Algebraic and geometric theory of quadratic forms and symmetric bilinear forms, e.g., values attained by quadratic forms, isotropic subspaces, the Witt ring, invariants of quadratic forms, the discriminant and Clifford algebra of a quadratic form, Pfister forms, automorphisms of quadratic forms.

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Let $B_1,\ldots,B_s$ be $(s\times s)$ symmetric real matrices and $x=\left(x_1,\ldots,x_s\right)^\prime$ a $(s\times 1)$ vector of unknowns. Is there a way or reference theory for studying the ...
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### Witt ring of a field with Pythagoras number $2$

I am currently looking at a few simple properties of the Witt ring of a field $K$ (by which I mean the ring of Witt classes of quadratic forms, not the ring of Witt vectors), which are clearly true ...
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### The covariance matrix of quadratic form, without normal assumption

Assume $\mathbf{x}$ is a random vector with mean $\mathbf{\mu}$ and covariance matrix $\mathbf{\Sigma}$. Symmetric matrices $\mathbf{A}$ and $\mathbf{B}$ are given. Without assuming normality, how to ...
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### Generators of the orthogonal group of a quadratic form in odd dimension in characteristic 2

In characteristic not $2$, the Theorem of Cartan-Dieudonné states: [Grove, Theorem 6.6]: Let $q$ be a nondegenerate symmetric quadratic form of dimension $n$ in characteristic not $2$. Then every ...
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### Is the map $GL_n(\mathbb{Z})\to GL_n(\mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z})$ surjective?

Suppose $F$ is a field. I want to know whether the map $GL_n(GW(F))\to GL_n(W(F))$ is surjective, where $GW$ means Grothendieck-Witt and $W$ means Witt. In the case $F$ is algebraic closed, it reduces ...
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### finding automorphisms of binary hermitian forms

Set $K$ be an imaginary quadratic field and $\mathcal{O}_K$ be its ring of integers. Write $\mathcal{H}(\mathcal{O}_K)$ for the set of hermitian 2 x 2 matrices with entries in $\mathcal{O}_K$. Now, we ...
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### Under what conditions is the polynomial of degree $6$ irreducible?

Let $k$ be a perfect field of characteristic $p \neq 2,3$ such that $\omega := \sqrt{1} \in k$, where $\omega \neq 1$. Consider an absolutely irreducible (not necessarily homogenous) quadratic ...
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### Finding Motzkin's original paper on copositive quadratic forms

I am currently in the process of writing my thesis about copositive matrices and would like to write a chronological narrative about the ascent of these matrices to the prominent place they have today ...
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### binary quadratic forms order four in the form class group not having desired coefficients

I have been looking at binary quadratic forms for a question on MSE, If a binary quadratic form primitively represents $n$ and $n^3$, must it be the identity form?, about forms representing a prime (...
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### A list of proofs of the Hasse–Minkowski theorem

I am currently doing a project in which I intend to include the most insightful possible proof of the Hasse–Minkowski theorem (also known as the Hasse principle for quadratic forms, among other names) ...
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### Modular forms and number of representations by binary quadratic forms

Let $Q(x,y)$ be a positive definite quadratic form of discriminant $d$. Let $r_Q(n)$ be the number of solutions of $Q(x,y)=n$. It is known that the function $f_Q(\tau)=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}r_Q(n)q^n$ is ...
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### The splitting pattern of the Killing form of an algebraic group and the Tits index

Let us assume that $G$ is an anisotropic semisimple, connected algebraic group over a field $k$ of characteristic zero. Let $K_G$ denote the class of its Killing form in the Witt ring of $k$. Let $X$ ...
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### Rational quadratic form with given determinant and Hasse-Witt invariant

Let $Q$ be the diagonal quadratic form denoted by $$Q(x_1, \ldots, x_k) = \sum_{i = 1}^{k} d_i x_i^2, \quad x_i \in \mathbb{Q}, \quad d_i > 0$$ Also let ${\mathbb{Q}^{*}}^2$ be the set of nonzero ...
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I get stuck on Example 93:5 in O'Meara's book "Introduction to quadratic forms", where it is explained a method of find a weight generator of a quadratic lattice. In this question I assume ...
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### How do you solve this quadratic matrix equation?

could you please help me solve this quadratic matrix equation? I look around, seems like there is no general solution for it.. $$-BX^2 + X - C = 0$$ for X, B and C are (3x3) matrices. B and C are ...
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### Correspondence between binary quadratic representations and proper ideals of quadratic number fields

$\DeclareMathOperator\SL{SL}\DeclareMathOperator\Aut{Aut}$Fix $d < 0$, a fundamental quadratic discriminant and $n$ a positive integer. Suppose $Q$ is a primitive binary quadratic form of ...
### Close integer solutions to $ab-cd=1$?
I am looking for infinite set of Diophantine solutions. Suppose we require $$0<\min(a,d)<\max(a,d)<\min(b,c)<\max(b,c)\leq\sqrt 2\min(a,d)$$ $$a,b,c,d\in\mathbb Z$$ then can we still find ...