Questions tagged [open-problems]

If it turns out that a problem is equivalent to a known open problem, then the open-problem tag is added. After that, the question essentially becomes, "What is known about this problem? What are some possible ways to approach this problem? What are some ways that people have tried to attack it before, and with what results?"

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On improving the upper bound $I(m^2) \leq \frac{2p}{p+1}$, if $p^k m^2$ is an odd perfect number with special prime $p$ - Part II

(Preamble: This question is an offshoot of this answer to a closely related MSE question.) Denote the classical sum of the divisors of the positive integer $x$ by $\sigma(x)=\sigma_1(x)$ and the ...
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1answer
349 views

Polynomials, $3^x$ and the Collatz conjecture

$\DeclareMathOperator\Orb{Orb}\newcommand\abs[1]{\lvert#1\rvert}$The Collatz or the $3n+1$ conjecture is open. Are there non-trivial polynomials $f(x)\in\mathbb Z[x]$ and $g(x)\in\mathbb R[x]$ having ...
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570 views

Is Collatz conjecture known to be true for specific numbers?

The Collatz or the $3n+1$ conjecture is open. Is there a specific polynomial $f(x)\in\mathbb Z[x]$ whose range is unbounded for which every integer of form $|f(m)|$ at $m\in\mathbb Z$ satisfies $3n+1$...
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3answers
339 views

On odd perfect numbers $p^k m^2$ with special prime $p$ satisfying $m^2 - p^k = 2^r t$ - Part II

(Preamble: We have asked this same question in MSE two weeks ago, without getting any answers. We have therefore cross-posted it to MO, hoping that it gets answered here.) The topic of odd perfect ...
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95 views

On improving the upper bound $I(m^2) \leq \frac{2p}{p+1}$, if $p^k m^2$ is an odd perfect number with special prime $p$

(Preamble: This question is an offshoot of this answer to an MSE question with the same title.) Denote the classical sum of the divisors of the positive integer $x$ by $\sigma(x)=\sigma_1(x)$ and the ...
13
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2answers
701 views

Open problems in symbolic dynamics

I would like to know which are some noticeable open problems in symbolic dynamics, including substitution dynamics. I'm especially interested in connections with topological chaos of various forms. ...
2
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1answer
109 views

Planar subsets with many pairs of points on distance $1$

Let $X$ be a subset of $\mathbb R^2$ consisting of $n$ distinct points. Let $d_1(X)$ be the number of pairs of points of $X$ on distance $1$ from each other. Define $$d_1(n)=\sup_{X\subset \mathbb R^2|...
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0answers
87 views

Inscribed square and convexity

Let $b(X)$ be the boundary of any $X$ subset of the plane. Does there exist $A,B$ convex compact sets of the plane, such that $C:=A\setminus B$ is simply connected and not empty, and such that ...
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165 views

Model theory and dynamical system (open problems)

I am curious about the open problems which are between model theory and dynamical system. I mean the open problems that are interesting for both groups and there are some evidences showing there might ...
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1answer
218 views

Simple example of Hammerstein integral equation

I'm currently reading this paper (and working on a similar one). The main goal is to study the Hammerstein integral equation (in $\mathcal{C}(I,E))$: $$x(t) = \int_{0}^{t} K(t,s)f\big(s,x(s)\big)ds,\...
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1answer
433 views

Must Mersenne numbers be divisible by arbitrary large primes with exponent one?

Let $M_n$ denote the Mersenne numbers $M_n=2^n-1$. As $n$ varies, must $M_n$ be divisible by arbitrary large prime $p$ with exponent one, i.e. $p \mid M_n, p^2 \nmid M_n$? In other words, must the ...
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86 views

Is the unit-stick number of a knot equal to its stick number?

Define the unit-stick number $\sigma_1(K)$ of a knot $K$ to be the fewest unit-length sticks that can realize $K$. Clearly $\sigma_1(K)$ is at least the stick number $\sigma(K)$. It is known that the ...
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848 views

0's in 815915283247897734345611269596115894272000000000

Is 40 the largest number for which all the 0 digits in the decimal form of $n!$ come at the end? Motivation: My son considered learning all digits of 40! for my birthday. I told him that the best way ...
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153 views

Factoring integers of the form $n=p q^2$ using elliptic curves

We got argument and strong experimental support that integers of the form $n=p q^2$ can be factored using elliptic curves easier than general integers Q1 Is this known? Added This is known since at ...
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1answer
308 views

Cramer–Castillon problem like

Special case of Golden ratio as a property of conic section (is it known?) as follows: Let $ABC$ be arbitrary triangle and $DEF$ is the its tangential triangle. Let $CF$ meets $AB$ at $G$ and $BE$ ...
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1answer
999 views

Normal numbers, Liouville function, and the Riemann Hypothesis

This is a question about whether or not some number $\lambda^*$ is normal in base 2. More specifically, I am wondering if $\lambda^*$ is not normal. Proving it is normal would be next to impossible, ...
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261 views

Dense sets in $\Bbb{R}^2$ with rational distance

We call a subset $S\subset \Bbb{R}^2$ rationally distanced if all $s_1,s_2 \in S$ have rational Euclidean distance. The Erdos-Ulam conjecture asks if there is a dense subset of $\Bbb{R}^2$ which is ...
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On RH in the Clay Institute list

As everybody knows, the Riemann Hypothesis is one of the problems of the millenium raised by the Clay Institute. Looking at the "official formulation" of various problems, say for instance ...
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109 views

How small the radical of $xyz(x+y+z)$ can be infinitely?

This is an open problem. Let $x,y,z$ be coprime integers (not necessarily pairwise coprime) and no proper subset sum of $\{x,y,z,-(x+y+z)\}$ is zero. For a quadruple $(x,y,z,-(x+y+z))$ define the ...
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338 views

Open problems in matroid theory

I read Oxley's book on matroid theory and found the theory fascinating. At the end, Oxley stated some open problems and conjectures in matroid theory. Are there any modern lists about such problems? ...
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271 views

How to put a monetary incentive on an open research problem? [closed]

Since the old days, many famous mathematicians have been attaching monetary rewards to problems. I would like to put monetary bounties on some research mathematics problems. Some of those problems ...
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2answers
891 views

Profound but not popular mathematical topics and notions

The algebraic Theory of Invariants used to be a hot topic until David Hilbert proved his two theorems about invariants. Then for tens of years, the popularity of the topic went down a long time before ...
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98 views

Two more counterexamples to a conjecture from 1975 about hamiltonicity of digraphs

Question from 2013 gives one counterexample to Nash-Williams's conjecture 1975 about hamiltonicity of dense digraphs. In the linked answer, @LouisD "reverse engineered" the counterexample ...
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593 views

Foundational results dependent on/equivalent to the continuum hypothesis or its negation?

I remember at a certain point early in my mathematical studies learning that the Axiom of Choice is equivalent to the following statement on Cartesian products: If $\{ X_i \}_{i \in I}$ is any ...
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92 views

Frechet-Urysohn quotient of second countable locally compact Hausdorff space

In this paper from 2010 https://cmuc.karlin.mff.cuni.cz/pdf/cmuc1001/arhangav.pdf Arhangelskii asks if there is a quotient of a second countable locally compact Hausdorff space which is Frechet-...
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231 views

Heuristic for a density conjecture related to the Collatz $(3x+1)$-problem

First, some notation. Define $T(n)$ over $n\in \mathbb{N}$ as: $$ T(n) = \left\{ \begin{array}{} 3n+1, & \text{if $n$ is odd}\ \\ n/2, & \text{if $n$ is even} \end{array} \right. $$ ...
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2answers
271 views

Generalized figures of constant width

Is it known which plane figures $Q$ can rotate touching three given circles $A$, $B$, and $C$? This question was asked by Lazar Lyusternik in 1946, there is only one reference to this paper that ...
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2answers
269 views

Basic research problems references [closed]

I have been looking for research problems in pure mathematics that I can try to solve for publishing papers. I am quite aware that it takes a lot of time and effort to get to a level where I can do ...
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2answers
615 views

Which curves and surfaces are realizable by linkages? references?

Ok, so I try to formulate rigorously the question in the title, for which I am asking for references. My definitions may be flawed, so feel free to adjust/correct them! I care about dimensions 2 and 3 ...
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78 views

Effective radius of section of a convex set compared to that of the convex itself

The effective radius $er(A)$ of a $n$-solid $A$, is defined by Schramm (see the question by Gil Kalai Volumes of Sets of Constant Width in High Dimensions) to be the radius of the $n$-ball that has ...
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10answers
4k views

List of long open, elementary problems which are computational in nature

I would like to ask a question of a similar vein to this question. Question: I'm asking for a list of long open problems which are computational in nature which a beginning graduate student can ...
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205 views

Isometries on the unit sphere

Suppose that $X$ and $Y$ are two Banach spaces, $S_{X}$ and $S_{Y}$ their unit spheres, and $f$ an onto isometry between $S_X$ and $S_Y$. Does it follow that $X$ and $Y$ are isometric?
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1answer
490 views

Has Pillai conjecture been proven?

I found the paper https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00698687v9/document which claims the proof of Pillai conjecture. However, it is not mentioned anywhere that it has been proved. It's stated ...
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2answers
715 views

Conjectures and open problems in representation theory [closed]

Are there very famous open problems or conjectures in representation theory, or in enumerative geometry, like the volume conjecture in topology?
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1answer
2k views

Updates to Stanley's 1999 survey of positivity problems in algebraic combinatorics?

[I am a co-moderator of the recently started Open Problems in Algebraic Combinatorics blog and as a result starting doing some searching for existing surveys of open problems in algebraic ...
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303 views

When do two knots have isomorphic fundamental bikeis?

A kei, also known as an involutive (or involutory) quandle, is a quandle $(Q,*)$ satisfying the involution condition that $(x*y)*y=x$ for all $x$ and $y$. Just like we can define a fundamental ...
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2answers
346 views

Is every finite-order unimodular matrix conjugate to a $0,1,-1$ matrix?

Problem. Given a matrix $A\in\mathrm{GL}(n,\mathbb{Z})$ such that $A^k=1$ for some $k\geq 1$, is there a matrix $g\in\mathrm{GL}(n,\mathbb{Z})$ such that $gAg^{-1}$ has only $0$, $1$, and $-1$ as ...
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313 views

Is it an open problem whether fast-growing hierarchies can be defined without fundamental sequences?

Googology Wiki says this, concerning the relation between fast-growing hierarchies defined for all countable ordinals, and the existence of a system of assigning a canonical fundamental sequence to ...
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1answer
2k views

What's an example of an $\infty$-topos not equivalent to sheaves on a Grothendieck site?

My question is as in the title: Does anyone have an example (supposing one exists) of an $\infty$-topos which is known not to be equivalent to sheaves on a Grothendieck site? An $\infty$-topos is as ...
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9answers
5k views

Decision problems for which it is unknown whether they are decidable

In computability theory, what are examples of decision problems of which it is not known whether they are decidable?
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1answer
657 views

A question regarding Kadison-Kaplansky idempotent conjecture (A nearest group element $g$ to a nontrivial self adjoint unitary element u )

Edit: According to answer and comments by Prof. Valette we edite the question. The Kadison Kaplansky conjecture says: Kadison-Kaplansky conjecture: If $G$ is a torsion-free discrete group then $C^*_{\...
8
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1answer
430 views

What is the state of research on finding all Prime Knots with 17 Crossings?

In this 1998 journal paper, all the prime knots with 16 or fewer crossings are found (some of which were found earlier by others). There are over 1.7 million such knots. But the prime knots with 17 ...
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1answer
405 views

Which knot invariants have no known diagram-independent descriptions?

Many knot invariants in knot theory are discovered by finding a property of knot diagrams which is invariant under the three Reidemeister moves. Now in principle, any knot invariant can be described ...
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10k views

Why polynomials with coefficients $0,1$ like to have only factors with $0,1$ coefficients?

Conjecture. Let $P(x),Q(x) \in \mathbb{R}[x]$ be two monic polynomials with non-negative coefficients. If $R(x)=P(x)Q(x)$ is $0,1$ polynomial (coefficients only from $\{0,1\}$), then $P(x)$ and $Q(x)$ ...
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1answer
72 views

The Total Graph is similar to a line graph

Consider the total graph of a regular graph. From the structure, it seems that it has a similar structure to the line graph ( two different sub-cliques joining at a single point) except that, in ...
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0answers
229 views

How many solutions of x^3 +y^3 = z^3+3 are known? [duplicate]

I've been told that there is reason to think that the equation $x^3 + y^3 = z^3 + 3$ has solutions in positive integers other than $$4^3 + 4^3 = 5^3 +3.$$ Can someone tell me the current status of ...
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476 views

A cohomology associated to a (not necessarily integrable) distribution (Hilbert 16th problem and dynamical Lefschetz trace formula 2)

Let $(M,D)$ be a pair consisting of a manifold $M$ and a distribution $D$ on $M$. The de Rham complex $\Omega^*(M)$ has the following subcomplex $$\Omega^*(M,D)=\{ \alpha \in \Omega^*(M)\mid \alpha_{|...
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1answer
202 views

Hyperbolic groups and spaces of negative curvature

Mikhail Gromov states that he "tried for about 10 years to prove that every hyperbolic group is realizable by a space of negative curvature" in his interview with Martin Raussen and Christian Skau (...
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167 views

On the convergence of $\sum_{n\geq 1} \frac{\sin (2^n)}{n^s}$

What is the radius of convergence of the aforementioned series ? If I recall correctly, I once saw a post here on MO claiming that it converges for $\Re(s) > 1/2$, but I can't seem to find the post ...
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641 views

Hilbert 16th problem and dynamical Lefschetz trace formula

I would like to apply the known version of the conjectural formula (11) page !0 of the paper Number theory and dynamical Lefschetz trace formula. Disclaimer: I do not have a complete ...

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