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Questions designed to get an overview of a specific subject or body of results or to understand the relations among similar definitions, techniques or concepts appearing in different sub-fields of mathematics. While such questions by their very nature sometimes cannot be made very narrow and focused,...

9
votes
1answer
183 views

Three theorems on the number of nonzero coefficients of a polynomial

The number of positive real roots of a polynomial with real coefficients is strictly smaller than the number of nonzero coefficients of the polynomial. This is an immediate corollary of Descartes' ...
10
votes
1answer
420 views

Poincare duality spaces vs. manifolds via lifting maps, the obstruction theory and the role of simply connectedness

Suppose that we are given a topological space $X$: assume for simplicity that $X$ is compact we want to adress the following question: Is it true that one can find a manifold $M$ which is homotopy ...
-2
votes
1answer
467 views

What is the big picture of algebraic geometry? [closed]

I am trying to understand a big-picture for Algebraic Geometry: Given a category of commutative rings $\mathrm{CRing}$, we can create objects that locally look like these objects called schemes. This ...
8
votes
0answers
321 views

Floer cohomology from mapping spaces of $\infty$ categories

There's a meta-observation (of Urs Schreiber, who attributes it to Ken Brown and Lurie) that 'cohomology theories come from mapping spaces of $(\infty,1)$ categories'. This is described in detail at ...
2
votes
2answers
177 views

Viewing parts of $\mathbb{V}$ 'from the top down' or 'from the bottom up'

I am curious about instances where we can glean nontrivial information about a certain piece of the universe by viewing it as being 'built over' a smaller part of the universe, or alternatively ...
3
votes
0answers
122 views

Which constants are ambivalent and why?

This question is possibly a bit more philosophical $-$ compatible with the Christmas season, which is an appropriate moment to look at the world from a more universal angle... My last question with a ...
14
votes
0answers
797 views

What to expect from spectral algebraic geometry

So I've been trying to learn some derived algebraic geometry, and I've chosen to approach the subject from the perspective of spectral or "brave new" algebraic geometry. Without having to go through ...
0
votes
0answers
64 views

Transformation or correspondence between language and real number

As we know, formal language can be regarded as a set of strings of alphabet, and real number can be regarded as sequence generated by set of integers, for example, denominators of the simple continued ...
2
votes
0answers
78 views

Any proved connection between Roth theorem and hartmanis stearns conjecture?

Roth theorem classifies numbers into two classes, one is rational and transcendental, another is irrational algebraic numbers, by the number of solutions to the inequality (finite or infinite), and ...
17
votes
8answers
2k views

Concepts in topology successfully transferred to graph theory and combinatorics with non-trivial applications?

What are some of the difficult concepts in topology that have been transferred to graph theory and combinatorics where a certain new application has been found. A good example is Lovász's proof of ...
10
votes
1answer
370 views

Can the methods of classical algebraic geometry be made rigorous with a synthetic approach?

There are approaches to real analysis that use an axiomatization of nilpotent infinitesimals to enable rigorous synthetic reasoning about infinitesimals, which is arguably closer to the reasoning ...
0
votes
0answers
134 views

On a permanent related rank?

Given a matrix $M\in\Bbb Z^{n\times n}$ let $r(m,M)$ be the number of $m\times m$ submatrices of $M$ whose permanent is $\neq0$. Given a matrix $M$ what is the typical behavior of the function $r(m,M)...
7
votes
1answer
298 views

What are the uses of coefficient systems for arithmetic cohomology theories?

In topology when studying a space with non-trivial fundamental group it becomes important to consider homology and cohomology with coefficients in representations of the fundamental group, i.e. local ...
3
votes
1answer
156 views

Is there a Fourier Analytic way to approximate volume?

Suppose a convex compact room in $3$-dimensions is given and source and microphones recorders are provided in the room that can locate echo timings there are works in literature which can give you the ...
33
votes
11answers
3k views

Why is the definition of the higher homotopy groups the “right one”?

If someone asked me the question for the fundamental group, I would answer as follows: The connection to classification of covering spaces. The fundamental group of many spaces is an object of ...
4
votes
1answer
277 views

Maximality without Zorn

When confronted with finding an object that is maximal with regard to some ordering relation, most of us have the reflex to use Zorn's Lemma. I am interested in instances of proving the existence of ...
1
vote
1answer
133 views

On Shannon information theoretic capacity to coding distance metric translation

Shannon theory says that given a channel source variable $X$ and received variable $Y$ and channel $Y/X$ there is a capacity associated with this channel. The notion of maximum likelihood leads from ...
3
votes
0answers
134 views

How much can analogy between $\Bbb Z$ and $\Bbb F_q[t]$ work out to give better distance measures in information theory?

Let $x$ be transmitted symbol and $y$ be received symbol and $n$ be noise Given $y=x+n$ where symbols $x,y,n$ are in $\Bbb K$. If $\Bbb K=\Bbb Z$ then we take $|n|$ to be the magnitude of noise while ...
0
votes
0answers
71 views

Higher norm Hermite's constant and successive minima connection

Let $\Lambda$ be rank $r$ lattice in $Z^n$ with shortest vector in $L^p$ norm being $\lambda_p(\Lambda)$ and successive minima in $L^p$ norm being $\lambda_{i,p}(\Lambda)$ at every $i\in\{1,2\dots,r\}$...
7
votes
1answer
456 views

Steps in Geometric Complexity Theory

GCT purports to provide a program to show that $NP \not \subset P/poly$. At the high level what are the steps involved in the program and what stage is each step in? What difficulties ...
21
votes
2answers
1k views

Interpretations of permanent

The standard interpretation of permanent of a $0/1$ matrix if considered as a biadjacency matrix of a bipartite graph is number of perfect matchings of the graph or if considered as a adjacency matrix ...
14
votes
2answers
768 views

Measuring a presheaf's failure to be a sheaf?

Apologies for the vagueness of question. Background this thread has some nice examples of presheaves failing to be sheaves. Question Is there a generic way to measure "how badly" a presheaf fails ...
6
votes
0answers
96 views

How to decompose cuspidal representations?

Let $\mathbb{G}$ be a connected reductive group over $\mathbb{F}_q$. Let $R_{T}^{\theta}$ be a Deligne--Lusztig representation of $\mathbb{G}(\mathbb{F}_q)$. Assume that $R_{T}^{\theta}$ is cuspidal (...
3
votes
4answers
861 views

Is there a physically realizable inductive turing machine that can solve Hilbert's $10$th problem and can it overcome Church-Turing Hypothesis?

There is a claim on https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Super-recursive_algorithm#Inductive_Turing_machines that 'Simple inductive Turing machines are equivalent to other models of computation such as ...
53
votes
19answers
8k views

When has discrete understanding preceded continuous?

From my limited perspective, it appears that the understanding of a mathematical phenomenon has usually been achieved, historically, in a continuous setting before it was fully explored in a discrete ...
8
votes
2answers
415 views

categorification of q-series

In his talk, S. Gukov asked two questions: What is the categorification of a $q$-serie ? How to associate to a 3-manifold a $q$-serie ? As far as I understand, he was looking for a bigarded ...
34
votes
3answers
2k views

Is algebraic geometry constructive?

Notes: 1) I know next to nothing about algebraic geometry, although I am greatly interested in the field. 2) I realize that "constructive" might be a technical term, here I am using it only in an ...
5
votes
2answers
201 views

Convex hull with genus information

Are there convexity generalizations that admit genus information? For example in genus $1$ is there a way to think of this polyhedron as convex while this polyhedron as non-convex? Any two points can ...
23
votes
2answers
2k views

Current status of Grothendieck's homotopy hypothesis and Whitehead's algebraic homotopy programme

(Disclaimer: I'm no expert in homotopy theory nor in higher categories!) If I understand it correctly, Grothendieck's homotopy hypothesis states that there should be an equivalence (of $(n+1)$-...
4
votes
2answers
164 views

About the cone being unique up to non-unique isomorphism

In an answer to this MO question [link] Fernando Muro sais: the mapping cone of a morphism in a triangulated category is unique up to non-unique isomorphism. This fact has originated a lot of ...
13
votes
0answers
314 views

Why do people study unbounded derived category of quasi-coherent sheaves rather than focus on bounded derived category of coherent sheaves?

Let $X$ be a scheme and let $D_{qoch}(X)$ and $D^b_{coh}(X)$ be the unbounded derived category of quasi-coherent sheaves and bounded derived category of coherent sheaves on $X$, respectively. $D^b_{...
6
votes
1answer
388 views

Recursion theory from the standoint of category theory

It is (I believe) a very easy exercise to prove that the general recursive functions over the natural number object $N$ form a category. But what sort of category is it? From the fact that one can ...
11
votes
1answer
985 views

Algebraic Geometry in Number Theory

It appears to me that there are two main ways by which algebraic geometry is applied to number theory. The first is by studying polynomials over fields of number-theoretic interest (which does not ...
12
votes
2answers
660 views

Can there be a polymath project for mathematical physics?

My hunch is that it might be possible to create something like https://polymathprojects.org/ for mathematical physics and I'd like to know whether MathOverflow users can recommend some appropriate ...
8
votes
1answer
288 views

Existence of Randomized polynomial time algorithm and some arithmetic analog of $ACC^0$ circuits for Factoring of primitive polynomials before LLL?

Before LLL came along in $1982$ there was no deterministic polynomial (in degree and number of bits in coefficients) way to factor square free primitive polynomials in $\Bbb Z[x]$. However was there ...
6
votes
1answer
322 views

Dyson's invitation: Opportunities in juxtaposition of incompatibles

"Up to now, my examples of missed opportunities have been mathematical discoveries which actually occurred, although they could have occurred a long time earlier. In such cases one can be sure that an ...
3
votes
0answers
260 views

On the precise concentration of permanent of $\pm1$ matrices

Obtain $M\in\{-1,+1\}^{n\times n}$ by unbiased coin flipping. What is known about the distribution of permanent $\mathsf{Perm}(M)$? It seems to be bimodal. Given a function $g(n)$ what is the ...
4
votes
1answer
417 views

Are the paradoxes of material or strict implication used anywhere to prove theorems in mathematics

In the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry "Relevance Logic", the following inference is listed as classically valid: The moon is made of green cheese. Therefore, it is raining in Ecuador ...
13
votes
2answers
648 views

Locales as geometric objects

There is the following analogy: $$\begin{array}{cc} \text{frames} & - & \text{commutative rings} \\ | && | \\\text{locales} & - & \text{affines schemes}\end{array}$$ Here, ...
10
votes
3answers
5k views

Why is the current math community not contributing to machine learning much? [closed]

This question was inspired from What advantage humans have over computers in mathematics? and the answer of Brendan McKay, part of which is quoted in the below: The day will come when not only will ...
8
votes
2answers
1k views

What is the interface between functional analysis and algebraic geometry?

This is a very open ended curiosity of mine and I would be grateful to hear any comments in this direction. In particular I am interested in functional analysis/algebraic geometry books/papers ...
31
votes
3answers
3k views

Linear algebra in terms of abstract nonsense?

The categories of vector spaces and finite dimensional vector spaces are pretty much as nice as can be, I think. I was wondering what portions of basic linear algebra (first couple of courses) fall ...
4
votes
2answers
323 views

Critical points in $ZF$ without Choice

Recall the definition of critical point for set theory: A critical point of an elementary embedding of one transitive class into another transitive class is the smallest ordinal not mapped to ...
2
votes
1answer
335 views

Are there analogies between $\Bbb F_q[x_1,x_2]$ and a suitable object related to $\Bbb Z$?

Much progress in understanding $\Bbb Z$ is made from analogies between $\Bbb F_q[x]$ and $\Bbb Z$. Can there be analogies between arithmetic in $\Bbb F_q[x_1,x_2]$ and a suitable object related to $\...
9
votes
0answers
2k views

How much of modern algebraic geometry is there in modern complex(algebraic, analytic, differential) geometry?

Good day to you, people of mathoverflow. I'll get to the point. I wonder how much of modern abstract algebraic geometry is there in modern complex geometry? What do I mean by complex geometry? ...
15
votes
1answer
963 views

Foundations of topology

I recently went to a talk of Oleg Viro where he expressed his dissatisfaction with current foundations of differential topology parallel to what has been discussed here. Also some time ago I read ...
6
votes
1answer
199 views

Most natural equivalence between $C^*$-algebras in NCG

I have listen or read that, in the context of noncommutative geometry, Morita equivalence is a more natural equivalence for $C^*$-algebras than $*$-isomorphism. Can someone explain this sentence or ...
27
votes
4answers
1k views

Expert, Intuitive, Organizing Analogies

In learning a new area it is very helpful to have high-level intuitive analogies that keep track of the various parts of an important argument or strategy. Experts have a store of such things, and ...
38
votes
2answers
3k views

Grothendieck says: points are not mere points, but carry Galois group actions

Apologies in advance if this question is too elementary for MO. I didn't find an explanation of these ideas in any algebraic geometry books (I don't know French). The following is an excerpt from ...
41
votes
25answers
7k views

Where can square roots come from when they are not distances?

In a recent survey "Supergeometry in Mathematics and Physics", Kapranov points out cases in which observable quantities of immediate interest are represented as bilinear combinations of more ...