# Questions tagged [model-theory]

Model theory is the branch of mathematical logic which deals with the connection between a formal language and its interpretations, or models.

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### What is the theory of the random poset?

$\DeclareMathOperator\Th{Th}$The random poset is the Fraisse limit of the class of finite posets, just like the random graph is the Fraisse limit of the class of finite graphs? That is, the random ...
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### Axiomatizable classes in second and higher-order logics

I asked this on math stack exchange, but there were no answers. I want to know, are there more axiomatizable classes as you increase the order of the logic. So, for example, are there classes of ...
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### Testing whether $e^x+ax^2+bx+c$ has a zero

What is the simple test with exponential polynomials to determine whether $$f(x)=e^x+ax^2+bx+c$$ has a positive zero? This was prompted by the question about discriminants here. We have an ineffective ...
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### Compactness number for a fragment of second-order logic

Previously asked and bountied without response at MSE. This question is a companion to this one, about a tame(?) fragment of second-order logic with the standard semantics, $\mathsf{SOL}$, motivated ...
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### Which first-order theories admit a compact-like superstructure?

Positive set theory is an approach to rectifying Russel's paradox by restricting the syntactic form of formulas for which we allow comprehension. It can be motivated by the construction of certain ...
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### How many steps does it take to “Tarski-Vaughtify” second-order logic?

Given a regular logic $\mathcal{L}$, let $\preccurlyeq_\mathcal{L}$ be the usual elementary submodelhood relation for $\mathcal{L}$. There is also a separate submodelhood relation coming from the ...
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### Are there any 1-decidable algebraic extensions of $\mathbb{Q}$ which are not decidable?

A model $M$ is decidable if the set of all first-order formulas which are true in $M$ is a recursive set. And a model is $1$-decidable if the set of all existential formulas which are true in $M$ is ...
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### Are partial elements necessary in boolean-valued models?

It seems to me that there is a difference in the treatment of "partial" elements in boolean-valued models in set theory vs topos theory: in set theory, one usually only considers "...
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### How hard can it be to extract SOP from an unstable NIP theory?

A very fundamental result of Shelah in neostability theory is the fact that any unstable NIP theory has an instance of the strict order property, a formula $\varphi(x,y)$ (with $x$ and $y$ possibly ...
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### Boolean valued models in a general setting

It is well known that Boolean valued models play significant roles for set-theoretic purposes. But how well-studied are Boolean valued models in a more general setting, as models for random first-...
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### Is $\mathsf{ZFC+V=L}$ consistently $\omega$-complete?

This was previously asked and bountied on MSE: For brevity, let $T$ be $\mathsf{ZFC+V=L}$. Say that an extension of $\mathsf{ZFC}$ is $\omega$-complete iff it has exactly one $\omega$-model up to ...
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### How special is first-order $\mathsf{PA}$?

This is a modified version of a question which was asked and bountied at MSE without success. Below, "$\mathsf{PA}$" refers to first-order Peano arithmetic. There are various "...
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### Can a nonstandard model of $\mathsf{PA}$ be “$\Delta^1_1$-well-ordered?”

This was asked and bountied at MSE with no response: My question is the following: Is there a nonstandard model $\mathcal{M}\models\mathsf{PA}$ such that $\mathcal{M}$ has no $\Delta^1_1$-with-...
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### What is the lowest complexity definition of $\mathbb{Z}$ in an infinite algebraic extension of $\mathbb{Q}$?

In 2009, Jochen Koenigsmann showed that $\mathbb{Z}$ is universally definable in the field $\mathbb{Q}$. And in 2012, Jennifer Park proved a result which implies that $\mathbb{Z}$ is $\exists\forall$-...
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### Is this theory the complete theory of the real ordered field?

We know that the real ordered field can be characterized up to isomorphism as a complete ordered field. However this is a second order characterization. That raises the following question. Consider ...
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### What is the lowest complexity definition of $\mathbb{Z}$ in an infinite extension of $\mathbb{Q}$

In 2009, Jochen Koenigsmann showed that $\mathbb{Z}$ is universally definable in the field $\mathbb{Q}$. And in 2012, Jennifer Park proved a result which implies that $\mathbb{Z}$ is $\exists\forall$-...
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### Is there a metamathematical $V$?

As with many of you, I've been following Peter Scholze's recent question about universes with great interest. In ring theory, we don't often have to deal with proper classes, but they occasionally ...
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### When are classes with prescribed reducts “pseudo”-elementary?

Let $\mathsf{Set}$ be the class of all sets and let $\mathcal{L}$ be a first-order language. Let $M \subseteq \mathsf{Set}$ be a set of $\mathcal{L}$-structures and let \mathfrak{Th}_{\in}(M) = \\ \{...
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### What are the handy, go-to methods of proving consistency of a proof system?

Suppose you face a proof system portraying some notion or knowledge that you haven't encountered, or others haven't studied before. What would be your first attempts to examine the consistency of the ...
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### Is there a pseudofinite group with a quantifier-free instance of the order property?

Recall that a group $G$ is pseudofinite if every first-order sentence $\varphi$ (in the language of groups) satisfied in $G$ is also satisfied in some finite group. Also recall that an instance of the ...
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### Is $\mathbb{Z}$ universally definable in any number fields other than $\mathbb{Q}$?

In 2009, Jochen Koenigsmann showed that $\mathbb{Z}$ is universally definable in the field $\mathbb{Q}$. My question is, are there any other number fields in which $\mathbb{Z}$ is universally ...
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### Definability up to isomorphism versus definability of an isomorphic copy

Question: Is it provable in ZFC that every structure that is ordinal definable up to isomorphism has an ordinal definable isomorphic copy? If not, what are some counterexamples? All structures are ...
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### How big is the least non-$\Sigma^1_1$-pointwise-definable ordinal?

There's a large countable ordinal which has cropped up (as a lower bound!) in a computable structure theory problem I'm playing with. At present I don't really understand how big it is, and I'm ...
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### Intuition behind Boolean-valued models of set theory

$\DeclareMathOperator\Card{Card}$The book Forcing Eine Einführung in die Mathematik der Unabhängigkeitsbeweise by Hoffmann provides an intuition behind boolean valued models of set theory which I will ...
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### Reference requestion: theorem guaranteeing self-embeddings of expansions of $\mathit{Ord}$

This is an attempt to locate a theorem I vaguely remember but cannot find (which arose in the context of Consistency of non-trivial elementary embedding $j : \mathit{Ord} \to \mathit{Ord}$ and ...
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### What logic characterizes relative intrinsic complexity in set recursion?

Short version: Is there an analogue of the Ash-Knight-Manasse-Slaman/Chisholm theorem for $E$-recursion? Long version: I'm interested in "$E$-recursive structure theory," but it's not ...
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### Does the random graph interpret the random directed graph?

The random graph is the Fraisse limit of the class of finite graphs, the random directed graph is the Fraisse limit of the class of directed graphs, a directed graph is just a set with a binary ...
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### How do “Galois-type” and “saturation” for AECs generalize “type” and “saturation” in first-order model theory?

As I'm not allowed to ask a new question due to limit reached matter, I still want to EDIT this one as communicated with @Alex Kruckman in the comments below. I would like to understand the ...
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### Forcing, a technical detail

In the snippet below from Shelah's book P&I Forcing, in the definition 5.2(2) I do not follow why in this sentence [naturally extended to include $N\prec (H(\mu^\dagger),\epsilon),\mu\in N$] $N$ ...
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### Can two versions of $\omega_1^{CK}(\mathsf{Ord})$ ever coincide?

The goal of this question is to fill in the gap in this old answer of mine. For a transitive set $M$, thought of as an $\{\in\}$-structure, we define the following ordinals (this is not the notation ...
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### Indiscernible sequences in o-minimal structures

Is there an explicit characterisation of indiscernible sequences in o-minimal structures ? Say for expansions of the reals or $R_{an}$ ? Is there a characterisation of o-minimality in terms of ...
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### Is there a complete characterization of ordered fields without definable proper subfields?

$\mathbb{Q}$ has no proper subfields. As a result, all ordered fields elementarily equivalent to $\mathbb{Q}$ have no proper subfields which are first-order definable without parameters. And by the ...
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### Is there a “listable” structure of computable dimension $\omega$?

Say that a (countable, computable-language) structure $\mathfrak{A}$ has computable dimension $\omega$ iff there are infinitely many computable copies of $\mathfrak{A}$ up to computable isomorphism. ...
### Does “productive = dimension $\omega$” for computable structures?
In analogy with the terminology for sets, say that a (countable, computable language) structure $\mathfrak{A}$ is productive if there is a computable way to properly expand any computable list of ...
Say that a set $X$ is $\Pi^1_1$-pseudofinite if every first-order sentence $\varphi$ with a model with underlying set $X$ has a finite model. The existence of infinite $\Pi^1_1$-pseudofinite sets is ...