# Questions tagged [real-algebraic-geometry]

Real algebraic geometry is the study of real solutions to algebraic equations with real coefficients. Its methods are rather different from classical algebraic geometry, which is typically done over an algebraically closed field (like the complex numbers).

214
questions

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### The first part of the Hilbert sixteenth problem for elliptic polynomials

A polynomial $P(x,y)\in \mathbb{R}[x,y]$ is called an elliptic polynomial if its highest homogeneous part does not vanish on $\mathbb{R}^2\setminus\{0\}$.
Inspired by the first part of the Hilbert ...

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**1**answer

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### A property of varieties between unirational and retract rational

EDIT: The vague question Q1 below is partially answered, while the concrete question Q2 seems to be still open.
Let $V$ be a geometrically integral variety over a field $K$.
I consider the following ...

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**6**answers

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### Differentiability of eigenvalues of positive-definite symmetric matrices

Let $A\in M(n,\mathbb{R})$ be an invertible matrix. Consider the (real) eigenvalues $\lambda_1,\cdots,\lambda_n$, in increasing order, of the positive-definite symmetric matrix $A^t A$. We shall ...

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### General Tarski-Seidenberg Theorem

The Tarski-Seidenberg Theorem states that the polynomial image of a semi-algebraic set is semi-algebraic. A semi-algebraic subset of a Euclidean space $\Bbb{R}^n$ is by definition a finite union of ...

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**1**answer

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### When is a set defined by multivariate polynomial inequalities convex?

Consider the set of real numbers given by
$$S = \{(a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h) \in [0,1]^8 : 0 \le \frac{e(g-h)}{b(g-f)} \le 1 \text{ and } 0 \le \frac{e(h-f)}{(1-b)(g-f)} \le 1\}$$
Note that this set can also ...

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**3**answers

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### Polynomial inequality of sixth degree

There is the following problem.
Let $a$, $b$ and $c$ be real numbers such that $\prod\limits_{cyc}(a+b)\neq0$ and $k\geq2$ such that $\sum\limits_{cyc}(a^2+kab)\geq0.$
Prove that:
$$\sum_{cyc}\...

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**0**answers

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### Approximating zero sets of real polynomials with “less complicated” polynomials

Let $K \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ be a compact subset, and let $P(x_1,\dots,x_n)$ be a real multivariable polynomial of degree $d$, whose vanishing set we denote by $Z_P$. Is it plausible to approximate $...

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### On strict positivity and Schmüdgen's Positivstellensatz

Schmüdgen's Positivstellensatz requires the polynomial to be strictly positive on a semialgebraic set. While trying to understand it, I am just wondering if the strictly positive condition can be ...

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### Is every minimal hypersurface in $S^n$ algebraic?

Let $S^n$ be the round n-sphere. Wu-yi Hsiang asked in his paper “Remarks on closed minimal submanifolds in the standard riemannian m-sphere” (1967) the follow question
Is every minimal ...

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**1**answer

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### A close-form solution for a simple quadratic optimization problem

Is there any closed form solution for the following optimization problem:
\begin{align}
&\min_{\mathbf{X},\alpha} \mathrm{Tr}[(\mathbf{A}-\mathbf{B}\mathbf{X})(\mathbf{A}-\mathbf{B}\mathbf{X})^{\...

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**1**answer

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### Do these surfaces intersect?

For any real numbers $a_{1},a_{2},\cdots a_{6}$ and $b_{1},b_{2},\cdots b_{6}$
with $\sum_{i=1}^{6}a_{i}^{2}=1$ and $\sum_{i=1}^{6}b_{i}^{2}=1$,
does the equation $$ x_{1}^{2}x_{2}^{2}x_{3}^{2}x_{4}^{...

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**0**answers

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### Real analytic function: zero set of the gradient is a subset of the zero set of the function

I had this question when reading Bierstone and Milman's famous paper "Semianalytic and subanalytic sets". In their proof of the Łojasiewicz gradient inequality (Proposition 6.8 in the paper), they ...

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**2**answers

269 views

### Why does a complex linear normalization of a real algebraic surface inherit a real structure?

Could you recommend any references to (some of) the following very basic assertions in algebraic geometry? (It seems unreasonable to reprove them in a research paper.)
(1) Let a surface $X$ in $\...

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**1**answer

406 views

### What is the topology on the set of field orders

Inspired by this question I was wondering whether there is a natural topology on the set of all orders on a field (that extend a given order on a subfield)?
For example for the function field $\...

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**0**answers

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### Quantifier elimination with no free variables and real polyhedral inequalities

In this introductory blog post https://cstheory.blogoverflow.com/2011/11/something-you-should-know-about-quantifier-elimination-part-i/ it is mentioned in the very last line that "I do not know if a ...

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**1**answer

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### Lower bound for polyhedral real quantifier elimination

All known examples for double exponential lower bounds for real quantifier elimination involves polynomial inequalities with degree $>1$.
Is there an example of double exponentiality with ...

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**2**answers

107 views

### How to determine the range of values of A(i,j) in Covariance matrix A?

Let $A(i,j), i,j=0,1,2$ be the covariance matrix of three random variables. If we know all the entries except $A(2,0)$ and $A(0,2)$, how to determine the range of possible values of $A(2,0)$?

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votes

**1**answer

151 views

### Homogeneous polynomial in 4 variable with non degenerate zero

I've got a very simple question about a homogenous polynomial, for which I cannot see neatly how to proceed (probably due to my limitations in algebraic geometry though). Any help would be greatly ...

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**1**answer

108 views

### Intersections of algebraic surfaces with hypercubes of a $d$-dimensional grid

This is a follow-up question, to a question I asked earlier.
See Algebraic curve intersecting square-grid.
Consider $n^d$ unit hypercubes in $d$-dimensional Euclidean space
tightly packed in the ...

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**2**answers

247 views

### Algebraic curve intersecting square-grid

Let us subdivide the unit square into square-grid cells with sidelength $w$. This will give us roughly $w^{-2}$ cells.
Formally
$$ g_{ij} = \{(wi, wj) + (x,y) : 0\leq x,y\leq w \},$$
for $i,j = 0,\...

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### Example of applying real quantifier elimination algorithm for polynomials

Sorry if any of this is unclear, or doesn't make much sense, I'm still trying to figure it out, a practical example such as this would likely help me understand better than anything else. I have read ...

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### Monadic second-order theories of the reals

I’m looking for a survey of monadic second-order theories of the reals.
I’m starting from a 1985 survey by Gurevich which says (p 505) that true arithmetic can be reduced to “the monadic theory of ...

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**1**answer

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### Intersection of quadratic equations with planted solutions?

Suppose we have two quadratic equations in $\mathbb R[x_1,\dots, x_n]$. What is the expected dimension of their intersection?
In general what can we say about intersection of $k$ quadratics? How many ...

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**1**answer

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### SDP representation of ideal polynomials for positivstellensatz refutations

If we want to certify the nonexistence of real solutions to a polynomial system of equations, i.e.
$$ S = \{ x\in \mathbb{R}^n \ | \ h_i (x) = 0, \ i=1,\dots,t \} = \emptyset, $$
we can produce a ...

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**1**answer

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### Polynomials (or analytic functions) vanishing on a real algebraic set

I have seen the following result stated several times in the literature, without proof:
Let $\mathbb{K}$ be $\mathbb{R}$ or $\mathbb{C}$, and assume $P\in\mathbb{K}[X_{1},\ldots,X_{n}]$ is an ...

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**1**answer

203 views

### Does quantifier elimination help here?

Suppose we have a quantified linear program
$$\exists z_1,\dots,z_{poly(n)}\in\mathbb R$$
$$\exists u_1,\dots,u_n\in\mathcal P\cap\mathbb R^m$$
$$\forall v_1,\dots,v_n\in\mathcal P\cap\mathbb R^m$$
$$...

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### A retract algebraic subset of the plane which does not admit an algebraic retraction

What is an example of an algebraic (=Zariski closed) subset $C$ of $\mathbb{R}^2$ which is a topological retract of $\mathbb{R}^2$, but there is no algebraic retraction $P:\mathbb{R}^2 \to C$?
What ...

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### Is it possible for the Witt group of a scheme to have non-trivial odd torsion?

Let $F$ be a field of characteristic not $2$. A well-known theorem of Pfister asserts that the torsion of $W(F)$, the Witt group of $F$, is $2$-primary.
Baeza [B, V.6.3] extended this result to Witt ...

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### Kronecker's theorem in higher dimension

Recall the following classical theorem of Kronecker: if $P(x) \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ is a monic irreducible polynomial with all roots on the unit circle $S^1$, then $P(x)$ is a cyclotomic polynomial (and ...

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### Are nearby points in an algebraic curve necessarily connected?

I would like a result of the following form:
For every algebraic curve $C$ in $\mathbb{R}\mathbf{P}^{n-1}$, there exists an
explicit and easy-to-compute $\epsilon=\epsilon(C)>0$ such that ...

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**1**answer

241 views

### Is every basis for $\bigwedge^kV$ satisfying a “complementary” property a rescaling of a “standard” basis?

This is a cross-post.
Let $V$ be a $4$-dimensional real vector space. Let $\omega_{i_1,i_2}$
be a basis for $\bigwedge^2V$, where each $\omega_{i_1,i_2}$ is decomposable. Suppose that for every $\...

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### Orbits of unipotent groups

Let $V$ be a real vector space (of finite dimension) and let $G$ be a unipotent Lie subgroup of $\mathrm{GL}(V)$. The orbits of points under the action of $G$ (that is, the sets $Gx = \{T(x) \ : \ T \...

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### Sum of squared nearest-neighbor distances between points on the sides of a rectangle

For positive real numbers $a,b$, let $R$ denote the $a\times b$ rectangle $[0,a]\times[0,b]$. Let $A_1,\dots,A_4$ be points on the sides of $R$, one point on each side. For each $j=1,\dots,4$, let $...

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### Biggest Cartesian Product Included in a Real Plane Curve

Suppose an irreducible smooth $p \in \mathbb{R}[x_1,x_2]$ is given, and we would like to find finite sets $S_1 , S_2 \subset \mathbb{R}$ such that $p(S_1 \times S_2)=0$ and $|S_1 \times S_2|$ is as ...

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### Number of connected components of degree 2 affine algebraic varieties

Suppose an algebraic variety $V$ is given as the solutions to $q$ polynomial equations of degree $\le k$ with real coefficients
$$p_1(x_1,\dots,x_m)=0,\dots,p_q(x_1,\dots,x_m)=0$$
for $x\in\mathbb R^m$...

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**1**answer

153 views

### About independence spread

$A$, $B_{i}$ are some events.
If $A$, $B_{i}$ are independent $\forall i \in \mathbb N$ and $A \cap B_{1}, A \cap B_{2}, ..., A \cap B_{k}, ...$ are independent in aggregate, how to show, that $\...

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### Cohomology of real analytic coherent sheaves

Let $M$ be a real analytic variety
(if someone is concerned about distinction between
"real analytic spaces" and "real analytic varieties"
in real analytic geometry, let's assume that $M$
is both "...

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### Maximum number of connected components of a real affine curve

Harnack's curve theorem tells us that the maximum number of connected components of an algebraic curve of degree $d$ in the real projective plane is $1 + (d-1)(d-2)/2$ (and this bound is sharp).
What ...

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### Affine automorphisms of real affine varieties

Let $V \subset \mathbb{R}^d$ be a real affine variety. I'm hoping I will not butcher existing nomenclature too badly if I say that for the purposes of this question an affine automorphism of $V$ is an ...

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**2**answers

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### The set of polytopes with given $f$-vector

Let $f=(f_0,\ldots f_n)$ be a vector in $\Bbb N^{n+1}$. Let $X$ be the set of all (ordered) $f_0$-tuples in $\Bbb R^n$ whose convex hull has $f$ as its $f$-vector. Assume that $X$ is non-empty. Is ...

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### another extremal property of regular polygons

$\newcommand{\R}{\mathbb{R}}\newcommand{\D}[1]{\Delta_{#1}}\newcommand{\set}[1]{\{#1\}}\newcommand{\abs}[1]{\lvert#1\rvert}\newcommand{\E}{\mathbb{1}}$
In 1984 S.D.Berman, a Soviet mathematician, ...

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122 views

### Chebyshev-like Problem for Plucker Coordinates

$\newcommand{\R}{\mathbb{R}}\newcommand{\D}[1]{\Delta_{#1}}\newcommand{\set}[1]{\{#1\}}\newcommand{\abs}[1]{\lvert#1\rvert}$
Let $n=2d+1$ be an odd integer, let $Gr(2,n)$ denote the Grassmmanian over $...

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### Matrices that admit a power that is symmetric

We fix an integer $n\geq 2$. Let $S_n$ be the set of real symmetric matrices in $M_n(\mathbb{R})$. We consider the algebraic sets $Y_k=\{A\in M_n(\mathbb{R});A^k\in S_n\},k\geq 2$ and the sequence $...

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634 views

### How can I distinguish a genuine solution of polynomial equations from a numerical near miss?

Cross-posted from MSE, where this question was asked over a year ago with no answers.
Suppose I have a large system of polynomial equations in a large number of real-valued variables.
\begin{align}
...

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**1**answer

593 views

### Counting real zeros of a polynomial

I recently came across a criteria to count the number of real zeros of a polynomial $P(x)$ with real coefficients. Unfortunately I cannot find the reference! The criteria is the following: Form the ...

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### (Euclidean) open orbit in an irreducible real algebraic set

Let $\tau:GL(n,\mathbb{R}) \rightarrow GL(V)$ be a rational representation of the general linear group of degree $n$ on a finite-dimensional real vector space $V$. Let $C$ be an irreducible real ...

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**1**answer

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### Atoric equation

I'm looking for a general equation/function z = f(x, y, radius1, radius2, p1, p2) for an atoric surface. p1 and p2 could be either eccentricity or conic constant values. Can anyone help me with that?
...

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**1**answer

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### Symmetric orthogonal matrices with constant diagonal entries

$\newcommand{\al}{\alpha}
\newcommand{\be}{\beta}
\newcommand{\de}{\delta}
\newcommand{\De}{\Delta}
\newcommand{\ep}{\varepsilon}
\newcommand{\ga}{\gamma}
\newcommand{\Ga}{\Gamma}
\newcommand{\la}{\...

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### A question on symmetric matrices

$\newcommand{\R}{\mathbb{R}}$
The question is
Is there a constructive (say, parametric) description of the set (say $M_n$) of all symmetric matrices $A\in\R^{n\times n}$ such that all the diagonal ...

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167 views

### Solutions to a system of homogeneous equations (inequalities)

Let $f_1,\ldots,f_r \in \mathbb{R}[x_1,\ldots,x_n]$ be $r$ homogeneous polynomials of the same odd degree $d$, where $d \in \{3,5,7,\ldots\}$.
For which values of $r,n,d$ there exists a real ...