# Questions tagged [gauge-theory]

Gauge theory in physics and mathematics refers to a field theory whose fields include principal bundles with connection.

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### Gauge invariance issues of YM theories in 2D Euclidean space

In order to be clear, I will write down every component explicitly. Also, I assume Euclidean metric in this post, so that spacetime indices are written as $i,j$ rather than $\mu, \nu$.
Following Wiki, ...

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### Question about the index of two elliptic operators over a 4-dimensional Riemannian manifold

I've already asked this question in: https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/4899825/question-about-the-index-of-two-elliptic-operators-over-a-4-dimensional-riemanni, and I've been suggested to ask ...

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### Generalizing the Narasimhan–Seshadri theorem

There is a theorem that (stable, topologically trivial) holomorphic $G$-bundles are in one-to-one correspondence to flat $K$-bundles (with the appropriate corresponding condition), where $K$ is the ...

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### An interesting identity involving skew-Schur functions

Denote $\rho=(-\frac12,-\frac32,-\frac52,\dots)$. I was reading this interesting paper, where in particular, the authors claim that one can get the expression in (2.9)
\begin{align*}
\prod_{k\geq1}(1+...

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### Question from Taubes' SW$\Rightarrow$ Gr

I am trying to understand Taubes' paper on SW$\Rightarrow$ Gr. I don't understand how either of the equations 2.16 or 2.17 appears, I would be happy to understand how the curvature term $F_a$ appears ...

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### Taubes' SW$\Rightarrow$ Gr

I am reading Taubes' paper on SW$\Rightarrow$ Gr and lost in some analysis, can anyone help me to see how to get equation 2.19 from equation 2.18? Is this some version of Kato for the Laplacian?

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### Spin(7)-instanton

Let $M$ be a Spin$(7)$-manifold with a spin-bundle $S=S_+\oplus S_-$. There's an obvious connection on $S$ which comes from lifting the Levi-Civita connection. And it induces a connection on the ...

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### Changing the sign of the moment map in the Seiberg Witten equations

The Seiberg-Witten equations on a closed four manifold
$$
D_A \varphi = 0, F_A^+ = \mu(\varphi)
$$
are elliptic (up to gauge transformations), and so the equations
$$
D_A \varphi = 0, F_A^+ = -\mu(\...

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### Does a gauge-invariant Caccioppoli inequality hold?

(I previously asked this question on Math.SE but got no responses after two weeks.)
Let $V \Subset U$ be domains in a Riemannian manifold $M$, and $W := U \setminus \overline V$. If $u: U \to \mathbb ...

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### Understanding the Seiberg-Witten equations in dimension $3$

I am trying to understand the dimensional reduction of Seiberg-Witten equations from dimension $4$ to $3$, more specifically my concern is about ellipticity of the new equations in dimension $3$ under ...

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### Is this a correct description of the BPS monopole of charge $1$?

I am reading the book "The Geometry and Dynamics of Magnetic Monopoles", by M.F. Atiyah and N.J. Hitchin, and I got to this part:
"... let $H$ be the Hopf line bundle over $S^2$ and ...

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### A question about the book "the geometry and dynamics of magnetic monopoles"

In chapter 2 of the book "The geometry and dynamics of magnetic monopoles", by M.F. Atiyah and N.J. Hitchin (the chapter is called "Geometry of the monopole spaces"), it is written:...

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### Spin connection vs. Cartan connection

I am studying the tetradic Palatini formalism of general relativity. In this formalism, one usually considers a manifold $M$, which is either non-compact or compact with Euler-characteristic $\chi(M)=...

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### Do we have $d(P_{+}(\omega\wedge \theta))=d_{+}\omega\wedge \theta-\omega\wedge d_{+}\theta$ on a self-dual manifold?

Let $(X, g)$ be a smooth, oriented, Riemannian 4-diemnsional manifold. Let $\Lambda^2$ denote the bundle of 2-forms on $X$. Then the Hodge-star operator decomposes $\Lambda^2$ into the space of self-...

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### Hyperkähler structure of framed instantons over $\smash{\overline{\mathbb{C}P}}^2$

When underlying $4$ manifold is compact and hyperkähler, the philosophy of infinite dimensional moment map tells us that its instantons moduli space is also hyperkähler. I'm curious about the ...

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### Heat kernel coefficients for Laplacian in instanton background

The heat kernel coefficients $b_{2k}(x,y)$ of the covariant Laplacian in an $SU(2)$ instanton background (for simplicity let's say $q=1$ topological charge, so the 't Hooft solution) on $R^4$ is ...

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### Existence of Yang-Mills connection

My question is about what we know, in dimension $4$, about the loss of compactness of Yang–Mills connections with $L^2$-bounded curvature. My background is more analytical than geometrical and it is ...

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### "Neck cutting" and why gauge theory doesn't work on homotopy 4-spheres

I attended a talk recently and the speaker said, essentially, that gauge theory invariants are expected to never be able to detect exotic 4-spheres because they always vanish, for a reason related to ...

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### Instantons on the 4-sphere with respect to other Riemannian metrics

It is known that the moduli space of $\text{SU}(2)$ instantons of charge $1$ on $S^4$ is diffeomorphic to the five-ball $B^5$ if $S^4$ is endowed with the round metric.
Question: what does the moduli ...

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### Sufficient condition for moduli space of slope-stable bundles to be non-empty

I'm trying to find to a statement concerning the non-emptiness of the moduli space of slope stable vector bundles over a Kähler surface in the literature.
Let $X$ be a Kähler surface. Let $\mathscr{M}(...

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### Weitzenbock- Anti-selfdual

In "The Theory of Gauge Fields in Four Manifolds", B.Lawson proves the Bochner-Weitzenbock, for an anti-self-dual field $\Psi \in \Omega^2_-(\mathfrak{G}_E)$,where $\mathfrak{G}_E$ is the ...

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### Finding a unitary operator on L^{2}(\mathbb{R}^{2},dxdy)

I have a one parameter (r) family of self-adjoint representations of the universal enveloping algebra of some nilpotent Lie group on $L^{2}(\mathbb{R}^{2},dxdy)$ as follows:
$$\hat{X}^{r}=\hat{x}-i(r-...

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### Uhlenbeck's compactness for abelian gauge

I am looking for a simpler proof (if possible) for the Uhlenbeck's compactness result (bound on connection up-to gauge from bound on curvature) on an open ball. I know that a proof exists using Hodge-...

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### Is there a program to solve The Yang–Mills Existence and Mass Gap problem similar to the Hamilton's program to solve Poincaré Conjecture?

According to Wikipedia:
"Hamilton's program was started in his 1982 paper in which he introduced the Ricci flow on a manifold and showed how to use it to prove some special cases of the Poincaré ...

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### Gauge invariance of a QFT path integral

If we consider the usual formal construction of a path integral over fields with gauge symmetries e.g as in Weinbergs "The Quantum Theory of Fields - Volume 2" the notion of gauge invariance ...

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### Moduli space of flat connection over homology 3-sphere

I'm trying to understand the space of flat connections of the trivial $\mathrm{SU}(2)$-bundle over a closed, oriented homology three-sphere (for the purpose of understanding the instanton Floer ...

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### Does $(S^1\times S^3)\#(S^1\times S^3)\#(S^2\times S^2)$ admit a symplectic form?

This is a crosspost from this MSE question from a year ago.
Consider the smooth four-manifold $M = (S^1\times S^3)\#(S^1\times S^3)\#(S^2\times S^2)$. Does $M$ admit a symplectic form?
If $\omega$ ...

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### In search of a combinatorial proof on particular set of partitions

Given a partition $\lambda=(\lambda_1\geq\lambda_2\geq\dots)$, denote the conjugate partition by $\lambda'=(\lambda_1'\geq\lambda_2'\geq\dots)$. For example, if $\lambda=(4,2,2)$ then $\lambda'=(3,3,1,...

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### Different definitions of "charged spinors": "bundle splicing" vs. "twisted spinor bundles"

Currently I study the mathematical formulation of the (classical) standard model of particle physics using the language of gauge theory and spin geometry. One of the central objects in the standard ...

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### Non existence of preferred Horizontal subspace on a bundle [closed]

If I choose a principal bundle, let us say $G\rightarrow P \rightarrow B$, with $G=U(1)$, $P=S^1 \times S^1$ and $B=S^1$. Can I follow the identity element of the group over a curve at the base. How ...

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### Vortex equation on Riemann surface and a similar equation

Let's take a Riemann surface $(X,\omega)$ and a holomorphic line bundle $L$ on it with a hermitian metric $h$ on $L$. $g$ be a real valued smooth function on $X$ and we consider the following two sets ...

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### Understanding the slice theorem

I was reading Morgan's book: "The Seiberg-Witten equations and applications to the topology of smooth four-manifolds" and find it hard to understand the slice theorem (page 62-64).
Here are ...

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### Curvature of the line bundle $\mathcal{O}(2)$ on the twistor space

Let $M^4$ be a closed Riemannian manifold and $Z:=S\big(\Lambda^2_+(M)\big)$ denote the twistor space of $M,$ i.e., the sphere bundle of the self-dual 2-forms on $M$. Now at a point $(m,J)\in Z$ the ...

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### How much do characteristic classes fail to characterize bundles?

Given a group $G$, let $E \to B$ be a principal $G$-bundle. It is
well-known that when $B$ is a nice enough topological space (e.g.
CW-complex), such a thing corresponds to a connected component of
$...

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### Yang–Mills existence and mass gap official statement on Euclidean $\mathbb{R}^4$, why not Minkowski $ \mathbb{R}^{3,1}$?

Yang–Mills existence and mass gap problem is officially stated by Clay Mathematics Institute:
Yang–Mills Existence and Mass Gap.'' Prove that for any compact simple gauge group G, a non-trivial ...

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### Chern-Simons Functional for $S^1$-bundles over Riemann Surfaces

If $M$ is a closed, orientable 3-manifold $M$ and also happens to be an $S^1$ bundle over some Riemann surface $\Sigma$, then it seems like a natural Heegaard splitting of $M$ could come from ...

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### Moduli spaces of rank 2 stable bundles over curves as projective varieties

Let $\Sigma$ be a Riemann surface of genus $g$. Let's consider the moduli space of rank $2$ stable vector bundles with determinant $L$ such that $\deg(L)$ is odd. Denote this space by $\mathcal{M}_{\...

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### Donaldson invariants for piecewise-linear $4$-manifolds

It is well known that in dimension $4$, the notion of piecewise linear manifolds and the notion of smooth manifolds are the same [1][2]. On the other hand, the computations of Donaldson invariants ...

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### Infinitely many nonempty Seiberg-Witten moduli spaces

The classic "finiteness" statement in Seiberg-Witten (SW) theory is that, for any smooth closed connected 4-manifold, there are only finitely many spin-c structures with nontrivial SW ...

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### The Yang-Mills Higgs Lagrangian

Let's say we have a principal bundle $(P,B,\pi;G)$ and associated bundle $E=P \times_{(G,\rho)}V$and $Ad(P)=P\times_{(G,Ad)} \mathfrak{g}$ the adjoint bundle. The Yang-Mills-Higgs action (without ...

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### Spin connection in the tetradic Palatini-formalism of general relativity

$\DeclareMathOperator\SO{SO}$I am trying to understand the tetradic Palatini-formalism of general relativity from a mathematical point of view. I am graduate student and quite new to mathematical ...

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### Tensor product of associated vector bundles

Let $(P, X, \pi, G)$ and $(P', X, \pi', G')$ be two principal bundles (with Lie groups $G$, $G'$ respectively). Given a vector space $V$ and representations $\rho, \rho'$ of the Lie groups in this ...

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### Compactly supported geometric representatives for Seiberg-Witten invariant

The question is introduced at the end of the second paragraph.
Readers familiar with Seiberg-Witten theory may well skip the first paragraph.
The first paragraph is meant to set up some notation which ...

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### Local coordinates of one form on a principal bundle

I am reading "Natural and Gauge Natural Formalism for Classical Field Theory" by Lorenzo Fatibene and I am really confused by his definition of a connection in local coordinates.
Let's say ...

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### Maxwell $U(1)$ gauge theory's electric and magnetic sources turned on simultaneously in the classical differential geometry

Question:
How do we couple $U(1)$ electric (E) and magnetic (M) sources simultaneously in the classical differential geometry language, in a $U(1)$ gauge theory based on $U(1)$ gauge bundle and its $U(...

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### About irreducible connection

The irreducible connection is a connection whose holonomy group is just $G$ (let us just assume the base space $X$ is just connected). Otherwise, it is called reducible if the holonomy group $H_A$ ...

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### The notion of a "relatively" flat connection

Suppose that $X$ is a connected smooth manifold and $\Gamma$ is a group acting smoothly, freely, properly and discretely on $X$, so that $Y=X/\Gamma$ is another smooth manifold endowed with a covering ...

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### Stabilizer groups of Yang-Mills connections

Let $G$ be a compact Lie group with complexification $G^c$, and consider a principal $G^c$-bundle $P^c \to M$ together with a reduction $P \subseteq P^c$ to $G$. Assume that $M$ is a Riemann surface.
...

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### Curvature as infinitesimal holonomy 2

This question may be seen as a follow up of this original question. I'm learning Cheeger-Simons differential characters (reading Differential Characters of Bär and Becker).
If I understand correctly, ...

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### Spin networks as functionals on the moduli space of connections modulo gauge transformations on a graph

I have just read a big part of John Baez's nice article Spin network states in Gauge theory. The definitions are quite clear in that article. However, there is a part which is not explained explicitly ...