Questions tagged [nt.number-theory]

Prime numbers, diophantine equations, diophantine approximations, analytic or algebraic number theory, arithmetic geometry, Galois theory, transcendental number theory, continued fractions

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Modularity of endomorphism algebras

This question is about comparing Hecke algebras and endomorphism algebras. Let $\mathbf{A}_f$ be the ring of finite adèles of $\mathbf{Q}$ and let $K$ be a compact open subgroup of $\mathrm{GL}_2(\...
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420 views

Uniform proof of Hasse principle for algebraic groups?

Let $G$ be a simply connected semi-simple linear algebraic group over a global field $k$. The Hasse principle for algebraic groups states that the map $$H^1(k,G)\rightarrow\prod_vH^1(k_v,G)$$ is ...
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247 views

A local global principle over function fields

For each prime $p$, fix a place of $\bar{\mathbb{Q}}$ extending $p$ so we can reduce elements of $\bar{\mathbb{Q}}$ which are integral over $\mathbb Z$ and get elements of $\bar{\mathbb{F}}_p$. Now ...
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587 views

Elkies' supersingularity theorem in higher dimension (in terms of the associated Newton polygon)

Elkies' supersingularity theorem: Given an elliptic curve $E$ over $\mathbb{Q}$, there are infinitely many primes $p$ such that $E$ is supersingular over $\mathbb{F}_p$. I have seen another post on ...
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244 views

Are Hecke eigenvalues on the cohomology of the Newton polygon strata automorphic?

Fix a genus $g$, a prime $p$, and a Newton polygon $\Delta$ of an abelian variety of genus $g$. Let $\mathcal A_{g, \overline{\mathbb F}_p, \Delta}$ be the moduli stack of abelian varieties of genus $...
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259 views

Propagation of modularity and the Artin conjecture

The (still incomplete) solution of the Artin conjecture on dimension $\leq2$ has been a massive research effort that has spanned (knowingly or not) around a century. A very natural question is, what ...
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351 views

Must the sum of the digits of $n^k$ decrease infinitely often, for $n,k\in\mathbb{N}$ and $n$ not a power of $10$?

This is a (rephrased) repost of a question I asked on MSE about 6 months ago, but didn't receive a definitive answer. Let $S(n)$ be the sum of the digits of $n$ (in base $10$), is it true that for ...
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426 views

Are there infinitely many N^3 (especially for prime N) that cannot be expressed as a sum of three positive cubes?

The sequence A023042 on the OEIS website shows that a large percentage of $N^3$ are a sum of three positive cubes. OEIS lists only N<1770, but we can extend that:$$\begin{array}{|c|c|} N&\text{%...
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1k views

Meaningful review of Moriwaki's “Arakelov Geometry”

I have been asked to write a mathscinet review for Atsushi Moriwaki's Arakelov Geometry book: http://www.ams.org/bookstore-getitem/item=mmono-244 I could do the review the standard way in a day or ...
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667 views

Why are solutions to $\sqrt[k]{x_1^k+x_2^k+x_3^k+x_4^k}$ for $k=2,3$ curiously smooth?

Given an integer solution $s_m$ to the system, $$x_1^2+x_2^2+\dots+x_n^2 = y^2$$ $$x_1^3+x_2^3+\dots+x_n^3 = z^3$$ and define the function, $$F(s_m) = x_1+x_2+\dots+x_n$$ For $n\geq3$, using an ...
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581 views

Representing every positive rational number in the form of $(a^n+b^n)/(c^n+d^n)$

About a month ago, I got the following : For every positive rational number $r$, there exists a set of four positive integers $(a,b,c,d)$ such that $$r=\frac{a^\color{red}{3}+b^\color{red}{3}}{...
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857 views

Primes and Parity

This problem is motivated by the polymath4 project. There, the aim was to find an efficient deterministic algorithm for finding a prime larger than $N$. The hope was to find a polynomial algorithm in $...
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363 views

Weyl law for Maass forms with nontrivial character

The classical Weyl law for $\Gamma = \mathrm{SL}_2(\mathbb{Z})$ counts the number of Maass cusp forms on $\Gamma \backslash \mathbb{H}$ with Laplace eigenvalue less than $T$. This is originally due to ...
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344 views

Artin L-function and Zeta function of twisted Dirac operator

If one thinks of a Frobenius as an element in the fundamental group of an arithmetic curve and of a Galois representation $\sigma$ as a flat connection on the curve, then the definition of the Artin L-...
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727 views

Lifting Abelian Varieties to p-adic fields

Assume I have an abelian variety $A$ over a finite field $k$ of characteristic $p$. Work of Norman and Oort (1980) says I can lift $A$ to an abelian variety $\mathscr{A}$ over some characteristic ...
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628 views

Unramified Galois cohomology of number fields

I'm trying to understand unramified Galois cohomology of number fields a bit better. Set-up: Let $k$ be a number field and $S$ a finite set of places of $k$ which contains all the archimedean places....
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636 views

Rational iterations on $\mathbb{P}^1$ defined over $\mathbb{Q}$ and possessing a totally $2$-adic point of a high finite order

A (final) remark (9/29). Now that the question is open for bounty anyway, and hence cannot be deleted even though everything boils down to the line added on 9/28, I may as well record -- for anyone ...
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562 views

Sieve bound for prime $k$-tuples

Let $d_1<d_2<\dots<d_k$ be integers. Then the number of integers $n\leq x$, such that $n+d_1, n+d_2, \ldots, n+d_k$ are simultaneously prime, is bounded above by $$ \mathfrak{S}(d_1, \ldots, ...
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204 views

On the definition of LGP-monoids in IUT III

I have been trying to understand, without success, the definition of "LGP-monoids" on p. 80 of Mochizuki's IUT III and was wondering if anyone could provide some more explanation than what is given ...
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517 views

Possible orders of products of 2 involutions which interchange disjoint residue classes of the integers

Definition / Question Definition: Let $r(m)$ denote the residue class $r+m\mathbb{Z}$, where $0 \leq r < m$. Given disjoint residue classes $r_1(m_1)$ and $r_2(m_2)$, let the class transposition $...
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2k views

Why doesn't functoriality immediately imply the modularity theorem?

Let $E/\mathbb{Q}$ be an elliptic curve. By the modularity theorem, the prime indexed coefficients of its $L$-function agree with those of a weight $2$ cusp eigenform $f$ with integer coefficients. ...
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777 views

Are there infinitely many non-Wolstenholme primes?

It is known that for $p$ a prime, the following conditions are equivalent: ${2p-1\choose p-1}\equiv 1\mod{p^4}$ $p^3$ divides the numerator of $\sum_{n=1}^{p-1}\frac{1}{n}$ $p$ divides the numerator ...
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823 views

Sums of Partitions and Stirling's formula

Stirling's formula $$N! \sim \sqrt{2 \pi}\ N^{N+ \frac{1}{2}} e^{-N}$$ follows easily from Laplace's method in light of the famous integral representation $$N! = \int_0^{\infty} e^{-z} z^N dz.$$ ...
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518 views

Connes & Marcolli: Q-lattices generalize Conway's “Understanding groups like $\Gamma_0(N)$”

Has anyone generalized Conway's description of Hecke operators on lattices to the Q-lattices of Connes & Marcolli ? Light may well be shone on moonshine thus.
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761 views

Roth's theorem, Lang's conjecture and beyond

Lang conjectured that for an irrational algebraic number $\alpha$ and $\epsilon > 0$, there exist only finitely may rationals $p/q$ such that $$ \left| \alpha - \frac{p}{q} \right| <\frac{1}{q^2(...
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730 views

What is the Shafarevich-Tate group of GL(2)?

Let $K$ be a number field, $\bar{K}$ a fixed algebraic closure, $G_K$ the absolute galois group, $O_\bar{K}$ the ring of integers of the algebraic closure, $\mathfrak{p}$ runs over prime ideals and ...
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651 views

Regular languages of matrices and their generating functions

My question is somewhat related to this question. Let us fix natural numbers $k$ and $C$. Let $A$ be an automaton whose alphabet consists of $k\times k$ matrices with integer coefficients of ...
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1k views

Effective proofs of Siegel's theorem using arithmetic geometry

This is a speculation and perhaps naive. The theorem of Siegel that There exist only finitely many integral points on a curve of genus $\geq 1$ over a number ring $\mathcal O_{K, S}$ where $S$ is a ...
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239 views

Proving a group with two generators is not free that uses the Brahamagupta-Pell equation

Hello I encountered the following while reading a set of notes on free groups. It's not a homework question. "Does there exist a rational number $\alpha$ with $0 <|\alpha| < 2$ such that the ...
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593 views

Number $f(x)$ whose representation in base 3 is the binary representation of $x$: when does $x$ divide $f(x)$?

For any natural number $x$, let $f(x)$ be the natural number whose representation in base 3 is the same as the binary representation of $x$ (for instance, $f(5)=10$ because $5=101_2$ and $101_3=10$). ...
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118 views

Irreducibility of root-height generating polynomial

The height $ht(\alpha)$ of a positive root $\alpha$ in a (finite, crystallographic) root system $\Phi$ is $\sum_{i=1}^n c_i$ where $\alpha = \sum_{i=1}^n c_i \alpha_i$ is its decomposition as a sum of ...
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222 views

Can the orbit with respect to a rotation on the torus hit an algebraic variety infinitely often?

Question: Does there exist a $d$-tuple $\alpha = (\alpha_1,\dots,\alpha_d) \in \mathbb{R}^d$ (with $1,\alpha_1, \dots,\alpha_d$ linearly independent over $\mathbb{Q}$) and an algebraic variety $V \...
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336 views

Fourier transforms and nontrivial vector bundles

We know that in arithmetic, geometry and analysis, Fourier transforms of various forms show up. For example, we have the classical Fourier transform, Fourier-Mukai transforms in the setting of ...
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303 views

Record analytic rank for an elliptic curve?

What is the current record (and reference) for the highest analytic rank of an elliptic curve over $\mathbb{Q}$? The highest algebraic rank is the Elkies curve with rank at least 28, but I cannot ...
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278 views

Writing integers as a product of as few elements of $\{\frac21, \frac32, \frac43, \frac54, \ldots\}$ as possible

Is the number of elements we need to construct $x$ equal to $\log_2(x) + O(1)$? This question is inspired by question 2 of the 2018 European Girls' Mathematical Olympiad. I previously posted it on ...
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414 views

Case D=4l in Elkies' paper on Supersingular Primes of an Elliptic Curve over $\mathbb{Q}$

My question is regarding Elkies' paper on "The existence of infinitely many supersingular primes for every elliptic curve over $\mathbb{Q}$". In the section "Nuts and Bolts", Elkies has the ...
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476 views

Are the only solutions of the equation $\tau(n)$ mod $(n-1) = 1$ $n=4$ and $n=16$?

Define $\tau(k)$ as follows : $$\Delta(x)=x\prod_{n=1}^\infty(1-x^n)^{24}=\sum_{k=1}^\infty\tau(k)x^k.$$ This is equivalent to $$\prod_{n=1}^\infty(1-x^n)^{24}=\sum_{k=1}^\infty\tau(k)x^{k-1}.$$ ...
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300 views

Fourier Transforms of Convolutions

Straightforward computations lead to the following standard property of Fourier transformation: it transforms convolutions into products, i.e. for functions $f$ and $g$ Schwartz class we have $$\...
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395 views

A congruence involving roots of unity

Let $f(x) \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ and suppose $f(\omega^j) \in \mathbb{Z}$ for all $j= 1, \dots, n$ where $\omega = e^{2 \pi i/n}$ is a primitive $n^{\text{th}}$ root of unity. Computational evidence ...
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196 views

Eisenstein series for non congruence subgoups

What is the present status of the Eisenstein series for noncongruence subgroups? I am aware of work of A. Scholl and Rohrlich work on the subject. Is there any specific examples that has been ...
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282 views

Mysterious “raison d'être” of filtrations of congruence subgroups

I wonder for long why congruence subgroups seem to arise so naturally in certain filtrations. Everything below is on a local field $F_p$. Filtration for $GL_n$. Casselman and later Jacquet, Piatetski-...
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311 views

Why is the CM-type preserved after base changing from char 0 to char p?

There is a transition in the theory of complex multiplication which seems to be glossed over in all expositions I can find. I would like to explicitly find a theorem that allows me to do this. ...
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510 views

Wilf's conjecture: complementary Bell numbers

The complementary Bell numbers or Uppuluri–Carpenter numbers, denoted $\tilde{B}_n$, can be delivered by $$G(x):=\sum_{n\geq0}\tilde{B}_n\frac{x^n}{n!}=e^{1-e^x}.$$ Definition. Fix an integer $m\geq0$....
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295 views

On a relaxed form of Goldbach's conjecture proposed by Erdős

The Goldbach's conjecture says that: "Every even integer greater that $2$ is the sum of two prime numbers". Let $\varphi$ denote the Euler's totient function. I remember that a long time ago I read ...
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423 views

Polynomial mapping primes to primes

Consider a non constant polynomial $P\in\mathbb{Z}[X]$ sending prime numbers to prime numbers. I encountered on the web two different proofs that $P$ is the identity polynomial, one on mathoverflow ...
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211 views

quasiperiodic continued fractions

Is anything known about continued fractions in which the sequence of integers is quasiperiodic? Quasiperiodic is meant here in the sense of 1D quasicrystals. For example, draw an irrationally-sloped ...
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427 views

Definition of Pin groups?

When looking into the definition of a Pin group, it turns out that there are - at least - three different ones in the literature, and they do not agree --- but thankfully all yield the same Spin ...
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515 views

$\zeta(2n)$ and amoebas

Mikael Passare showed how to compute $\zeta(2)$ using the amoeba of $1 + z + w = 0$. Has this ever been generalized to higher zeta-values? How might one compute $\zeta(2n)$ this way? $$ \zeta(2) = \...
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434 views

No Siegel-Landau zeros for $\mathrm{GL}(n)$

The problem of non-existance of Siegel-Landau zeros seems to be uncharacteristically easier for cuspidal automorphic representations $\pi$ on $\mathrm{GL}(n)$ if $n\geq2$. We have in fact: There ...
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477 views

Between Fermat's primes and the twin primes

Let me start with a curiosity. The integers $11,13,17,19$ are prime numbers, and $101,103,107,109$ are prime as well. One might wonder whether there is another occurrence where $10^m+1,10^m+3,10^m+7$ ...

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