Questions tagged [nt.number-theory]

Prime numbers, diophantine equations, diophantine approximations, analytic or algebraic number theory, arithmetic geometry, Galois theory, transcendental number theory, continued fractions

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19
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452 views

Checking Mertens and the like in less than linear time or less than $\sqrt{x}$ space

Say you want to check that $|\sum_{n\leq x} \mu(n)|\leq \sqrt{x}$ for all $x\leq X$. (I am actually interested in checking that $\sum_{n\leq x} \mu(n)/n|\leq c/\sqrt{x}$, where $c$ is a constant, and ...
19
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0answers
844 views

Deciding whether a given power series is modular or not

The degree 3 modular equation for the Jacobi modular invariant $$ \lambda(q)=\biggl(\frac{\sum_{n\in\mathbb Z}q^{(n+1/2)^2}}{\sum_{n\in\mathbb Z}q^{n^2}}\biggr)^4 $$ is given by $$ (\alpha^2+\beta^2+6\...
19
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2k views

sums of digits of powers of integers

It is known (Senge and Straus, 1971, see also C.L.Stewart, 1980) that for every natural $a $, not a power of 10, and every natural $s$, there are only finitely many $k$ such that the sum of decimal ...
18
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230 views

Geometry of algebraic curve determined by point counts over all number fields?

Let $C$ be a smooth irreducible projective curve of genus $g>1$ over a number field $K$. The Mordell conjecture (first proved by Faltings) says that for any finite field extension $L/K$ (say, ...
18
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895 views

Number Theory and Gravity

Langlands program is a web of far-reaching and influential conjectures about connections between number theory and geometry. Proposed by Robert Langlands at IAS (1967, 1970), it seeks to relate Galois ...
18
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0answers
1k views

$G$ a group, with $p$ a prime number, and $|G|=2^p-1$, is it abelian?

During my research I came across this question, I proposed it in the chat, but nobody could find a counterexample, so I allow myself to ask you : $G$ a group, with $p$ a prime number, and $|G|=2^p-1$...
18
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624 views

Looking for an effective irrationality measure of $\pi$

Most standard summaries of the literature on irrationality measure simply say, e.g., that $$ \left| \pi - \frac{p}{q}\right| > \frac{1}{q^{7.6063}} $$ for all sufficiently large $q$, without giving ...
18
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473 views

Why $\gcd \{ {\rm ord}_p(q)\colon q\mid p-1 \}$ likes to be large?

For a prime $p$, let $F_p$ denote the greatest common divisor of the orders modulo $p$ of all prime divisors of $p-1$: $$ F_p = \gcd \{ {\rm ord}_p(q)\colon q\mid p-1 \}; $$ thus, for instance, $F_3=...
18
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598 views

The lonely molecule

Suppose $n$ air molecules (infinitesimal points) are bouncing around in a unit $d$-dimensional cube, with perfectly elastic wall collisions. Let $k=n^{\frac{1}{d}}$. For example, in 3D, $d=3$, with $n=...
18
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999 views

Does this variant of a theorem of Hasse (really due to Gauss) have an “elementary” proof?

BACKGROUND Here are 3 theorems of varying difficulty. Let $M$ be the $Z/2$ subspace of $Z/2[[x]]$ spanned by $f^k$, with the $k>0$ and odd, and $f=x+x^9+x^{25}+x^{49}+\cdots$. For $g$ in $M$, let $...
18
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628 views

Erdos-Kac for squarefree numbers

In its usual form, the Erdos-Kac Theorem states that if $f(n) : \mathbb{N} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is a strongly additive function with $|f(p)| \le 1$ for all primes $p$, then $$\frac{|\{n \le x : \...
18
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1answer
952 views

A set of generators for $\bar{\mathbb{Q}}$

Two questions: Does there exist a sequence $\alpha_1,\alpha_2,...$ of algebraic numbers with degrees $d_1,d_2,...$ s.t. for each $i$, $d_i|d_{i+1}$ and $\alpha_i= p_i(\alpha_{i+1})$ with $p_i$ a ...
17
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848 views

Almost monochromatic point sets

There are many sort of equivalent theorems about monochromatic configurations in finite colorings, such as Van der Waerden, Hales-Jewett or Gallai's theorem, the latter of which states that in a ...
17
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0answers
482 views

Tropicalization of perfectoid spaces and their tilts

Does tropicalization exist in the world of perfectoid spaces? Since it does for Huber's adic spaces, I thought it might for perfectoid spaces too, yet I can't find any explicit references so far. ...
17
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635 views

Elements of finite fields with many powers of trace zero

Let $p$ be an odd prime number, $n>1$ be an integer, and $\mathrm{tr}$ be the trace map of the field extension $\mathrm{GF}(p^{2n})/\mathrm{GF}(p)$. For which pair $(p,n)$ does there exists $x\in\...
17
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1k views

Does Mochizuki's proof of abc conjecture gives an upper bound for the quality of a triple?

The quality of a triple $(a,b,c)$ of coprime positive integers with $a + b = c$ is defined as $$q(a,b,c) := \frac{\log(c)}{\log(\mathrm{rad}(abc))}.$$ Then $$a+b = c = \mathrm{rad}(abc)^{q(a,b,c)}.$$...
17
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414 views

Need explicit formula for certain “$q$-numbers” involving gcd's

The question is motivated by yet another possible approach to a combinatorial problem formulated previously in "Special" meanders. I'm not giving details of the connection as I believe the ...
17
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871 views

Groups generated by 3 involutions

Let $r(m)$ denote the residue class $r+m\mathbb{Z}$, where $0 \leq r < m$. Given disjoint residue classes $r_1(m_1)$ and $r_2(m_2)$, let the class transposition $\tau_{r_1(m_1),r_2(m_2)}$ be the ...
17
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857 views

Computation of low weight Siegel modular forms

We have these huge tables of elliptic curves, which were generated by computing modular forms of weight $2$ and level $\Gamma_0(N)$ as N increased. For abelian surfaces over $\mathbb{Q}$ we have very ...
16
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462 views

Shimura varieties and connected components

Let $G$ be a connected reductive algebraic group over $\mathbf{Q}$. I've seen two slightly different definitions in the literature of the Shimura variety of level $U$, for $U \subseteq G(\mathbf{A}_{\...
16
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756 views

Why arithmetic Langlands?

In trying to understand the import of Akshay Venkatesh' most recent work I found myself wondering anew about that old gnawing mystery: why Langlands? Why should arithmetic of polynomial equations over ...
16
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0answers
511 views

The number 1680 and Lagrange's four-square theorem

The number $1680$ has the factorization $2^4\times3\times5\times7$. Rather to my surprise, I found that this number has certain mysterious connection with Lagrange's four-square theorem. QUESTION: ...
16
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568 views

Infinite extensions such that every elliptic curve has finite rank

The comments to this answer seem to make the following claim. Claim. Let $K$ be the maximal abelian extension of $\mathbf Q$ that is unramified away from $p$ (more generally, away from a finite set $...
16
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0answers
356 views

Are there smooth and proper schemes over $\mathbb Z$ whose cohomology is not of Tate type

Is there an example of smooth and proper scheme $X \to \mathrm{Spec}(\mathbb Z)$, and an integer $i$ such that $H^i(X, \mathbb Q)$ is not a Hodge structure of Tate type? Alternatively: such that $H^...
16
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0answers
664 views

An elementary proof that, for every fixed $n \in \mathbf N^+$, there are infinitely many primes $\equiv -1 \bmod n$

This morning, I made a comment to a comment to a question of Ayman Moussa, only to point out that, among many others, there is an elementary proof of Dirichlet's theorem on the existence of infinitely ...
16
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432 views

Are there any examples of hyperbolic curves over finite fields such that the action of frobenius on its prime-to-$p$ fundamental group is known?

Let $X$ smooth curve over a finite field $\mathbb{F}_q$ of type $(g,n)$ - that is, $X$ is an open subscheme of its genus $g$ compactification obtained by removing $n$ points. Any such curve ...
16
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0answers
640 views

Decidability of $x^3+y^3+z^3 = c$

I wondering if it is known whether the following problem is algorithmically decidable or undecidable by Turing machines: given an integer c, determine if there are integers $(x,y,z)$ such that $x^3+y^...
16
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0answers
765 views

What is the expected dimension of the Zariski closure of the rational points on the moduli space of curves?

For each genus $g$, there are many curves of genus $g$ defined over $\mathbb Q$. How many? We might study this question by considering the rational points of the Deligne-Mumford moduli space of curves ...
16
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0answers
699 views

Epsilon factors - a la Beilinson - What is it?

I understand, to some extent, Tate's thesis. Could somebody explain perhaps what are the epsilon factors in Beilinson's works, such as "$\epsilon$-factors for Gauss-Manin determinants", or "...
16
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409 views

A Product Related to Unrestricted Partitions

Start with the product for unrestricted partitions: $(1+x+x^2+...)(1+x^2+x^4+...)(1+x^3+x^6+...)...$ Now replace some of the plus signs with minus signs and expand the product into a series. Is it ...
16
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703 views

How to explain the picturesque patterns in François Brunault's matrix?

How to explain the patterns in the matrix defined in François Brunault's answer to the question Freeness of a Z[x] module depicted below? -- Choosing colors according to the highest power of 2 which ...
16
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0answers
698 views

Lubin-Tate vs cohomological approach to local CFT

Local class field theory ("local CFT") can be developed in various ways, among them is a cohomological approach and an explicit approach due to Lubin and Tate (both can be found in Milne's CFT notes ...
16
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543 views

Division fields of abelian varieties over function fields

Let $k$ be a finitely generated field (for example a finite field or a number field) and $K/k$ a finitely generated regular extension with $trdeg(K/k)=1$. Let $A/K$ be a principally polarized abelian ...
16
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0answers
1k views

Can one compare integral structures on de Rham and crystalline cohomology?

Suppose $\mathfrak{X}$ is a smooth projective scheme of finite type over $\mathbb{Z}_p$, with generic fibre $X$. Then there are comparison theorems relating de Rham and crystalline cohomology, $H^i_{\...
16
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0answers
653 views

How many Hecke operators span the Hecke algebra?

This is a generalisation of my earlier question about generators for the level 1 Hecke algebra. Let $\Gamma$ be a congruence subgroup of $\operatorname{SL}_2(\mathbb{Z})$, and $k \ge 1$ an integer. ...
16
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0answers
873 views

Polynomials with presumably positive coefficients

After seeing that some positivity problems get their solutions on MO, I am quite enthusiastic of posing my (and not only) problem of positive flavour. In order to state it, I have to introduce the ...
16
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0answers
454 views

Cohomological characterization of CM curves

In his 1976 classical Annals paper on $p$-adic interpolation, N. Katz uses the fact that if $E_{/K}$ is an elliptic curve with complex multiplications in the quadratic field $F$, up to a suitable ...
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733 views

What is the smallest unsolved diophantine equation?

If $P=\sum_{\bf i} a_{\bf i}x^{\bf i}\in {\mathbb Z}[x_1,\dots,x_d]$, let $|P|=\sum_{\bf i}|a_{\bf i}|x^{\bf i}$ and $h(P)=|P|(2,\dots,2)$, so that there is only a finite number of $P$ with $h(P)\leq ...
15
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0answers
383 views

Étale cohomology of varieties in positive characteristic via singular cohomology

Suppose $X$ is a smooth scheme, not necessarily projective, over $\mathbb{Z}[1/N]$ for some integer $N\neq 0$. I would like to understand the cohomology groups $H^i_{ét}(X_{\overline{\mathbb{F}}_p}, \...
15
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0answers
511 views

Does every integer $n>1$ have the form $a^2+b^2+3^c+5^d$ with $a,b,c,d$ nonnegative integers?

Lagrange's four-square theorem states that every nonnegative integer is the sum of four squares. I have tried to replace two of the four squares by two powers. This leads to my following question: ...
15
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0answers
328 views

Complexity of a Fibonacci numbers discrete log variation

In my work I encountered the following FIBMOD PROBLEM: Given $k,m$ in binary, decide if there exists $n$ such that $\, F_n = k \,$ (mod $m$). Here $F_n$ is a Fibonacci number. This is a variation ...
15
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0answers
420 views

show that there exist $n$ such that $r|\binom{p^n}{q^n}$

Cross-Posted from Math Stackexchange Two positive integers $p,q$ and a prime $r$ are given, such that $r>p>q>1$. I have to show that there exist $n$ such that $$r|\binom{p^n}{q^n}$$ Should ...
15
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0answers
361 views

Relation between the Galois group of a polynomial and the symmetry of its roots

Let $f(x)$ be a polynomial with integer coefficients and non-zero discriminant (so each root of $f$ has multiplicity one). Consider the projective roots $\theta_1, \cdots, \theta_n$ of $f$, as ...
15
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0answers
614 views

Is this set computable?

The starting point of this question is the observation that the smallest positive integers $a,b,c$ satisfying $$\frac{a}{b+c} + \frac{b}{a+c} + \frac{c}{a+b} = 4$$ are absurdly high. This leads to ...
15
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0answers
429 views

Word complexity of primes mod 4

For an infinite binary word $w$, the word complexity $f_w(n)$ is defined as the number of different subwords of length $n$. The asymptotic behavior of this function is an important parameter of the ...
15
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0answers
921 views

Katz--Mazur for abelian varieties

Over $\mathbb Z$, there is a smooth DM stack $A_g$ classifying abelian varieties. Over $\mathbb Z[\frac 1N]$, there is finite etale cover $A_g(N)_{\mathbb Z[\frac 1N]}\to A_g\otimes\mathbb Z[\frac 1N]...
15
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0answers
350 views

What is the simplest known arithmetic definition of exponentiation?

For $n$ a natural number, let $E_n$ denote the set of bounded arithmetic formulas consisting of n alternating blocks of bounded quantifiers starting with an existential quantifier, followed by a ...
15
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0answers
494 views

For how many primes does an elliptic curve over a totally imaginary field have supersingular reduction?

An elliptic curve over a finite field, $k$, of characteristic p is called supersingular if it has no $p$-torsion over $k^{\mathrm{alg}}$, or equivalently, if $\mathrm{End}(E)$ is an order in a ...
15
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0answers
486 views

What can be the dimension of a pointless smooth proper Z-scheme?

What is the smallest dimension $d$ such that there is a smooth proper morphism $X \to \operatorname{Spec} \mathbb Z$ of relative dimension $d$, with $X$ nonempty, without a section? Of course, there ...
15
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0answers
611 views

Bloch-Kato conjecture and Wiles' numerical criterion

I already asked this question some days ago on https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/158747/bloch-kato-conjecture-and-wiles-numerical-criterion but didn't receive any response. In the ...

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