Questions tagged [continued-fractions]

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3
votes
0answers
194 views

Fundamental Units in $\mathbb{Z}[\sqrt{d}]$ with $d \equiv 1 \mod 4$

It is well known and often cited how the fundamental units for the number ring of $\mathbb{Q}[\sqrt{d}]$ look like. In the case of $d\equiv 2,3 \mod 4$ the number ring is $\mathbb{Z}[\sqrt{d}]$ and in ...
4
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0answers
273 views

Is the set of approximating sequences for irrationals dominating?

Let $r\in [0,1]\setminus\mathbb{Q}$, let $\mathbb{N}$ denote the set of non-negative integers and let $\mathbb{N}_+=\mathbb{N}\setminus\{0\}$. For $n\in\mathbb{N}_+$ let $$\alpha_r(n)=\min\{|r-\frac{...
2
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1answer
133 views

Fibonacci-Motzkin paths and J-type continued fractions

Recall that a Motzkin path is a piece-wise linear planar path connecting points in the integer lattice quadrant $\Bbb{Z}_{\geq 0} \times \Bbb{Z}_{\geq 0}$ beginning at the origin $(0,0)$ and ending at ...
2
votes
1answer
63 views

(Exponential) Mixing property for Gauss map - going from cylinders to intervals

I'm trying to understand the proof of a mixing property of the Gauss map from the paper - 'Some metrical theorems in number theory' and I'm getting confused by the logic in a step. The Gauss map $T$, ...
6
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1answer
329 views

continued fraction for logarithmic integral

Does the logarithmic integral function $\operatorname{li}(x)$ have the continued fraction expansion $$\operatorname{li}(x) = \cfrac{x}{\log x -1 -{}} \ \cfrac{1}{\log x -3 -{}} \ \cfrac{4}{\log x -...
1
vote
1answer
106 views

Bounded, aperiodic irrationals with bounded, aperiodic sum

If $q = [q_0;q_1 \dots]$, say $q_i$ is the $i$-th partial quotient of $q$. My question is the following: Can one construct an explicit example of irrational $r,s > 0$ such that $\{ 1,r,s\}$ is $\...
1
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0answers
137 views

Theoretical invariant distribution of discrete dynamical systems, including the Riemann Zeta map

Update on 3/10/2021: I added Example 5 in the Appendix. This generic example encompasses the Riemann Zeta dynamical system. A simple version of this post, targeted to engineers, machine learning ...
1
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1answer
235 views

About generalized continued fractions

Let us consider the sequences $(x_n), (a_n)$, starting with $n=0$ and $x_0\in ]0,1[$, defined by the following generalized Gaussian map: $$x_{n+1}=\frac{\lambda_n}{x_n^{\alpha_n}}-\Big\lfloor \frac{\...
5
votes
1answer
266 views

Irrationality of $e^{x/y}$

How to prove the following continued fraction of $e^{x/y}$ $${\displaystyle e^{x/y}=1+{\cfrac {2x}{2y-x+{\cfrac {x^{2}}{6y+{\cfrac {x^{2}}{10y+{\cfrac {x^{2}}{14y+{\cfrac {x^{2}}{18y+\ddots }}}}}}}}}}...
6
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1answer
528 views

Algebraic and rational parts of a real number

Let $\alpha$ be a positive real number. Does it make sense to define the closest rational to $\alpha$ as the number $R(\alpha)=\frac{p_1}{p_2}$ such that $p_1,p_2$ are positive co-prime integers ...
8
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1answer
493 views

An alternative to continued fraction and applications

This post is inspired by the Numberphile video 2.920050977316, advertising the paper A Prime-Representing Constant by Dylan Fridman, Juli Garbulsky, Bruno Glecer, James Grime and Massi Tron Florentin, ...
1
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0answers
51 views

continued fractions and cusp non-excursions

Consider the modular surface $X:=\mathbb{H^2}/PSL_2(\mathbb{Z})$. Fix a width-of-cusp parameter $w, 0<w<<1$. Let $B_w$ be the cusp neighborhood of width $w$. (So $w=1$ corresponds to the ...
17
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0answers
505 views

Picture of Lambert's proof that $\pi$ is irrational?

With a suitably generous notion of "picture proof" or "proof without words" or "geometric proof," there do exist such proofs of the irrationality of square roots and even ...
0
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0answers
90 views

Generating function to continued fraction?

Assume $f_i \ne 0$. I want to convert a sequence: $$F(z) = 1+f_1z+f_2z^2+f_3z^3+\ldots$$ to a Stieltjes continued fraction (S-fraction): $$\frac{1}{1+\frac{g_1z}{1+ \cdots}}$$ See page 230 of these ...
3
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0answers
199 views

Asymptotic expansions for the continued fraction $[1,x,x^2,x^3,\cdots]$

The $n$-th convergent is defined as $$R_n(x) = \frac{P_n(x)}{Q_n(x)}=[1;x,x^2,\cdots,x^n]=1+\frac{1}{x+}\frac{1}{x^2+}\frac{1}{x^3+\cdots}\frac{1}{x^n}$$ where $P_n(x), Q(x)$ are polynomials ...
2
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1answer
95 views

Continued fractions, Chebyshev and non-homogenous approximation

In Khinchin's book, "Continued Fractions," he considers the question, given an irrational, $\alpha$, and a real number, $\beta$, how to find integral $x$ and $y$ such that $$\alpha x - y \...
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48 views

Function near lines mod 1

While thinking about some problems, I came across the following: Does there exist a function $f: \mathbb N \to \mathbb R$, and some $c \in \mathbb R$, such that for any $n$, any block of $cn$ ...
6
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0answers
180 views

Continued fractions and class groups

Let $d$ be a positive integer. It is well-known (due to Lagrange) that the continued fraction of $\sqrt{d}$ is eventually periodic. Moreover, it is known that the equation $$\displaystyle x^2 - dy^2 = ...
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227 views

Why is Haven's discovery important?

Today my attention was caught by one of those little stories that appear when you open a certain browser: an inmate achieved a number theoretic breakthrough It is about continued fractions and I would ...
2
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1answer
104 views

On a transcendental number defined as a variation involving the Lambert $W$ function in the nested square root representation of the golden ratio

Define the real number $\xi$ satisfying $$\xi=\sqrt{1+W\left(1+\sqrt{1+W(1+\ldots)}\right)}\tag{1}$$ where $W(x)$ denotes the main branch of the Lambert $W$ function, as reference I add that Wikipedia ...
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0answers
137 views

What is the nearest Ford circle for any point in $\mathbb R^2$

I want to draw Ford circles within a "distance Estimated system" (ray marching). Therefore, given a point $(x,y)$ from $\mathbb R^2$, I need the shortest distance to any circle with center $(p/q,1/2q^...
3
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1answer
236 views

Proof of continued fraction identity of subfactorial

This question is part of a wider conjecture I have formed with someone which has its roots in Raayoni et al. (2019). The subfactorial function can be written as $$!n=\frac{n!}e+\frac{(-1)^n}{n+2-\...
6
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0answers
127 views

Possible Birkhoff spectra for irrational rotations

Let $\mathbb{T}=\mathbb{R}/\mathbb{Z}$ be the unit circle (think of it as of the interval $[0,1)$ with endpoints identified). Assume that $\alpha$ is irrational and consider the rotation by $\alpha$, ...
3
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1answer
203 views

Distribution of partial quotients of $\sqrt{d}$ with $X < d \leq 2X$

Recall that for a real number $\alpha$, it has a continued fraction expansion usually written as $$\displaystyle \alpha = [a_0; a_1, a_2, \cdots].$$ Moreover, $\alpha$ is rational if and only if its ...
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0answers
30 views

Maximal orders in Clifford algebras

Let $$ \mathcal{C}_n(R)=R\langle e_1,\ldots,e_n\rangle/(\{e_i^2+1\}, \{e_ie_j+e_je_i:i\neq j\}) $$ be the Clifford algebra for the negative definite quadratic form $-\sum_ix_i^2$ obtained by adjoining ...
6
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1answer
487 views

Are the coefficients of certain product of Rogers-Ramanujan Continued Fraction non-negative?

Let $$R(q) = \cfrac{q^{1/5}}{1 + \cfrac{q}{1 + \cfrac{q^{2}}{1 + \cfrac{q^{3}}{1 + \cdots}}}}$$ The following equality is famous: $$\cfrac{q^{1/5}}{R(q)} = \prod_{k>0} \cfrac{(1-q^{5k-2})(1-q^{...
7
votes
2answers
357 views

Average number of iterations for the Euclidean algorithm to terminate

Let $N$ be a positive integer and $0 \leq s < N$. We try to divide $s$ into $N$ using the Euclidean algorithm: $N = q_1 s + r_1 $ $r = q_2 r_1 + r_2 $ $\vdots$ $r_{K-1} = q_{K-1} r_K$ If we ...
7
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2answers
173 views

Evaluation of hypergeometric type continued fraction

Is there a (possibly hypergeometric-type) explicit evaluation of the continued fraction $$a-\dfrac{1.(c+d)}{2a-\dfrac{2.(2c+d)}{3a-\dfrac{3.(3c+d)}{4a-\ddots}}}$$ Even the special case $d=0$, $a=1$ ...
2
votes
1answer
481 views

Does using continued fractions work to give a homeomorphism $\mathbb{Q}^+ \rightarrow (\mathbb{Q}^+)^2$?

Let $\mathbb{Q}$ be the topological space of rational numbers (with topology induced by inclusion in the real line) and let $\mathbb{Q}^+$ be the set of positive ($x>0$) rationals. I'm looking ...
3
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0answers
129 views

Why does division parallelize but not continued fractions and is there an analog of multiplication to continued fractions?

All the basic arithmetic operations $\times,+,/,-$ can be parallelized. However continued fraction representation of a rational number is not parallelized. The process of Euclid's algorithm looks ...
7
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3answers
1k views

Have new conjectures generated by the Ramanujan machine been proven?

Recently the following preprint was published with new automatically generated conjectures on generalizes continuous fractions, e.g., for the Euler constant: Raayoni, Pisha, Manor, Mendlovic, Haviv, ...
18
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1answer
1k views

Divergent Series & Continued Fraction (from Gauss' Mathematical Diary)

I've asked that question before on History of Science and Mathematics but haven't received an answer Does someone have a reference or further explanation on Gauß' entry from May 24, 1796 in his ...
8
votes
2answers
303 views

Riemann-Hilbert and orthogonal polynomials

Sorry for perhaps naive questions, I am not at all a specialist in the subject but I need it for my research. I know that there are close relations between Riemann-Hilbert problems and orthogonal ...
21
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0answers
493 views

Representations of $\zeta(3)$ as continued fractions involving cubic polynomials

$\zeta(3)$ has at least two well-known representations of the form $$\zeta(3)=\cfrac{k}{p(1) - \cfrac{1^6}{p(2)- \cfrac{2^6}{ p(3)- \cfrac{3^6}{p(4)-\ddots } }}},$$ where $k\in\mathbb Q$ and $p$ is a ...
5
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0answers
86 views

“middle” partial denominator in continued fraction expansion of square roots

Suppose $d$ is a positive integer that is not a perfect square such that the negative Pell equation, $x^{2}-dy^{2}=-1$ has no solution. Then we know the minimal period of the continued fraction ...
8
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1answer
164 views

Limit of quotients of elements of special Fibonacci matrices

Let $F_n$ be the $n$-th Fibonacci number, started with $F_0=0,F_1=1$, and consider the matrices $$M_n=\pmatrix{F_{n+3} & F_{n+1} \\ F_{n+2} & F_{n}}.$$ Let $$\pmatrix{\alpha_n & \beta_n \\...
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0answers
51 views

Bound for truncation error of continued fraction for $E_1(z)$

Let $z \in \mathbb C \setminus(-\infty,0)$. It is known that $$E_1(z) = \cfrac{e^{-z}}{z+\cfrac{1}{1+\cfrac{1}{z+\cfrac{2}{1+\cfrac{2}{z+\cfrac{3}{1+\cdots}}}}}}.$$ For example, see http://functions....
1
vote
1answer
100 views

Distinctness of quadratic surd continued fraction convergent ratio limit

In this question on math.stackexchange.com I have made two conjectures the first of which I have proved. The second has not been settled. I post it here to seek a proof. Given a quadratic surd $\sqrt ...
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0answers
51 views

Reduction of a Jacobi-type continued fraction

I am trying to reduce the following Jacobi-like continued fraction(or J-fraction): $$f(z)=z+K_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{R_{n}k^2}{z+Q_{n}}$$ where, $$R_{n}=n\left(n-\frac{1}{2}\right),\; Q_n=n\left(n+m+\...
6
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0answers
324 views

Theory of Irrational Tangles?

According to one possible definition, an $n$-tangle $T$ is a subset $T \subseteq \Bbb{R}^2\times [0,1] =: X$ that is homeomorphic to a disjoint union $[0,1] \times n := [0,1] \amalg \ldots \amalg [0,1]...
4
votes
2answers
274 views

Periods of the continued fraction expansions of Galois-conjugate quadratic-irrationals

Question: Given a quadratic irrational $x = a + b\sqrt{D}$ ($a,b \in \Bbb{Q}$, $D \in \Bbb{N}_{> 0}$ square-free) and its Galois conjugate $x' = a - b\sqrt{D}$, is it true that the continued ...
5
votes
0answers
242 views

Transcendental Continued Fractions

Liouville famously showed the existence of a transcendental number by considering $\alpha =\sum\limits_{n=0}^\infty10^{-n!}$ and showing that it did not satisfy 'Liouville's criterion' $|\alpha-p/q|\...
0
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0answers
77 views

Different characterizations of Liouville numbers

Usually, Liouville numbers are defined as follows: $x$ is Liouville if for ever $i\in\mathbb N$ there exist $n,m\in\mathbb Z$ such that \begin{equation} \left|x-\frac nm\right|<\frac1{m^i}. \end{...
3
votes
1answer
209 views

Matrix continued fractions

I am aware of the classical continued fraction in the field of real numbers, but recently I have come across the term matrix continued fraction and when I checked on the internet there are varieties ...
1
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2answers
178 views

Does the set of Diophantine $m$-tuples has full measure?

We say that an $m$-tuple $\omega=(\omega_1,\ldots,\omega_m)$ satisfies the Diophantine condition of order $\nu \geq 0$ if there is a constant $C>0$ such that for all natural $q$ and integer $p_1,\...
11
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0answers
372 views

Relation between a continued fraction and partitions

I am interested in the continued fraction $$\sum\limits_k {{z^{{2^k} - 1}}} = \frac{1}{{1 - \frac{{{T_0}z}}{{1 - \frac{{{T_1}z}}{{1 - \frac{{{T_2}z}}{{1 -{ \ddots }}}}}}}}}.$$ OEIS A104977 states ...
1
vote
1answer
131 views

Simultaneous Diophantine Condition and Growth Rate of Convergents Denominators

Let $\omega=(\omega_1,\ldots,\omega_{m})$ be an $m$-tuple of real numbers. Let $|\omega|_{m}:=\sup\limits_{1 \leq j \leq m}|\omega_j|_{1}$ be a metric on flat torus $\mathbb{T}^{m}=\mathbb{R}^{m}/\...
0
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0answers
166 views

whether the quotient of continued fraction of algebraic irrational number is bounded or not is similar or equivalent to Collatz conjecture?

I vaguely recall that whether the quotient of continued fraction of algebraic irrational number is bounded or not is similar or equivalent to Collatz conjecture, could any one give the reference? or ...
10
votes
1answer
209 views

Distribution of good diophantine approximations

Let $\langle x \rangle: \mathbb{R} \to (-1/2,1/2]$ be the periodic function with period $1$ which is $x$ for $x \in (-1/2,1/2]$. Is there some function $D(a,b)$ of real numbers $a<b$ such that, for ...
3
votes
1answer
258 views

Continued Fraction of Random Variables

So this is my first post in mathoverflow. I posted this problem in Mathstack, an I've also put a bounty on it, but did not get any response. If anyone can at least point out a reference on this ...