# Questions tagged [quadratic-forms]

Algebraic and geometric theory of quadratic forms and symmetric bilinear forms, e.g., values attained by quadratic forms, isotropic subspaces, the Witt ring, invariants of quadratic forms, the discriminant and Clifford algebra of a quadratic form, Pfister forms, automorphisms of quadratic forms.

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### Squares in skew fields of dimension 2 over a sub skew field

Let $\ell$ be a skew field (i.e., a division ring), and let $k$ be a sub skew field, such that the dimension of $\ell$ as a left vector space over $k$ is $2$.
Then if $a \in \ell \setminus k$, we can ...

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### Sets represented by integral quadratic forms

Let $f(x) = x^\intercal A x$ be a positive definite integral quadratic form on $d$ variables. A positive integer $n$ is said to be represented by $f$ if $f(x) = n$ for some $x \in \mathbb Z^d$. A set ...

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### How to express a quadratic polynomial exactly as a power series [closed]

I claim, for $\operatorname{artanh}(\rho) = \frac{1}{2} \ln\left(\frac{1+\rho}{1-\rho}\right)$, i.e., the inverse hyperbolic tangent function, the following holds approximately under assumptions given ...

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### Automorphism groups in class sets of ternary lattices

Let $\Lambda$ be an integral lattice in some definite ternary quadratic space $(V,Q)$ over $\mathbb{Q}$.
Consider the usual class set $\text{Cl}(\Lambda) = O(V)\backslash\text{Gen}(\Lambda)$, i.e. the ...

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### Low rank matrices which preserve maximizers of quadratic form

Suppose $x, y \in \{0,1\}^d$ are binary vectors. For a matrix $M$ consider the quadratic form,
\begin{align}
x^T M y + (\mathbb{1} - x)^T M (\mathbb{1} - y)
\end{align}
Does there exist an $M$ such ...

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### A possible variant of Zagier's one-sentence proof for Fermat's sum of two squares theorem?

Is it possible to modify Zagier's one-sentence proof of Fermat's sum of two squares theorem (see here) to prove certain non-trivial cases of Jacobi's four-square theorem (see here)?
Let $p$ be a prime ...

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### Convergence in probability of quadratic form with positive mean

Let $\boldsymbol{X}_n\in\mathbb{R}^n$ be a sequence of Gaussian random vectors with independent entries, such that $X_{n,i}\sim \mathcal{N}(\mu_i,\sigma^2)$ (that is, all entries of the $n$th vector ...

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### Totally isotropic space for bilinear pairing over ring

A duplicate of this:
Consider the following well-known inequality: Let $b$
be a non-degenerate symmetric bilinear pairing over a (finite-dimensional) $\mathbb F$-vector space $V$ and $W$
a totally ...

2
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1
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### Estimate for the operator $A A_D^{-1}$

Let $O\subset\mathbb{R}^d$
be a bounded domain of the class $C^{1,1}$
(or $C^2$
for simplicity). Let the operator $A_D$
be formally given by the differential expression $A=-\operatorname{div}g(x)\...

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### On the equation $q(\mathbf{x}) = 1$ for $q$ a quadratic form

Let $q(\mathbf{x}) = q(x_1, \cdots, x_n)$ be a quadratic form with integer coefficients. For $n \geq 3$, is there a reasonable theory for the set of integer solutions to the equation
$$\displaystyle q(...

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### A cubic equation, and integers of the form $a^2+32b^2$

I am trying to determine whether there are any integers $x,y,z$ such that
$$
1+2 x+x^2 y+4 y^2+2 z^2 = 0. \quad\quad\quad (1)
$$
It is clear that $x$ is odd. We can consider this equation as quadratic ...

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### Quadratic surjective map between spheres

The quadratic function $f:\mathbb R^4\to\mathbb R^3$
$$f(a,b,c,d)=\begin{bmatrix} 2(ac + bd)&2(ad - bc)&a^2 + b^2 - c^2 - d^2\end{bmatrix}$$
surjectively maps the sphere $S^3$ to the sphere $S^...

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### Squares in division ring extensions $\ell/k$ with $[\ell:k] = 2$

Let $k$ and $\ell$ be division rings such that $\ell$ contains $k$, and $[\ell : k] = 2$. When do I know that there is an element $a \in k$ such that $x^2 = a$ has solutions in $\ell$, but not in $k$?

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### Riemannian geometry applied to diophantine equations

I am looking for a book or lecture notes on applications of riemannian geometry to diophantine equations. The main motivation is the following : suppose i have a quadratic form $q$ on $\mathbf{Q}^n$ ...

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### Integers $8k+3>0$ not represented by $2x^2+4y^2+4yz+9z^2$ over the integers

Oeis A306970 lists positive integers of the form $8k+3$ which are not reprented by
$$f(x,y,z):=2x^2+4y^2+4yz+9z^2$$
over the integers as $3,43,163,907$. It says this list may not be complete and ...

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### Positive definite quadratic form algorithm

Let $f(x,y)= ax^2+bxy+cy^2$, or similarly denote it by $(a,b,c)$. This question is about the case $(1,0,p)$ where $p$ is prime. Suppose I have one solution $\bar{x}_1=(x_0,y_0)$ for $f(x,y)=m$ for ...

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### Positive 4-form

Denote by $W$ the space of all symmetric bilinear forms on $\mathbb{R}^n$.
Let $Q$ be a quadratic form on $W$.
Suppose that $Q(b)\geqslant 0$ for any $b\in W$ such that $b(X,Y)=\ell(X)\cdot\ell(Y)$ ...

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1
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### number of representations by sums of three squares (with coefficients)

There are formulas for counting the number of representations of a positive integer $N$ as a sum of three integer squares. What is a reference for
$$
\#\{(x,y,z)\in \mathbf{N}^3: 5^4 x^2+y^2+z^2=N\}
?$...

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### Is there a way to linearize matrix quadratic forms?

Say $x$ is a random vector in $\mathbb{R}^n$. Then, given a (deterministic) symmetric real positive definite matrix $A$, if we want to calculate the expectation of the quadratic form, we can use the ...

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### Positive quadratic polynomial

Let $S$ be solutions of a system of quadratic polynomials on $\mathbb{R}^n$.
Suppose $q$ is another quadratic polynomial such that $q|_S\geqslant 0$.
Is it possible to find a polynomial $\tilde q$ ...

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### Sufficient condition for pair of real quadrics to have real intersection

In the following, when I talk about the zero of a homogeneous polynomial I always mean a projective zero.
Let $ q $ be a real quadric. Then $ q $ has a real zero if and only if $ q $ has indefinite ...

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### Intersection of a hyper-ellipsoid with an hyperplane

Let consider an hyper-ellipse $\mathcal{Q}$ in $\mathbb{R}^n$ given by $x^\top Q x = K$ and a hyperplane $\mathcal{H}$ in $\mathbb{R}^n$ given by $a^\top x = b$. We assume that $Q \in \mathbb{R}^{n \...

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### Pairs of quadratic forms and $\mathbf{A}^8/\mathrm{SL}_2^{\times 3}$

$\newcommand{\std}{\mathrm{std}}\newcommand{\SL}{\mathrm{SL}}\newcommand{\mmod}{/\!\!/}$Fix the base field to be the complex numbers $\mathbf{C}$. Let $\std = \mathbf{A}^2$ denote the standard ...

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votes

1
answer

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### Quadratic refinements of a bilinear form on finite abelian groups

$\DeclareMathOperator\Hom{Hom}$Let $A$ be a finite abelian group and $\text{Sym}(A)$ the (abelian) group of symmetric bilinear forms over $A$ valued in $\mathbb{R}/\mathbb{Z}$.
A quadratic function on ...

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### Genus of quadratic form

I am trying to understand the genus of a lattice from Conway and Sloane textbook. They said two quadratic forms $Q_1$ and $Q_2$ lie in the same genus if they are equivalent over $\mathbb{R}$ and over ...

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### Fields in which $ -1 $ can't be written as sum of two square elements

We say a field $F$ has the property $*$ if the equation $x^2 + y^2=-1$ has no solution in $F$. For an example if $F$ is a subfield of real numbers then $F$ satisfies $*$. On the other hand if $ F $ is ...

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### Is a Lagrangian subgroup of a metric group isomorphic to its quotient?

A metric group is a finite abelian group $G$ with a quadratic function
$$q:G\rightarrow \mathbb R/\mathbb Z\;,$$
that is,
$$M(a,b):= q(a+b)-q(a)-q(b)$$
is bilinear in $a$ and $b$ [edit: and non-...

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### Automorphism group of conic bundle fixing the base

Let $\pi: X \to \mathbb{P}^n$ be a conic bundle over an (algebraically closed) field $k$. Let $g \in Aut(X)$ so that $g$ preserves the fibres of $\pi$. Clearly $g$ lives inside $PGL_3(k(\mathbb{P}^n))$...

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### Are the following two characterisations of symplectic modules, using the language of form rings, the same?

Page 205 of the book Classical Groups and Algebraic K-Theory defines a symplectic module to be an arbitrary quadratic module $(M,h,q)$ over a form ring $(R,\Lambda)$ with $(J,\varepsilon)$ where $J=\...

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### An arithmetic problem involving a system of equations

Fix a positive integer $r$. Describe the solutions to the system of equations given by:
$$\begin{equation}\sum_{1\leq i\leq r}X_i^2\equiv0\pmod{X_k}(1\leq k\leq r)\end{equation}$$
Example: In the case ...

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### Is there any point in considering Form Rings when 2 admits an inverse?

In the study of quadratic spaces over general rings, there is a type of scalar which people consider called a
Form ring $(R,\Lambda)$ relative to some anti-automorphism denoted $(-)^J:R\to R$ and ...

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### Epstein zeta function for non-fundamental discriminant to L-series

Let $Q(x,y) = ax^2+b xy + cy^2$ be a primitive integral positive-definite quadratic form, with associated number field $K$. If $D=b^2-4ac$ is a fundamental discriminant, then it's well-known that $$\...

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### Schur multiplier of a Chevalley group of type $D_5$

$\DeclareMathOperator\EO{EO}\DeclareMathOperator\SO{SO}\DeclareMathOperator\St{St}\DeclareMathOperator\Sp{Sp}$This is sort of a follow up question to my post here regarding the commutator subgroup of $...

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### Is an orthogonal direct sum decomposition with respect to two quadratic forms necessarily unique up to isomorphism

Consider two quadratic forms $Q$ and $P$ over a finite dimensional vector space $V$ over a quadratically closed (or perhaps Pythagorean) field $F$. If $V$ can be decomposed as $V = V_1 \oplus V_2 \...

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### Criterion for unicity and existence of pre-image in multivariate cryptography

Repost from math.stackexchange since no one could help me there and it concerns my research.
I am reading Ding's Multivariate Public Key Cryptosystems and in the book the author explains the so-called ...

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### Computing a Commutator Subgroup

$\DeclareMathOperator\SL{SL}\DeclareMathOperator\SO{SO}\DeclareMathOperator\O{O}$I’m studying the group $\O(5,5,\mathbb{Z})$, the indefinite orthogonal matrices with integer entries. In particular, I ...

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### How to express the product of elements of a vector with quadratic form?

$x$ is a binary vector which means the elements in $x$ are 0 or 1, and $p$ is another vector with the same length. How to express the product of elements in $p$ whose corresponding elements are 1 in $...

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votes

0
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### Solutions to the quadratic matrix equation $X A X^T = B$

Let $A, B \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times n}$ be symmetric, positive-semidefinite, full-rank matrices. I would like to understand the set of $X \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times n}$ which are themselves symmetric and ...

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### Is there a good notion of kernels of quadratic forms on abelian groups?

Let $G$ be an abelian group and let $q:G \to \mathbb{Q/Z}$ be a quadratic form, i.e. $q(a)=q(-a)$ and $b(x,y)=q(x+y)-q(x)-q(y)$ is a bihomomorphism. On vector spaces, when people speak about the ...

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0
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### When does a system of homogeneous quadratic equations have integer solutions?

I learned that in general, solving systems of quadratic Diophantine equations is a difficult problem. But I wonder if there are special (and non-trivial) types of systems that are easier to handle.
...

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### K3 surfaces with no −2 curves

I seem to remember that a K3 surface with big Picard rank always
has smooth rational curves.
This question is equivalent to the following question about integral quadratic lattices. Let us call a ...

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### Points at which a polynomial becomes reducible

Let $n \geq 10$ and set $\mathbf{y} = (y_1,\ldots,y_n)$. Let $Q_1(\mathbf{y}),\ldots,Q_5(\mathbf{y})$ be non-zero quadratic forms with integer coefficients such that the cubic form $x_1Q_1(\mathbf{y})+...

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### Compatibility conditions for quadratic equations

In the context of physics, I stumbled over the following problem: I have $N$ equations, all are quadratic in a single scalar, real variable $x$:
\begin{eqnarray}
0 &= A_1x^2 + B_1x + C_1 \\
&...

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1
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### Projectivity of the fundamental ideal of Witt groups

Suppose $k$ is a field. I wonder when the Witt ring of the quadratic forms $\textbf{W}(k)$ has a projective fundamental ideal, which is the kernel of the rank modulo 2 morphism. Here I want a ...

1
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1
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### A question about the sign of quadratic forms on nonnegative vectors

Let $M$ be a real square matrix of order $n\ge 3$.
Assume that for every nonnegative vector $\textbf{z}\in \mathbb R^n$ which has at lease one zero entry we have $\textbf{z}^T M \textbf{z} \ge 0$.
Can ...

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votes

1
answer

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### Equivalence of quadratic forms over $p$-adic integers vs over localisation at $p$

To discern whether two integral quadratic forms are equivalent over the $p$-adic integers, one can compute a Jordan decomposition at $p$ and read off some invariants. Restricting to $p\ne2$ for ...

1
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2
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### Integral solutions of quadratic equation $5 X² − 14 XY + 5 Y² = n$

Solve for all integers $x$ and $y$ the quadratic form $5 X² − 14 XY + 5 Y² = n$ for some integer n. I know that for some cases there are recurrence solutions, but I'm not sure how to solve these ...

2
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### Equidistribution of lattice points on quadratic forms without certain values

I have recently been studying some results about equidistribution of lattice points on positive definite quadratic forms $Q$ with $3$ or more variables. Concretely the article Duke and Schulze-Pillot, ...

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### How to describe all integer solutions to $x^2+y^2=3z^2+1$?

The question is in the title. Here is a short motivation. The general quadratic Diophantine equation is
$$
x^TAx+bx+c=0,
$$
where $x$ is a vector of $n$ variables, $A$ is $n \times n$ matrix with ...

1
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0
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### Can I solve this quadratic program "fast"?

We are given a matrix $D \in \mathbb{Z}^{C \times C}$ of non-negative entries, an integer $k \geq 1$ and we need to maximize the quadratic form $x^T D x$ under some simple constraints. For all ...