# Questions tagged [open-problems]

If it turns out that a problem is equivalent to a known open problem, then the open-problem tag is added. After that, the question essentially becomes, "What is known about this problem? What are some possible ways to approach this problem? What are some ways that people have tried to attack it ...

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### An open problem in Sobolev spaces

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ be a bounded domain. Suppose that there there is a bounded extension operator
$$
E:W^{1,p}(\Omega)\to W^{1,p}(\mathbb{R}^n)
\quad
\text{and}
\quad
E:W^{1,q}(\Omega)\to ...

**2**

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**0**answers

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### Is a maximal set of rectangles known for which Lebesgue’s Differentiation Theorem holds true?

Lebesgue's differentiation theorem states that if $x$ is a point in $\mathbb{R}^n$ and $f:\mathbb{R}^n\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ is a Lebesgue integrable function, then the limit of $\frac{\int_B f d\...

**7**

votes

**3**answers

400 views

### For what sets does the Lebesgue Differentiation Theorem hold in one dimension?

Lebesgue's differentiation theorem states that if $x$ is a point in $\mathbb{R}^n$ and $f:\mathbb{R}^n\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ is a Lebesgue integrable function, then the limit of $\frac{\int_B f d\...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

345 views

### Is it known how the Sigma Algebra generated by Jordan measurable sets compares to universally measurable sets and analytic sets?

Unlike the collection $L$ of Lebesgue measurable sets, the collection $J$ of Jordan measurable sets do not form a Sigma algebra. (A set is Jordan measurable if and only if its characteristic function ...

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**0**answers

393 views

### Is it still an open problem whether $\mathbb{R}^\omega$ is normal in the box topology?

On page 205 of his Topology book, James Munkres makes an interesting remark:
It is not known whether $\mathbb{R}^\omega$ is normal in the box topology. Mary-Ellen Rudin has shown that the answer ...

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votes

**2**answers

176 views

### Integral equality of 1st intrinsic volume of spheroid

Computations suggest that
$$\int_{0}^{\infty}\int_{0}^{\infty} \sqrt{x+y^2} \cdot e^{-\frac{1}{2}(\frac{x}{s}+s^2y^2)}dxdy=\frac{2}{s}+\frac{2s^2\arctan(\sqrt{s^3-1})}{\sqrt{s^3-1}}.$$
The question ...

**98**

votes

**1**answer

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### What is the definition of the function T used in Atiyah's attempted proof of the Riemann Hypothesis?

In Michael Atiyah's paper purportedly proving the Riemann hypothesis, he relies heavily on the properties of a certain function $T(s)$, known as the Todd function. My question is, what is the ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

349 views

### Updated background on Hilbert 16th problem?

What is the current situation of the second part of the Hilbert 16th problem? What are the most updated news on this problem?

**2**

votes

**1**answer

59 views

### Existence of a Lipschitz map from a positive measure set to a ball

Question. If $A\subset \mathbb{R}^n$ is any set of positive Lebesgue $n$-measure, does there exists a Lipschitz map $f:A\to\mathbb{R}^n$ such that $f(A)$ is a ball with the same measure?
In dimension ...

**-1**

votes

**2**answers

324 views

### What are some of the unsolved mathematical problems that we generally agree were posed before the beginning of the XX.-th century?

Because mathematics has been extremely well-developed in XX.-th and continues to do so in XXI.-th century and because there is an enormous number of open problems and conjectures and hypotheses posed ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

166 views

### A non-rational variety with a full exceptional collection?

Does there exist a smooth non-rational projective variety whose bounded derived category of coherent sheaves admits a full exceptional collection? I could not find any examples in the literature (for ...

**18**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Is there a known Turing machine which halts if and only if the Collatz conjecture has a counterexample?

Some of the simplest and most interesting unproved conjectures in mathematics are Goldbach's conjecture, the Riemann hypothesis, and the Collatz conjecture.
Goldbach's conjecture asserts that every ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

345 views

### What are some open problems in moduli spaces and moduli stacks?

I would like to know what are the open big and interesting problems related to moduli spaces and moduli stacks ?
Thanks in advance for your help.

**3**

votes

**0**answers

122 views

### Weak Leopoldt Conjecture for the Split Prime $\mathbb{Z}_p$-extension

In his 1973 Annals paper, Iwasawa proved that the weak Leopoldt Conjecture holds for the cyclotomic $\mathbb{Z}_p$-extension of any number field.
If $K$ is an imaginary quadratic field and $F/K$ is ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

189 views

### A question related to Conways 99 graph problem

I have observed that the number of triangles $\frac{vk}{6}$ of a strongly regular graph with parameters $(v,k,1,2)$ is given by the coefficient $2(k-1)$ in the molien series of the "4-D extraspecial ...

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votes

**0**answers

137 views

### Algebraic version of unilateral shift

It was confirmed that Wold-type decomposition can be extended from von Neumann algebras to Baer*-rings (see this paper). By algebraic tools the notion of unilateral shifts is successfully transmitted ...

**7**

votes

**4**answers

325 views

### Upper bound of the expectation of sum of the absolute value pairs

We have two arrays $A,B$ of length $n$. All values are i.i.d drawn from same distribution on $[0,1]$. If we sort $A,B$ in non-decreasing order and let $A_{(i)},B_{(i)}$ denote the i-th value in the ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

137 views

### Status of an open problem in isometric aspect of Banach space theory

The following open problem is taken from the book Open Problems in the Geometry and Analysis of Banach Spaces, page $40.$
Problem $84:$ Assume that $X$ is an infinite-dimensional separable Banach ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

507 views

### Status of the three-body problem

I find many numerical results on the three-body problem, but what is rigorously proved? Especially I would be interested in the parameter domains for which we have rigorous lower bounds on the ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

247 views

### Status of two Banach space theory open problems posted by Pełczyński

In the book 'Open Problems in the Geometry and Analysis of Banach Spaces', I am interested in the following two problems.
Problem $1$: Let $X$ be a separable infinite-dimensional Banach space that ...

**42**

votes

**13**answers

7k views

### PhD dissertations that solve an established open problem

I search for a big list of open problems which have been solved in a PhD thesis by the Author of the thesis (or with collaboration of her/his supervisor).
In my question I search for every possible ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

160 views

### Lattices that top is the top of its join-irreducibles, such that a random element is almost surely greater then any given join-irreducible

Let $(L,\leq,0,1)$ be a lattice, and let's denote by $JI(L)$ the set of its join-irreducibles (i.e. elements that are not the lowest grater bound of two other elements). We suppose that $\sup JI(L)=...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

140 views

### An upper bound for a vector with given norm 1 and norm 2

Suppose $X = (x_1, \ldots , x_n)$ is given and we know that $x_i$'s are nonnegative, $\sum_{i=1}^n x_i = n$ and $\sum_{i=1}^n x_i^2 = m $. Just by this information, is it possible to find a vector ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

160 views

### Is a stronger version of the Erdős-Turan conjecture on arithmetic progessions reasonable? (And related questions.)

Define the size, possibly $\infty$, of a set $S\subseteq \mathbb{N}$ as $|S|=\sum\limits_{n\in S} \frac{1}{n}$. Then the Erdős-Turan conjecture states that if $|S|=\infty$, S must contain arbitrarily ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

127 views

### A “conjectured” concentration inequality for operators, probably related with random matrix theory

I am working on some open problem. And I have reduced the original problem to the "conjecture" (actually I am not familiar with random matrix theory or other fields that may have such a result) as ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

280 views

### A possible dynamical approach to the “Invariant Subspace Problem”

In the literature, is there any paper or research investigating the invariant subspace problem with consideration of differential operators acting on an appropriate Sobolev space?In particular is ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

70 views

### Open problems concerning Araujo's biseparating maps

Araujo stated the following four open questions at the end of his paper, page $518$ and $519.$
Question $1:$ Assume that there exists a biseparating map $T:A^n(\Omega:E)\to A^m(\Omega',F)$ which is ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

525 views

### What is known about the relationship between Fermat's last theorem and Peano Arithmetic?

As far as I know, whether Fermat's Last Theorem is provable in Peano Arithmetic is an open problem. What is known about this problem?
In particular, what is known about the arithmetic systems $PA + \...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

190 views

### Open problems in the theory of manifolds relating to construction [closed]

A while ago I stumbled across a paper of Thurston: Some Simple Examples of Symplectic Manifolds, where Thurston constructs closed symplectic manifolds with no Kaehler structure. My question is: What ...

**10**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### What is the smallest sphere whose surface includes 100 integer points?

Let $S(r)$ be the surface of the origin-centered sphere in $\mathbb{R}^3$.
A point is an integer point if all its coordinates are integers.
What is the smallest radius $r_n$ such that $S(r_n)$ ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

321 views

### On a question of Coste & Roy from 1979

On page 44 of their 1979 paper, Topologies for real algebraic geometry, Coste & Roy define a structure sheaf on the real Zariski spectrum of a commutative ring (which can be regarded as the real ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

232 views

### Why are questions about taxicab numbers so difficult?

The generalized taxi cab number $\mathrm{Taxicab}(k, j, n)$ is the smallest positive integer such that it can be expressed as the sum of $j$ $k$-th powers in $n$ different ways.
We have the famous ...

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votes

**0**answers

244 views

### If $a^3+b^3+c^3=N$, then $x^3+y^3+z^3+t^3 = N$ in infinitely many ways?

It is well-known that,
$$a^3+b^3+c^3 = N\tag1$$
for $N=1,\,2$ is solvable in the integers in infinitely many ways . However, it is an open question (but is conjectured) that if for general $N$ it has ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

189 views

### Asymptotic form of pdf of Escape Time of arithmetic fBm

I am trying to apply the Girsanov formula and Doobs optional sampling theorem to obtain an asymptotic form of first passage density of an fbm process with drift, but the answer i am getting seems ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

187 views

### Portability of Thompson theorem about solvability to Moufang loops

Say we have a finite Moufang Loop $Q$, $|Q|<\infty$.
There is a theorem proved by Thompson that states:
Group $G$, $|G|<\infty$ is solvable $\iff$ $\forall a, b \in G \langle a, b\rangle$ is ...

**11**

votes

**3**answers

803 views

### Undecidable easy arithmetical statement

Is there a basic arithmetic statement which is known to be undecidable ?
By basic arithmetic statement I do mean an easy statement in the spirit of the Collatz conjecture . By the way is there some ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

128 views

### On statistical bases in Banach spaces

Let $K$ be a subset of the positive integers $\mathbb{N}$. For each $n\in \mathbb{N}$, $K_{n}$ denotes the set $\{k\in K: k\leq n\}$ and $|K_{n}|$ denotes the number of the elements in $K_{n}$. The ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

185 views

### Can one find a Jordan curve which has exactly one inscribed rectangle?

In On the number of inscribed squares of a simple closed curve in the plane it is shown that
Theorem: For every positive integer $n$ there is a simple closed curve in the
plane (which can be ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

147 views

### Equilaterally triangulated surfaces with prescribed boundary

There is a problem in Richard Kenyon's list which I would like to post here, because although I have thought about it from time to time, I have not been able to make the slightest progress on it:
...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

85 views

### What is an umbilic point of a convex polyhedron?

An umbilic point of a smooth ($C^2$) convex surface in Euclidean 3-space is a point where the principal curvatures are equal. Is there some good way to generalize this notion to convex polyhedra? See ...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

432 views

### Intrinsic vs Extrinsic geometry of convex surfaces

By Alexandrov's isometric embedding theorem, any locally convex metric prescribed on the sphere admits a realization as a convex surface in Euclidean 3-space, which, by Pogorelov's rigidity result, is ...

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votes

**0**answers

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### Converse to Euclid's fifth postulate

There is a fascinating open problem in Riemannian Geometry which I would like to advertise here because I do not think that it is as well-known as it deserves to be. Euclid's famous fifth postulate, ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

181 views

### Plank invariant measures on convex bodies

Let $K\subset R^2$ be a convex body, i.e., a compact convex set with interior points. A plank $P$ is the region between a pair of parallel lines in $R^2$. Let us say that $P$ intersects $K$ properly ...

**32**

votes

**0**answers

922 views

### Converse of the Archimedean property of the sphere

In his remarkable book On the Sphere and Cylinder, where he came tantalizingly close to discovering calculus, Archimedes showed that the area of the portion of the sphere contained between a pair of ...

**16**

votes

**1**answer

341 views

### Characterisation of bell-shaped functions

This is an open problem that I learned from Thomas Simon. I will completely understand if the question is judged as non-research level (and it is indeed not related to my research), but I believe a ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

191 views

### Does this idea give an algorithm for constructing Hadamard matrices?

Fedor Petrov's answer of my preceding question shows that my question reduces to the famous Hadamard conjecture about Hadamard matrices of order $4k$. So I decided to study this conjecture and I got ...

**13**

votes

**1**answer

479 views

### Does the image of the exponential map generate the group?

Let $G$ be a connected Fréchet-Lie group and let $\mathfrak g$ be its Lie algebra. Does the image $\exp(\mathfrak g) \subset G$ of the exponential map generate $G$?

**9**

votes

**4**answers

4k views

### Is there always one integer between these two rational numbers?

It appears that for each integer $k\geq2$, there is always one integer $c$ that satisfies the inequalities below. Can this be proved?
$$\frac{3^k-2^k}{2^k-1}<c\leq \frac{3^k-1}{2^k}.$$
Note that ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

539 views

### Who conjectured the Cartan determinant conjecture

The Cartan determinant conjecture states that every finite dimensional algebra of finite global dimension has the property that the determinant of its Cartan matrix is equal to one. Who stated this ...

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**0**answers

54 views

### Modular which is metrizing but does not satisfy the $\Delta_2$ condition

Let $\Phi$ be a nice Young function (N-function) and $(\Omega,\mathcal{F},P)$ a probability space such that either $P$ is diffuse on a set of non-zero probability or $P$ is purely atomic and there are ...