.e. does $S$ ...

21
votes

1
answer

1k
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The abc-conjecture is:
For every $\epsilon > 0$ there exists $K_{\epsilon}$ such that for all natural numbers $a \neq b$ we have:
$$ \frac{a+b}{\gcd(a,b)}\,\ <\,\ K_{\epsilon}\cdot \text{rad}\...

21
votes

4
answers

3k
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It is known that the Euler product formula converges for $\Re(s)>1$
(and there it represents the Riemann zeta function).
My question: Is the Euler product always divergent for
$0 < \Re(s) < ...

20
votes

6
answers

4k
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Version 2 of this writeup is
available, and includes a newer and simple upper bound thanks to
MathOverflow 88777 as
well as indirect references to future writeups. Details of further work
...

19
votes

2
answers

2k
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I've read in a number of places that, building on previous work of T. Nagell, W. Ljunggren proved in 1 that the Diophantine equation
$$\frac{x^{n}-1}{x-1} = y^{2}$$
doesn't admit solutions in ...

5
votes

3
answers

2k
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The field is also known as additive number theory. I am interested in sums $z=x + y$ where $x \in S, y\in T$, and both $S, T$ are infinite sets of positive integers. For instance:
$S = T$ is the set ...

290
votes

8
answers

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Mochizuki has recently announced a proof of the ABC conjecture. It is far too early to judge its correctness, but it builds on many years of work by him. Can someone briefly explain the philosophy ...

58
votes

9
answers

14k
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I've noticed that there seem to be two approaches to learning class field theory. The first is to first learn about local fields and local class field theory, and then prove the basic theorems about ...

57
votes

1
answer

13k
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Ben Green and Terrence Tao proved that there are arbitrary length arithmetic progressions among the primes.
Now, consider an arithmetic progression with starting term $a$ and common difference $d$. ...

55
votes

4
answers

4k
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I came on the following multiple integral while renormalizing elliptic multiple zeta values:
$$\int_0^1\cdots \int_0^1\int_1^\infty {{1}\over{t_n(t_{n-1}+t_n)\cdots (t_1+\cdots+t_n)}} dt_n\cdots dt_1.$...

52
votes

6
answers

3k
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The function $\Gamma(s)$ does not have zeros, but $\Gamma(s)\pm \Gamma(1-s)$ does.
Ignoring the real solutions for now and assuming $s \in \mathbb{C}$ then:
$\Gamma(s)-\Gamma(1-s)$ yields zeros at:
...

49
votes

4
answers

16k
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I asked a related question on this mathoverflow thread. That question was promptly answered. This is a natural followup question to that one, which I decided to repost since that question is answered.
...

44
votes

5
answers

4k
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I am usually confused by questions of the type "could such and such a problem be undecidable", because as far as I know there are two distinct possible meanings of "undecidable". ...

44
votes

4
answers

4k
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That is, for every integer $n \in \mathbb{Z}_{>0}$ does there exist a prime which is the sum of $n$ distinct powers of $2$?
In this case, the Hamming weight of a number is the number of $1$s in ...

42
votes

8
answers

19k
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Background: Once an analytic number theorist remarked to me that all attempts to prove the Riemann hypothesis using number theoretic methods have failed. Since then that remark stuck in my mind.
The ...

35
votes

5
answers

4k
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A question I've thought about, on and off for a long time, is how to improve the best bounds that (seem to be) known for the clique numbers of Paley graphs.
If p=1 mod 4 is a prime, we can define the ...

33
votes

5
answers

9k
views

The Diophantine equation
$$x^3+y^3+z^3=3$$
has four easy integer solutions: $(1,1,1)$ and the three permutations of $(4,4,-5)$. Elsenhans and Jahnel wrote in 2007 that these were all the solutions ...

29
votes

6
answers

4k
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At the time of writing, question 5191 is closed with the accusation of homework. But I don't have a clue about what is going on in that question (other than part 3) [Edit: Anton's comments at 5191 ...