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### Relation between subspaces of diagonal matrix and its “sign” matrix

Let $D$ be a $n \times n$ diagonal matrix with both positive and negative (but all non-zero) entries. Let $J = sign(D)$ be the matrix of $1$s and $-1$s representing the signs of the entries of $D$. ...
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### Subring of quaternion algebra

I am following the book Introduction to Quadratic Forms over Fields by T. Y. Lam. In section VI.2, the author proves that, over an arbitrary local field $F$, there is a unique quaternion division ...
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### Topological vs algebraic intersection forms

Let $X$ be a simply connected complex projective surface (hence a real $4$-manifold). Let $(H^2(X,\mathbb Z)/\mathrm{tors}, q_X)$, $(A^1(X)/\mathrm{tors},q_X')$ be the corresponding lattices in ...
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### Integer positive definite quadratic form as a sum of squares

Let $A$ be a symmetric $d\times d$ matrix with integer entries such that the quadratic form $Q(x)=\langle Ax,x\rangle, x\in \mathbb{R}^d$, is non-negative definite. For which $d$ does it imply that $Q$...
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### Solving diagonal simultaneous quadratic equations

A problem I am trying to solve has led to me to the following system of equations: $$A(x^2) + Bx + c = 0$$ Where $A$ and $B$ are known matrices, $c$ is a known vector, $x$ is the vector of unknowns ...
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### Norm quadrics and their motives

Let $k$ be a field of characteristic $\neq 2$ and $\langle\!\langle a_{1},\cdots,a_{n}\rangle\!\rangle$ a Pfister form over $k$. Denote by $Q_{\underline{a}}=Q_{a_{1},\cdots,a_{n}}$ the projective ...
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### Is it possible for the Witt group of a scheme to have non-trivial odd torsion?

Let $F$ be a field of characteristic not $2$. A well-known theorem of Pfister asserts that the torsion of $W(F)$, the Witt group of $F$, is $2$-primary. Baeza [B, V.6.3] extended this result to Witt ...
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### On sums of three squares

Let $\mathbb N=\{0,1,2,\ldots\}$. By the Gauss-Legendre theorem on sums of three squares, any $n\in\mathbb N$ with $n\equiv1,2\pmod4$ can be written as $x^2+y^2+z^2$ with $x,y,z\in\mathbb N$. Clearly, ...
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### Sums of two integer squares in arithmetic progressions

Is there an explicit formula in the literature for the number of representations of a positive integer $n$ as a sum of two integer squares, the second of which is divisible by $5$? So this means to ...
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### A “nice” (but non-definite) quadratic programme

For integers $n\geq k>0$, let $f$ be the following quadratic form: $$f(x_1,\ldots,x_n)=\sum_{i=1}^n\sum_{j=0}^{k-1}x_ix_{i+j\bmod n}.$$ Is it true that the minimum of $f$ over the unit simplex is ...
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### On universal sums $x(ax+b)/2+y(cy+d)/2+z(ez+f)/2$ over $\mathbb N$

Let $a,b,c,d,e,f$ be integers with $a\ge c\ge e>0$, $b>-a$ and $a\equiv b\pmod2$, $d>-c$ and $c\equiv d\pmod 2$, $f>-e$ and $e\equiv f\pmod2$. If each $n\in\mathbb N=\{0,1,2,\ldots\}$ can ...
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### Correlation between the first and a random position of an ergodic bit sequence

Edit: Since the geometric approach did not work, I try now another approach: phrasing the problem as a quadratic programme. Probabilistic version. Let $x=(x_1,x_2, \ldots)$ be an ergodic random ...
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### How explicitly write a projective transformation between the conics over the univariate function field?

Consider the quadratic forms $$Q_1 = x^2 + y^2 - (t^2+1)z^2,\qquad Q_2 = x^2 + y^2 - z^2$$ over the rational function field $\mathbb{F}_p(t)$, where $p > 2$ is a prime such that $t^2 + 1$ is ...
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### Quadrics over the univariate function field with discriminant of minimal degree

Consider a non-degenerate quadric $Q(x,y,z) \subset \mathrm{P}^2$ over the univariate function field $\mathbb{F}_p(t)$, where $\mathbb{F}_p$ is a prime finite field, $p > 2$. For simplicity assume ...
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### On the orthogonal group of a lattice on a quadratic space over dyadic local field

Let $F$ be a local field with valuation ring $R$. $V$ is a n dimensional non-singular quadratic space over $F$ with bilinear form $B$ and quadratic map $Q$. As usual, $O(V)$ denotes the orthogonal ...
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### Concrete Hanson-Wright inequality?

I'm working on a paper that requires bounding $$\Pr\left[|\vec x^\top Q \vec y| >= t\right]$$ where $Q$ is a matrix (happens to be symmetric) and $\vec x,\vec y$ are iid real mean-zero subgaussian ...
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### Can we write each positive integer as $x^2+y^2+\varphi(z^2)$?

As odd squares are congruent to $1$ modulo $8$, any integer of the form $4^k(8m+7)$ with $k,m\in\mathbb N=\{0,1,2,\ldots\}$ cannot be written as the sum of three squares. To avoid such congruence ...
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### Existence of symplectic basis

Let $R$ be a PID and $M$ a free, finite rank $R$-module with a perfect billinear form $\omega$ such that $\omega(v,v)=0$ for all $v \in M$. Does anyone know a reference for the fact that a symplectic ...
I would like to prove such a matrix as a positive definite one, $$(\omega^T\Sigma\omega) \Sigma - \Sigma\omega \omega^T\Sigma$$ where $\Sigma$ is a positive definite symetric covariance matrix ...
### Solutions to the Diophantine equation $x^2+3y^2+3z^2=n$
For a fixed positive integer $n$, the Diophantine equation $$x^2 + y^2 + z^2 = n$$ was studied by Gauss in Disquisitiones Arithmeticae. As is known, this equation is intimately connected to the ...