# Questions tagged [continued-fractions]

The continued-fractions tag has no usage guidance.

210
questions

8
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2
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### Distribution of traces and max entries of words of fixed length in $\operatorname{SL}_2(\mathbb{N})$

$\DeclareMathOperator\SL{SL}\DeclareMathOperator\tr{\mathsf{tr}}$$\SL_2(\mathbb{N})$ is a free monoid on the generators
$$
L=\begin{pmatrix}1&0\\1&1\end{pmatrix},\quad R=\begin{pmatrix}1&1\...

12
votes

3
answers

685
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### When does $2$ arise when using the Euclidean algorithm to compute greatest common divisors?

When using the standard Euclidean algorithm to compute the greatest common divisor of a pair of relatively prime positive integers, the integer $2$ sometimes arises and sometimes does not. For example,...

0
votes

0
answers

101
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### q-factor in the Rogers-Ramanujan continued fraction

The Rogers-Ramanujan continued fraction is defined by $$R(q)=\cfrac{q^{1/5}}{1+\cfrac{q}{1+\cfrac{q^2}{1+\cfrac{q^3}\ddots}}}.$$ I would like to know role played by the factor $q^{1/5}$ and why not ...

2
votes

1
answer

241
views

### Small solutions of $x^2-a^3 y^2=\pm 1$

We are interested in small integer solutions to the Pell equation:
$$x^2-a^3 y^2=\pm 1 \qquad (1)$$
Where in $\pm 1$ you can chose either sign.
$(x^2,a^3 y^2)$ are consecutive powerful numbers.
$abc$ ...

2
votes

0
answers

56
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### Are there any known Khinchin reals for which the asymptotics of "average" of their coefficients seems experimentally known?

We can define a Khinchin Real and recall the definition of Khinchin's Constant
A real number $r$ is a Khinchin real if given the simple continued fraction expansion of $r$ as
$$ r = a_0 + \cfrac{1}{...

4
votes

1
answer

124
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### Legendre's Irrationality Condition for Generalized Continued Fractions

This MathOverflow post cites that Legendre allegedly showed that given $a_{i}\in\mathbb{Z}\setminus\left\{0\right\}, b_{i}\in\mathbb{Z}$,
$$\cfrac{a_1}{b_1 + \cfrac{a_2}{b_2 + \cfrac{a_3}{b_3 + \cdots}...

7
votes

0
answers

255
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### Simple/Elementary derivation of Ramanujan's continued fraction for Hurwitz $\zeta(3,x+1)$

I came across this MSE post discussing a certain continued fraction for $\zeta(3)$ (more specifically, the Hurwitz zeta function $\zeta(s,z)$ at $s=3$) due to Ramanujan. I asked the original poster ...

3
votes

1
answer

77
views

### Evaluating the generalized continued fraction obtained from the factorization of a bivariate polynomial equation

Happy New Year, MO community!
We need someone expert in Generalized Continued Fractions (GCFs), with a deep knowledge of the GCFs’ convergence properties, to solve the following problem.
PROBLEM
...

1
vote

1
answer

200
views

### Calculating the value of periodic continued fractions with $a_i\in\lbrace 0,1\rbrace$

Question:
How can the value of continued fractions of the form
$$y:=a_0+\cfrac{1}{a_1+\cfrac{1}{a_2+\cfrac{1}{a_3+\cfrac{1}{\begin{align}\ddots& \\ &a_{n-1}+\cfrac{1}{a_n+y}\end{align}}}}}$$
$$...

2
votes

0
answers

63
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### Elementary recursion for the A258173

Let $a(n)$ be A258173 i.e. sum over all Dyck paths of semilength $n$ of products over all peaks $p$ of $y_p$, where $y_p$ is the $y$-coordinate of peak $p$.
A Dyck path of semilength $n$ is a $(x,y)$-...

0
votes

1
answer

272
views

### Factorization trees and (continued) fractions?

This question is inspired by trying to understand the lexicographic sorting of the natural numbers in the fractal at this question:
Is $1 = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{\pi(p_n^2)-n+2}{p_n^3-p_n}$ , ...

4
votes

2
answers

302
views

### Approximating a fraction with a given denominator

Let $M$, $N$ be large natural numbers (say ~200 bits). Let $L$ be a smaller number, (say ~100 bits).
I want to approximate the fraction:
$$\frac{M}{N} \sim \frac{k}{L+r}$$
where $r$ is at most $L$. In ...

3
votes

1
answer

203
views

### What can we say about the reciprocal of a reduced regular continued fraction?

For positive integers $a>b>0$, we can represent $a/b$ uniquely as $$\frac{a}{b}=a_1-\cfrac{1}{a_2-\cfrac{1}{\cdots-\cfrac{1}{a_n}}}=:[a_1,\dots,a_n]^{-}$$ with $a_i\geq 2$, and this is called ...

4
votes

0
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177
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### Simple continued fraction of Freiman's constant

The quadratic irrational $\frac{2221564096+283748\sqrt{462}}{491993569}$ is known as Freiman's constant and arises in the theory of continued fractions. I'm curious as to its simple continued ...

2
votes

0
answers

72
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### Is the continued fraction of a constructible number special in some way?

Rationals have finite CF and quadratic have periodic CF. CF in turn can be represented in terms of the modular group SL2(Z), e.g. using the standard generators S(z)=-1/z and T(z)=z+1. On the other ...

6
votes

1
answer

121
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### Finding the continued fraction for the "tails" of $\eta(3)$

I am interested in the continued fractions for the "tails" or "correction term" of the series sum of specific constants. For example, the Madhava's correction term for $\pi/4$:
$$
\...

0
votes

0
answers

83
views

### Numerical detection of Cantori

It is known that as parameters vary in Hamiltonian system, KAM tori can break [1,2].
How to construct numerically the breaking tori?
The most relevant paper that I could find is [3,4].
But it uses ...

2
votes

1
answer

145
views

### A bijection between odd natural integers and compositions

Given an odd natural integer $2a-1$ with $a\geq 1$, associate to it recursively the composition $\psi(1)=\emptyset$ and $\psi(2^{-n}a)+(n+\delta_{>1}(m))$ if $a=2^n m$ with $m$ odd where $\delta_{&...

6
votes

0
answers

120
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### Complexity of continued fraction arithmetic operations

Let $A = [a_0; a_1, \dots]$ and $B = [b_0; b_1, \dots]$ be continued fractions.
Let's say that we want to compute $A+B$ or $A \cdot B$ while staying in the continued fraction representation. So, for ...

1
vote

0
answers

206
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### Proving that quotient of orthogonal polynomials is a Padé approximant of Stieltjes transform

This question is reposted from Math Stack Exchange (you can see the original post here). The motivation for reposting is that I feel like the question isn't getting much attention in MSE - if there is ...

0
votes

1
answer

132
views

### Series reversion using something like continued fraction

Let $f(n)$ be an arbitrary function such that $f(n)\in\mathbb{Z}$.
Let
$$
F(x)=\sum\limits_{m\geqslant 0}f(m)x^m
$$
Define the operator $\operatorname{SR}$, which is associated with the series ...

18
votes

0
answers

710
views

### Are these continued fractions of integrals known?

Simplified repost of Are these continued fractions of integrals known? on MSE
EDIT: The period of the oscillations of $$f(s)=\dfrac1{1+\dfrac s{1+\dfrac{s^2/2!}{1+\dfrac{s^3/3!}{1+\cdots}}}}$$ ...

5
votes

1
answer

176
views

### On four Ramanujan-type "Legendrian" sequences with a 3-term recurrence?

I. Recurrences
In a previous post, it was mentioned how Almkvist-Zudilin did a computer search for solutions to the recurrence relation,
$$(n+1)^3s_{n+1}=(2n+1)(an^2+an+b)s_n+c\,n^3s_{n-1}$$
within a ...

7
votes

0
answers

433
views

### On H. Cohen's four continued fractions for $\zeta(3), \zeta(5), \zeta(7)$?

After 6 years from this old MO post, I finally find in the literature polynomials of deg-$5$ for the continued fraction of $\zeta(5)$.
I. Recurrences involving $\zeta(5)$
In Cohen's 2022 paper, ...

2
votes

0
answers

154
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### Finding similar Zudilin-Cohen recurrence relations and cfracs for $\frac{\zeta(4)}{13}$?

I. Two recurrence relations
The first one was also discussed in this MO post. We have the similar,
\begin{align}
(n+1)^5 u_{n+1} &= (2n + 1)(9n^2 + 9n + 3)(15n^2 + 15n + 4)u_n +3n^3(9n^2-1)u_{n-1}\...

7
votes

0
answers

264
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### Can you identify this irrational number?

There is a certain number, say $v$. I can prove it is irrational. That would be more interesting if it is expressible in terms of known values ... zeta functions, Catalan's number, L-functions, etc. ...

8
votes

2
answers

590
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### On Zagier's missing continued fraction with multiple limits?

I. Zagier's continued fraction
As pointed out by Gorodetsky in his answer, Zagier evaluated the continued fractions associated with his six sporadic sequences excepting the one for $(-9,-3,-27)$. Let $...

6
votes

1
answer

256
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### On the continued fractions using Cooper's sequences $s_7,\, s_{10},\, s_{18}$ and the Zudilin-Cohen sequence

In a previous MO post, H. Cohen suggested Gorodetsky's 2021 paper which discussed $6+6+3=15$ "sporadic sequences". The first 6 are Zagier's sporadic sequences, the second 6 are by Almkvist-...

10
votes

2
answers

686
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### On 12 cfracs: for Catalan's $K$, Gieseking's $\kappa$, and $\pi^2$, $\pi^3$, plus three for $\zeta(3)$ using Zagier's "six sporadic sequences"

I. Some functions
As these will be used in the continued fraction evaluations below, recall the Riemann zeta function $\zeta(s),$ and Dirichlet beta function $\beta(s),$
$$\beta(s) = \sum_{n=1}^\infty\...

-1
votes

2
answers

115
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### How to solve the following infinite ladder fraction? ( Through pen & paper ) [closed]

The fraction continues till infinity as shown in the image :

0
votes

0
answers

111
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### Improving Diophantine approximation by rescaling

Let $\lambda\in(0,1)$ be an irrational number such that its continued fraction expansion is bounded (for example, an irrational quadratic number, whose continued fraction is periodic). It is known ...

3
votes

1
answer

177
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### The growth of certain continued fractions

I was recently looking into an old problem of Hardy which studies the distribution of integers of the form $2^a 3^b \leq x$, where $a,b\geq 0$. Letting $N(x)$ denote the number of pairs $(a,b)$ ...

0
votes

2
answers

226
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### Natural extension of the Gauss map

Let $G:(0,1)\to(0,1)$ be the Gauss map, i.e., $G(x)=\left\{\frac1{x}\right\}$, which is known to act as the shift on the space of continued fraction expansions.
Question. Is there an explicit ...

10
votes

1
answer

294
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### Bibliography request: Entropy for continued fractions

Given a strictly positive real number $x$ we set $e(x)=\log(1+x)$ if $x$ is an integer and
$$e(x)=\log(1+x)+\frac{1+\lbrace x\rbrace}{1+x}\left(e(1/\lbrace x\rbrace)-\log(1+\lbrace x\rbrace)\right)$$
...

5
votes

0
answers

209
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### Very slow continued fraction convergence

Let $a(0)+b(0)/(a(1)+b(1)/(a(2)+b(2)/(a(3)+\dots)))$ be a continued fraction, and $p(n)/q(n)$ its $n$-th convergent. If it converges (i.e., $p(n)/q(n)$ tends to some limit
$S$ as $n\to\infty$), then $...

2
votes

0
answers

84
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### Curious sequences associated to continuous fractions

Given a strictly positive initial rational number $x_0$ in $\mathbb Q_>$
we define a sequence $x_0,x_1,\ldots$ recursively by
setting $x_{n+1}=x_n+1/S(x_n)$
for $S(x)=a_0+a_1+\ldots+a_k$
where $[...

6
votes

1
answer

640
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### Are these continued fractions for the "tails" of $\zeta(3)$ and of the Catalan constant known?

For polynomials $a=a(x)$ and $b=b(x)$, define the continued fraction $$f(a,b):=a(1)+ \lower 2pt\overset{\infty }{\underset{n=1}{\mathbb{\LARGE K}}}~\dfrac{b(n)}{a(n+1)}=a(1)+\cfrac{b(1)}{a(2) + \cfrac{...

3
votes

0
answers

94
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### Infinite families of continued fractions for the Catalan constant

The recent answer to an old question of mine made me aware of The Ramanujan Machine. So it seems like so far, the number of continued fraction representations for $\zeta(3)$ of this polynomial kind is ...

3
votes

1
answer

461
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### Period of continued fraction expansion and class number

Let $d>1$ be not a square. Then the continued fraction expansion of $\sqrt d$ is $[a_0; \overline{a_1,\dots,a_\ell}]$, where $a_0=\lfloor \sqrt d\rfloor$ and $a_\ell=2a_0$.
Thus, $\ell=\ell(d)$.
...

1
vote

0
answers

85
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### Quasiperiodic sequence, finite differences, recursion

Consider a sequence $\{an\}$ consisting of fractional parts of the numbers $an$ for natural numbers $n$ where $a$ is an irrational number. Its $n$th value is in the interval $(x;y)$ for numbers $n = ...

9
votes

2
answers

635
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### Is $\mathbb{Q}$ the orbit of a rational function under iteration?

In this previous post I asked for the smallest set of continuous real functions that could generate $\mathbb Q$ by iteration starting from $0$. Surprisingly one continuous function suffices.
In the ...

2
votes

0
answers

79
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### Is there a finite set of polynomials generating all rational numbers by iteration?

In this previous post I asked for the smallest set of continuous real functions that could generate $\mathbb{Q}$ by iteration starting from 0. Surprisingly one continuous function suffices.
The ...

33
votes

2
answers

2k
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### What is the smallest set of real continuous functions generating all rational numbers by iteration?

I recently came across this problem from USAMO 2005:
"A calculator is broken so that the only keys that still
work are the $\sin$, $\cos$, $\tan$, $\arcsin$, $\arccos$ and $\arctan$ buttons. The ...

9
votes

1
answer

742
views

### $\text{SL}_2(\mathbb{Z})$ and continued fractions?

I know the following facts: $\text{SL}_2(\mathbb{Z})$ is generated by everyone's favorite matrices
\begin{equation*}
S =
\begin{pmatrix}
0 & -1 \\
1 & 0
\end{pmatrix}
\end{equation*}
and
\...

1
vote

1
answer

182
views

### A continued J fraction for $a_n = \frac{1}{(n+1)^2}$?

The following is called a J continued fraction:
$$\cfrac{\alpha_0}{1+a_0x-\cfrac{b_1x^2}{1+a_1x-\cfrac{b_2x^2}{1+a_2x-\cdots}}}$$
where the constants are real numbers. Let $\alpha_n= \frac{1}{(n+1)^2}$...

0
votes

0
answers

137
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### A question on continued J-fraction

Consider the following two continued fractions $A$ and $B$:
$$\frac{\alpha_0}{1+a_0x-\frac{b_1x^2}{1+a_1x-\frac{b_2x^2}{1+a_2x-\cdots}}}$$
$$\frac{\beta_0}{1+c_0x-\frac{d_1x}{1+c_1x-\frac{d_2x}{1+c_2x-...

4
votes

2
answers

258
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### A special class of weighted Motzkin paths

Consider Motzkin paths with the following weight:
All up-steps and the horizontal steps on height $0$ have weight $1$, all down-steps have weight $t$ and the horizontal steps on even heights have ...

3
votes

1
answer

254
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### Distance formula for continued fractions

In the book Neverending fractions from Borwein, van der Poorten, Shallit and Zudilin, there is the so called distance formula (Theorem 2.45, p. 43) stated:
$$\alpha_1\alpha_2\cdot...\cdot\alpha_n=\...

3
votes

0
answers

163
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### Reconstructing elements of $\mathbb Q$ in $\mathbb Z_p$

Can a rational number $a/b$ (with $b$ coprime to a prime number $p$) be recovered efficiently from a $p$-adic expansion of the form
$$\frac{a}{b}=\sum_{j=0}^\infty x_jp^j,\ x_j\in\{0,\ldots,p-1\}\ ?$$
...

16
votes

1
answer

2k
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### Extending Apéry's proof to Catalan's constant?

I've been looking into Apéry's irrationality proof of $\zeta (3)$, and one of the first questions I instantly had, was how did he derive the following continued fraction?
$$\begin{equation*} \zeta (3)=...