Questions tagged [trigonometric-polynomials]

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Majorizing $|\{\alpha\}-1/2|$ by trigonometric polynomials

Let $f(\alpha) = |\{\alpha\}-1/2|$. What is the trigonometric polynomial $F_N$ of degree $N$ (i.e., a linear combination $\sum_{n=-N}^N a_n e(\alpha n)$, $a_n\in \mathbb{C}$, where $e(r)= e^{2\pi i r}$...
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1 vote
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Absolute lower bound on derivative of generalized trigonometric polynomial at zeroes

By a generalized trigonometric polynomial, I shall mean a function $f:\mathbb R^+ \rightarrow \mathbb R$ given by an expression of the form $$f(x) := \sum_{j=1}^k a_j \cos(\alpha_j x) + b_j \sin(\...
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20 votes
1 answer
877 views

(update) Is there always a real $x$ such that $\cos n_1 x + \cos n_2 x + \cos n_3 x < -2$?

Problem: Given three positive integers $0 < n_1 < n_2 < n_3$ such that $$n_1 + n_2 \ne n_3, \quad n_2 \ne 2n_1, \quad n_3 \ne 2n_1, \quad n_3 \ne 2n_2,$$ is there always a real number $x$ ...
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  • 573
5 votes
1 answer
360 views

Is there always a real $x$ such that $\cos n_1 x + \cos n_2 x + \cos n_3 x < -2$?

Problem: Given three positive integers $0 < n_1 < n_2 < n_3$. Is there always a real number $x$ such that $$\cos n_1 x + \cos n_2 x + \cos n_3 x < -2?$$
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  • 573
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What is the inverse Fourier transform of $\operatorname{sinc} \Big{(} \prod_{k=1}^{m} \big{(} k(z-m+1) -z) \big{)} \Big{)} $?

For a certain interpolation problem, I'm looking into a sequence of functions of the form $$f_{m}(z) = \operatorname{sinc} \Bigg{(} \prod_{k=1}^{m} \big{(} k(z-m+1) -z) \big{)} \Bigg{)} . $$ Here, $m&...
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9 votes
1 answer
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Upper bound for maximum modulus of polynomial on unit circle in term of the distribution of its roots

Let $P(z) = \prod_{i = 1}^n (z - z_i) \in \mathbb{C}[z]$ be a monic polynomial having all roots $z_1, \dots, z_n$ on the unit circle $\mathbb{T} := \{z \in \mathbb{C} : |z| = 1\}$. What is known about ...
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  • 111
1 vote
0 answers
89 views

Tight upper bounds on trigonometric polynomials

According to D. Hajela's chapter in Open Problems in Communications and Computation the following question was open as of the late 1980s. I have been unable to find any references so any results or ...
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2 votes
1 answer
265 views

Closed form of $\prod_{k=1}^{n}\left(\cos(kx)-1\right)$

Is there any closed form of $$\prod_{k=1}^{n}\left(\cos(kx)-1\right)?$$ I failed to find references on this problem in the internet.
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8 votes
2 answers
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Are we able to estimate the fraction of the domain where $\cos (ax)+2\cos (b x)$ with $\frac ab \notin\mathbb{Q}$ is positive?

We know that the two functions $\{\;\cos (ax),\;2\cos (b x)\;\}$ where $\frac ab \notin \mathbb{Q}$ are independently positive (and negative) over $\frac 12$ of the domain. Is it possible to estimate ...
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45 votes
1 answer
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Is there a nullstellensatz for trigonometric polynomials?

Let $$ f(x) = \sum_{j=1}^n c_j e^{2\pi i\alpha_j x}, g(x) = \sum_{k=1}^m d_k e^{2\pi i\beta_k x}$$ be two (quasi-periodic) trigonometric polynomials, where the coefficients $c_j, d_k$ are complex and ...
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2 votes
1 answer
198 views

$L_p$ norms of $0-1$ exponential sums

Consider $f_n(t)=\sum_{i=1}^{n}e^{ik_{i}t}$ with all $k_i$ some distinct integers for $t\in [-\pi,\pi)$. For $p>2$ I am interested in the maximum possible value of $$||f_n||_p,$$ where $f_n$ runs ...
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6 votes
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320 views

Are all trigonometric polynomials from the 3-torus to the 3-sphere homotopically trivial?

I'm looking at maps from the 3-torus $\mathbb{T}^3\simeq (\mathbb{R}/2\pi\mathbb{Z})^3$ to the 3-sphere $\mathbb{S}_3\subset \mathbb{R}^4$. I understand that, according to Hopf theorem, continuous ...
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0 answers
123 views

What numbers (irrational) in radicals are expressible as trigonometric rational fraction with only rational multiplies of $\pi$?

What irrational expressions $A$ with radicals can be expressed as trigonometric rational fraction (not a series) with only rational multiplies of $\pi$. Example: $ \frac{1}{\sqrt5} = \frac{\sin\frac{\...
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1 vote
0 answers
120 views

Solutions of equation $\sin \pi x_1\sin \pi x_2=\sin \pi x_3\sin \pi x_4$ [closed]

I am interested in finding all the solution $(x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4)\in \mathbb{R}^4$ of equations: $$\sin \pi x_1\sin\pi x_2=\sin \pi x_3\sin\pi x_4.$$ I have found out a paper: Rational products of sines ...
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14 votes
2 answers
422 views

Curious identity between the two kinds of Chebyshev polynomials

I have found, by accident, an identity that relates a sum of Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind to a Chebyshev polynomial of the second kind. It goes as follows: Given an integer partition of $n$...
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  • 243
8 votes
2 answers
881 views

Better trigonometrical inequalities for $\zeta(s)$?

The inequality $$3 + 4 \cos \theta + \cos 2 \theta \geq 0$$ plays a key role in the proof of the classical zero-free region of the Riemann zeta function. Are there other inequalities of the form $$\...
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-2 votes
1 answer
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What are the algebraic steps to transform this expression? (Part of differential calculus) [closed]

sorry if this seems to be too easy for you, but I have struggled a lot with this expression and I don't get it how they got there: How can $\sqrt{2x^2}$ become $4x^2$ ?
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9 votes
3 answers
823 views

Polynomial satisfied by $\cos^n(t)$ and $\sin^n(t)$

For any even $n$, there should be a polynomial $f(x,y)$ that vanishes on the points $(\cos^n(t),\sin^n(t))$ for all $t$ (since it is the image of the projective variety $x^2+y^2 = 1$ under the $n/2$th-...
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5 votes
1 answer
336 views

Optimization problem on trigonometric polynomials

I would like to maximize $$ \int_0^{2\pi} \frac{(f'(x))^2}{f(x)}dx $$ subject to $f(x)\leq 1$ for all $x$ over the space of nonnegative trigonometric polynomials of degree smaller or equal to $n$. ...
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1 vote
1 answer
89 views

Reference request: Gaussian almost periodic functions

Let $X(x),x\in R^d$, be a stationary gaussian process for which the covariance function $E(X(0)X(x))=C(x)$ is "almost periodic". Almost periodic means roughly that $C$ is uniformly approximable by ...
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  • 1,222
1 vote
1 answer
177 views

Accurate estimate/lower bound for the l2 approximation error of trigonometric polynomial approximation

This is a restated version of my original very broad question. Let $P$ be probability a measure on an interval $[a,b]$ ($-\infty<a<b<\infty$) that's dominated by Lebesgue measure. Let $\...
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4 votes
0 answers
237 views

A uniform Riemann sum approximation of the integral of the Fejer kernels

Let $F_N(t)$ denote the Fejer kernel $$F_N(t):={1\over N+1}{\sin^2\big({(N+1)}{t\over2}\big)\over \sin^2\big( {t\over2}\big)}\ .$$ Consider Riemann sums approximation for $\int_{-\pi}^\pi F_N(t) dt$ ...
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  • 136
4 votes
0 answers
201 views

Reverse Markov-Bernstein inequality for trigonometric polynomials

Let $r(t)$ be a real trigonometric polynomial of degree $n>1$. Assume it has zero at $t=0$ of multiplicity $k>0$. What can be said about the lower bound of the constant $c(k,n)$ such that $$ \...
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2 votes
0 answers
103 views

Lower $L^1$ norm estimates of null average trigonometric polynomials depending on the order of the polynomial

Let $p(x)=\sum_{k=1}^m [a_k\cos(n_kx)+b_k\sin(n_kx)]$ be a null average trigonometric polynomial (null average means that is $\int_\mathbb T p =0$ or, equivalently, there are no $a_0$ and $b_0$). ...
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3 votes
0 answers
109 views

Approximating $1_I$, $I\subset \lbrack 0,1\rbrack$, by trigonometric polynomials

Let $I$ be a subinterval of $\lbrack 0,1\rbrack$. How well can one hope to approximate it in the $L_1$-norm (on $\mathbb{R}/\mathbb{Z}$) by a trigonometric polynomial of degree $\leq R$, that is, a ...
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10 votes
1 answer
772 views

An extremal problem related either to an uncertainty principle on the circle, or else to the prime number theorem

Consider for $X = 1,2, \ldots$ the set $\mathcal{S}_X$ of trigonometric polynomials $f(t) := \sum_{|k| \leq X} c_k e^{2\pi i kt}$ on the circle $\mathbb{T} := \mathbb{R}/\mathbb{Z}$ of degree $\leq X$ ...
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1 vote
1 answer
255 views

Is there a law of cosine for n-dimensional hyperbolic simplex

We know that, given an n-dimensional Euclidean simplex, for all $1\leq i,j,k,l\leq n+1$, we have(law of sines)$$\frac{A_i A_j}{A_k A_l}=\frac{c_{ij}}{c_{kl}}$$(from Elementary Formulas for a ...
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2 votes
0 answers
911 views

Is there an infinite product like this for $\cos x$?

There are infinite products of iterated square roots for $\log x$ and $\arccos x$ as functions of $x$. For example $$\log x = \frac{x - 1}{\sqrt{x}\sqrt{\frac{1}{2} + \frac{1}{2}\left ( \frac{1 + x}{...
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14 votes
0 answers
528 views

Precise form of the mean motion theorem

Consider an exponential polynomial $$f(t)=\sum_{k=1}^na_k\exp(i\lambda_kt),$$ where $a_k$ are complex and $\lambda_k, t$ real. The usual form of the Mean Motion Theorem says that the limit $$\lim_{t\...
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4 votes
2 answers
474 views

cosine of rational multiples of Pi take values of equal difference

In my physics research I came across a mathematical proposition (translated into the mathematical language from the physical problem) that I feel to be true, and would like to prove it: Proposition: ...
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  • 59
7 votes
2 answers
822 views

Closed formula for sine powers

I am looking for a closed formula for the expressions $$ \sum_{k=1}^{n-1} \sin\left(\pi \frac{k}{n}\right)^m,$$ with $n \in \mathbb{N}$ and $m \in \mathbb{N}$ odd. Playing with these sums a bit, I ...
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3 votes
0 answers
286 views

Prove the following trigonometric inequality

Prove that $$f(x, y) \equiv \arccos\left(\frac{x-y}{K}\right) - \arccos\left(\frac{x-y}{K}+y\right) - \frac{y}{x}\arccos(1-y^2) \ge 0$$ with the constraints: $K\ge 2$ is an integer, $g(x, y) = (K-1)...
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  • 176
7 votes
1 answer
258 views

L1 analog of Bernstein's inequality

Let $p(x)$ be a degree $n$ polynomial over $[-1, 1]$, and let $q(x) = p'(x) \sqrt{1-x^2}$. Is it true that $$ \|q\|_1 \leq O(n) \|p\|_1 $$ where we define $\|f\|_p := \left(\int_{-1}^1 |f(x)|^pdx\...
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6 votes
1 answer
378 views

Eigenvalues of partial Hankel matrices

I was wondering if there are closed formulas for the singularvalues of a partial Hankel matrix (by partial I mean $\ell<n$) \begin{align*} H= \begin{bmatrix} c_1 & c_2 & \ldots & c_\...
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  • 363
2 votes
0 answers
97 views

Octahedron and System of trigonometric equations

Could somebody help me to prove the following? $$\sum_{k=1}^6 \cos(2 \theta_k) (\cos(2\phi_k)-1))=0$$ $$\sum_{k=1}^6 \sin(2 \theta_k) (\cos(2\phi_k)-1))=0$$ $$\sum_{k=1}^6 \cos (\phi_k)=0$$ $$\sum_{k=...
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  • 309
2 votes
1 answer
385 views

Maximal minimum for a sum of two (or more) cosines

Please prove (or disprove, and give the correct answer): $$2 =\mathrm{argmax}_{r\geq 1}\min_{x\in \mathbb{R}}\left[\cos\left(x\right)+\cos\left(rx\right)\right] $$ In other words, find $r \geq 1$, ...
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9 votes
1 answer
487 views

$L^1$ norm of exponential sum of $n^2 x$

What is the asymptotic order of $$ \int_0^1 \left| \sum_{n=1}^N e^{2 \pi i n^2 x} \right| ~dx $$ as $N \to \infty$. This should be known, but I cannot find it in the literature.
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4 votes
1 answer
116 views

Estimate self crossings of a curve parameterized by a trigonometric polynomial

Given z on the unit circle, let $P(z)= \sum\limits_{k=-D}^D p_k z^k $. Can one estimate the number of self crossings of the following curve with an analytic expression in terms of the coefficients $\{...
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  • 81
10 votes
0 answers
517 views

Reciprocal polynomials with roots off the unit circle

A polynomial is called reciprocal if its coefficients read forwards are the same as those read backward - there is an obvious translation of reciprocal polynomials into cosine polynomials (since a ...
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3 votes
0 answers
135 views

Bounding expected value of maximum of dot product with random chirp

Let $\mathbf{x}\in\mathbb{C}^n$ with $\|\mathbf{x}\|=1$ with $n<\frac{N}{2}$. I am interested in a bound of the form \begin{equation*} \mathbb{E}\Big\{\max_{k\in\{1,2,\ldots,n\}}\Big|\sum_{a=1}^ne^{...
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  • 859
5 votes
0 answers
113 views

Concentration of weighted random chirp

I'm interested in seeing whether the following is true. Assume $u$ is uniform on $[0,1]$. For a fixed $x\in\mathbb{C}^n$ with $\|x\|_{2}=1$ we have \begin{align*} \mathbb{P}\Big\{\Big|\sum_{k=0}^{n-1}...
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  • 859
7 votes
1 answer
377 views

A conjecture about the measure estimates of a trigonometric polynomial

Formulation of the Conjecture Let $\Omega =(0,\pi)\times (0,2\pi)\subset\mathbb R^2$ and let $\psi:\Omega\to \mathbb{R}$ defined by $$\psi(x,t)=\sum_{k\in S \,j\in S'} \sin(kx)\left( a_{kj}\sin(jt)+...
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1 vote
0 answers
100 views

Estimating decay of certain trigonometric polynomials

For $p=0,1,2,\dots$ and $n=0,1,2,\dots,$, let $f_{n,p}(z)=\sum_{k=0}^n k^p z^k$ be a sequence of polynomials. Restricted to the unit circle, the functions $g_{n,p}(t):=f_{n,p}(e^{it})$ are ...
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  • 929
1 vote
0 answers
286 views

Proof of an inequality for a linear combination of three trigonometric functions

Given a function $$f(t) = k_{1} \sin(t+\alpha) + k_{3} \sin(3t+\beta) + k_{5} \sin(5t+\gamma)$$ where $k_{1}, k_{3}$ and $k_{5}$ are all positive parameters, and the three phase angles, $ 0<\alpha&...
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5 votes
0 answers
254 views

trigonometric polynomial

Can anyone tell me the following statement is true or not? Thank you. There are two polynomials: \begin{align} p(r,\theta) &=\sin(n_0\theta) + \sum_{j=1}^{\ell}a_j r^{n_j}\sin(n_j\theta), \quad r&...
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  • 375
3 votes
1 answer
781 views

Beurling density and interpolation

Let $\Lambda=\{\lambda_n\}_1^\infty$ a set of points on the real line. We denote by $\bar{n}(r)$ the largest number of points in any interval $[x,x+r]$, $r>0$. Define the upper uniform density (...
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  • 859
8 votes
1 answer
429 views

certain trigonometric homeomorphisms

Are there any simple characterizations of rational functions $f(x,y)$ with real coefficients such that $\theta\mapsto f(\cos\theta,\sin\theta)$ is a homeomorphism from $\mathbb R\bmod 2\pi$ to $\...
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2 votes
1 answer
190 views

Interpolating delta like functions by trigonometric polynomials of bounded modulus and fast decay

Consider a grid of points $T=\{t_0,t_1,\ldots,t_m\}$ with $0\le t_i\le 1$. I would like to find a function $f(t):[0,1]\rightarrow \mathbb{C}$ of the form \begin{equation*} f(t)=\sum_{k=-n}^n c_k e^{2\...
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  • 859
2 votes
1 answer
372 views

bounding the absolute value of a trigonometric polynomial

Consider a function $f:[0,1]\rightarrow \mathbb{C}$ and points $t_0,t_1,\ldots,t_n\in[0,1]$ \begin{equation*} f(t)=\prod_{k=1}^n\frac{(e^{2\pi i t}-e^{2\pi i t_k})}{(e^{2\pi i t_0}-e^{2\pi i t_k})} \...
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