# Questions tagged [irrational-numbers]

An irrational number is a real number that cannot be expressed in the form $\frac{n}{m}$ where $n$ and $m$ are integers.

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### Show that there are infinitely many well-separated grids from a fixed set of points

I have stumbled upon a question which naturally arises when trying to bin a set of $n$ points into equispaced bins such that they are sufficiently well separated from the bin edges.
Take $n$ points $...

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### Regarding the digit expansion of $\sqrt 7$

Let $\sqrt 7=\sum_{i=0}^\infty a_i 7^{-i}, 0\le a_i \le 6$ be the expansion of $\sqrt 7$ in base $7$.
I am curious about the following question: Is there a $K\in \mathbb{N}$ such that for any $n\ge ...

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### Two algebraically independent irrational numbers $\alpha,\beta$ s.t. $\alpha^\beta$ is a rational number

Are there two algebraically independent irrational numbers $\alpha,\beta$ s.t. $\alpha^\beta$ is a rational number?

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### An asymptotic formula in Apéry's proof of the irrationality of $\zeta(3)$

Let $a_n$ be the Apéry sequence
$$
a_n = \sum_{0\leq k\leq n}\binom{n}{k}^2\binom{n+k}{k}^2.
$$
Reading the 1978 paper Démonstration de l’irrationalité de $\zeta(3)$ (d’après R. Apery) of Cohen, at ...

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### Rational solutions to $\cos(\lambda \pi) = \cos^2(a\pi) - \cos(b\pi) \sin^2(a\pi) $, with $a,b \in \mathbb{Q}$

In a similar vein to this question, I am trying to understand the occurrence of rational solutions $\lambda$ to the following equation $$\cos(\lambda \pi) = \cos^2 (a\pi) - \cos ( b\pi ) \sin^2 \left(...

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### Evaluating the generalized continued fraction obtained from the factorization of a bivariate polynomial equation

Happy New Year, MO community!
We need someone expert in Generalized Continued Fractions (GCFs), with a deep knowledge of the GCFs’ convergence properties, to solve the following problem.
PROBLEM
...

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### Is the integral of $e^{-x^2}$ from $0$ to $1$ known to be irrational?

Is it known whether $$\int_0^1 e^{-x^2} \, dx$$ is irrational? It is well-known that $\int_0^\infty e^{-x^2} \, dx=\frac{\sqrt{\pi}}{2}$ which is irrational, but what about the prior integral? Also, I ...

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### Question on recursive formulas for $\eta(2 n+1)$ and $\beta(2 n)$ where $n\in\mathbb{N}$

This question is a refinement of my related MSE question which was asked over 2 years ago and no answers have yet been posted.
Consider the following formulas for the Dirichlet eta function $\eta(s)$ ...

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### Sobolev-type estimate for irrational winding on a torus

Let $\mathbb{T} = \{ (x, y) \in \mathbb{R}^2 \}/_{x \mapsto x + 1, y \mapsto y + 1}$ be a real 2-torus. Let $\mathscr{C}^{\infty}_0(\mathbb{T})$ be the subset of $\mathscr{C}^{\infty}(\mathbb{T})$ of ...

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### Behavior of $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} (\{n \xi \} - \frac{1}{2})$ for irrational number $\xi$

Consider the series
$$
\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} ( \{ n \xi \} - \frac{1}{2})
$$
where $\{ \}$ denotes the fractional part and $\xi$ is some irrational number. It clearly does not converge but can we show ...

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### Lowest asymptotic bound to $4^n - 2v_n^2$ where $v$ is an odd integer, $n$ fixed

The general problem is this. I try to find a positive integer $\delta_n$ such $qv_n^2 +\delta_n = p\cdot 4^n$. More precisely, I am looking for a lower bound (depending on $n$) for $\delta_n$ as $n\...

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### Can you identify this irrational number?

There is a certain number, say $v$. I can prove it is irrational. That would be more interesting if it is expressible in terms of known values ... zeta functions, Catalan's number, L-functions, etc. ...

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### Fractional part power

Does a irrational number $x > 1$ exist such that $\{x^n \} \le \frac{1}{2}$ for
all positive integers $n$ ?
$x=1+ \sqrt 2$ holds for $n$ odd, but not in even

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### To prove irrationality, why integrate?

I have been reading David Angell's lovely book, Irrationality and Transcendence in Number Theory, which has given me some fresh insights even with some of the easier proofs. But the book reminds me of ...

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### Does $x_0=1/3$ lead to periodicity in the logistic map $x_{k+1}=4x_k(1-x_k)$?

Does $x_0=1/3$ lead to periodicity in the logistic map $x_{k+1}=4x_k(1-x_k)$?
I believe it does not, but this is equivalent to proving that $(2\pi)^{-1}\arcsin(\sqrt{1/3})$ is irrational. I am ...

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### Is $\sum\limits_{k=0}^{\infty}\frac{1}{(mk)!^{n+1}}$ irrational?

I was using Wolfram Alpha for things, and I came across $I_{0}(2)$. For fun I tried asking Wolfram Alpha if the number was irrational, but said it's unknown. I believe this is an error, as its ...

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### Compilation of strategies to show that some constant is irrational

I'm looking into expanding my knowledge in ways to show that some constant is irrational. I'm gonna give some examples of irrationality proofs, and I'm interested in learning what strategies you guys ...

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### Is $e^{{e^{\ \dots\ }}^n}$ ever an integer?

Let $n$ be a positive integer. It is clear that $e^n$ is not integer because $e$ is transcendental (not algebraic).
Now for each positive integer $k$ let $F^k(n)$ denote the $k$-fold composition of $F(...

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### Are mantissas of irrationals provably unique, at a given precision? [closed]

Many thanks to all responders!
Is there any research as to the uniqueness of mantissas of irrationals? It's easy to see that the mantissa of the square root of 5 (0.236067977...) and the mantissa of ...

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### Help with this irrationality proof

I have a real number, that is quite messy so I'll just call it $x$. I want to prove it's irrational. It's a proof by contradiction. The contradiction will rise if I assume $x$ is a rational number $p/...

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### Irrational combination of rationally independent polynomials

Let $p_1,\dotsc,p_k: \mathbb{N} \to \mathbb{Z}$ be rationally independent polynomials with zero constant term. If $t_1,\dotsc,t_k \in [0,1)$ are not all rational, is it true that the polynomial
$$p(n)...

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### Convergence of the series $\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{(2+\sin n)^n}{3^n n^a}$ for $a\in(0,1)$

This is inspired by this Math.SE question, for $a=1$.
Borwein, Bailey, and Girgensohn pose in their book ([1,Problem 35]) as an open problem the convergence of the series
$$\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{(2+\...

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### What is known about constructively irrational numbers?

Intuitively, a constructively irrational number is one for which we can effectively separate it from any rational number in terms of the latter's denominator. More formally, a constructively ...

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### The power of irrationality: ${\rm sin}(x) + {\rm sin}(\pi x)$ [closed]

I'm a physicist studying undulatory phenomena. Reducing the problem, I find the issue lies on the relative irrationality of the angular frequencies of two superimposed waves. To state it simply, ...

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### Irrational rotations are rank 2 by intervals without spacers

Let $\alpha$ be an irrational number, and $R_\alpha$ be the rotation by $\alpha$, that is $R_\alpha(x)=x+\alpha\bmod 1$.
S. Ferenczi in his survey [Systems of finite rank. Colloq. Math. 73 (1997), no. ...

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### Extending Apéry's proof to Catalan's constant?

I've been looking into Apéry's irrationality proof of $\zeta (3)$, and one of the first questions I instantly had, was how did he derive the following continued fraction?
$$\begin{equation*} \zeta (3)=...

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### Irrationality of this trigonometric function

I'd like to prove the following conjecture.
Let $x = \frac{p}{q}\pi$ be a rational angle ($p,q$ integers, $q \geq 1$).
Then
$f(x) = \frac{2}{\pi} \arccos{\left(2\cos^4(2x)-1 \right)}$
is irrational if ...

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### Must a continuous $\varphi:\mathbb R^n\to\mathbb R^n$ with $\mathbb Q^n \subseteq \varphi[\mathbb Q^n]$ be surjective?

Let $\varphi:\mathbb R^n \to \mathbb R^n$ be just some continuous function.
If the image of $\varphi$ happens to contain $\mathbb Q^n$, does it follow that in fact all of $\mathbb R^n$ is contained in ...

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### The square root of natural number expressed by an infinite series

Can you prove or disprove the following claim:
Let $U(n,P,Q)$ be the nth generalized Lucas number of the first kind and let $m$ be a natural number. Then,
$$\sqrt{m}=1+\displaystyle\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}...

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### The constant $\pi$ expressed by an infinite series

I am looking for the proof of the following claim:
First, define the function $\operatorname{sgn_1}(n)$ as follows:
$$\operatorname{sgn_1}(n)=\begin{cases} -1 \quad \text{if } n \neq 3 \text{ and } n \...

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### Ergodic Theory and Euler-Mascheroni Constant

I am highly interested in doing research on proving irrationality of some specific numbers like Euler-Mascheroni Constant or $\zeta(5)$. A professor guided me that arithmetic nature of constants are a ...

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### Are we able to estimate the fraction of the domain where $\cos (ax)+2\cos (b x)$ with $\frac ab \notin\mathbb{Q}$ is positive?

We know that the two functions $\{\;\cos (ax),\;2\cos (b x)\;\}$ where $\frac ab \notin \mathbb{Q}$ are independently positive (and negative) over $\frac 12$ of the domain.
Is it possible to estimate ...

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### On the degree of irrationality of two irrational numbers and their rational (in)dependence

Let $x$ and $y$ be some irrational numbers. If the degree of irrationality of $x$ is the same as that of $y$, is it necessarily the case that $x$ and $y$ are rationally dependent ?
ADDENDUM: What if $...

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### Is the arithmetic-geometric mean of 1 and 2 rational?

It is easy to show that, for two fixed real numbers $\alpha, \beta > 0$, the sequences given by $a_ 1 = \frac{\alpha + \beta }{2}$, $ g_1 = \sqrt{\alpha\beta}$, and $a_{n+1} = \frac{a_n + g_n}{2}$, ...

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### Upper bounds on the irrationality measure of the arctan of an algebraic number

Let $x$ be an algebraic number. Must $\arctan(x)/\pi$ have finite irrationality measure? Are there any useful upper bounds?

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### How to prove that the solution to $x^{x+1}=(x+1)^{x}$ is transcendental?

I was asked by an high school student if there is an algebraic way to find the exact value of the solution to the equation
\begin{equation}\label{eq}
x^{x+1}=(x+1)^x
\end{equation}
Let us define that ...

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### Rational linear subspace corresponding to an irrational vector

Given a vector $v = (v_1, \ldots, v_n) \in \mathbb{R}^n$, we can associate a rational linear subspace with this vector: assume $\{1, v_i \text{ for }i \in I\}$ is a linear basis of $\{1, v_1, \ldots, ...

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### Distribution of the first occurrence of a maximum (record) run of zeros in the digits of a normal number (say $\pi$)

If the question was stated to appeal to the general public, it would be something like this. For a number such as $\pi$ or $\sqrt{2}$, the digits in base $b$ appear to be randomly distributed. We are ...

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### Irrationality of $e^{x/y}$

How to prove the following continued fraction of $e^{x/y}$
$${\displaystyle e^{x/y}=1+{\cfrac {2x}{2y-x+{\cfrac {x^{2}}{6y+{\cfrac {x^{2}}{10y+{\cfrac {x^{2}}{14y+{\cfrac {x^{2}}{18y+\ddots }}}}}}}}}}...

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### Algebraic and rational parts of a real number

Let $\alpha$ be a positive real number. Does it make sense to define the closest rational to $\alpha$ as the number $R(\alpha)=\frac{p_1}{p_2}$ such that $p_1,p_2$ are positive co-prime integers ...

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### Looking for a proof that $\sqrt2 + \sqrt5 + \sqrt[3]3$ is irrational [closed]

What is the easiest way to prove that $\sqrt2+\sqrt5+\sqrt[3]3$ is irrational?

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### When does the set of possible walk lengths start being $\varepsilon$-dense?

Let $\Gamma$ be a finite directed graph, and suppose each directed edge $e \colon a \to b$ has a positive real length. Suppose given vertices $x, y \in \Gamma$, and suppose there are infinitely many ...

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### An alternative to continued fraction and applications

This post is inspired by the Numberphile video 2.920050977316, advertising the paper A Prime-Representing Constant by Dylan Fridman, Juli Garbulsky, Bruno Glecer, James Grime and Massi Tron Florentin, ...

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### Is there a real valued function whose limit exists only on irrational numbers?

I have been trying to find a function $f : \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ such that $\lim_{x \to c} f(x)$ exists when $c$ is irrational and the limit doesn't exist when $c$ is rational.
I tried variations ...

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### Picture of Lambert's proof that $\pi$ is irrational?

With a suitably generous notion of "picture proof" or "proof without words" or "geometric proof," there do exist such proofs of the irrationality of square roots and even ...

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### Is the super square root of $2$ irrational? [closed]

The super square root of $n$ is the solution/solutions to $x^x=n$. Is the super square root of $2$ irrational?

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### Mapping $\mathbb P$ onto $\mathbb Q ^\omega$

Let $\mathbb P$ denote the space of irrationals. Is there a continuous bijection (one-to-one and onto) $f:\mathbb P\to \mathbb Q ^\omega$ that maps each closed subset of $\mathbb P$ to a $G_\delta$-...

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### What numbers (irrational) in radicals are expressible as trigonometric rational fraction with only rational multiplies of $\pi$?

What irrational expressions $A$ with radicals can be expressed as trigonometric rational fraction (not a series) with only rational multiplies of $\pi$.
Example:
$ \frac{1}{\sqrt5} = \frac{\sin\frac{\...

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### Irrationality or transcendence of $i^{i\Omega}$ and $2^\Omega$, with $\Omega=W(1)$ and $W(x)$ being the main branch of Lambert $W$ function

In this post we denote the main (or principal) branch of the Lambert $W$ function as $W(x)$, I add as reference that Wikipedia has the article Lambert $W$ function. The particular value $W(1)=\Omega$ ...

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### What is known about the irrationality of ratios and products of logarithms of integers?

Let $a,b,c,d$ be positive natural numbers such that $\{a,b\} \neq \{c,d\}$ and such that none are perfect powers. Is it true that
$$\frac{\log a \log b}{\log c \log d} \notin \mathbb{Q} ?$$
The ...