# Questions tagged [packing-and-covering]

The packing-and-covering tag has no usage guidance.

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### Growth rate of bounded Lipschitz functions on compact finite-dimensional space

Let $\mathcal X$ be a metric space of diameter $D$ and "dimension" (e.g doubling dimension) $d$. Let $L \in [0, \infty]$ and $M \in [0, \infty)$ and consider the class $\mathcal H_{M,L}$ of $L$-...

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### Tiling squares with oblongs

An oblong is a rectangle whose width and length are consecutive integers: 1x2, 2x3, 3x4, etc. Does N exist such that it is possible to split the first N oblongs into 2 or more non-intersecting sets so ...

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### Inefficient covering by translates

While trying to answer this question, I arrived at another question:
How many translates of $\{0,1\}^n$ does it take to cover $\mathbb F_3^n$?
The broader context is: consider a set $S$ and a ...

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### Upper bounds on $\epsilon$-covers of arbitrary compact manifolds

Let $M \subset \mathbb{R}^d$ be a compact $k$-dimensional manifold embedded in $\mathbb{R}^d$. Let $\mathcal{N}(\epsilon)$ denote the size of the minimum $\epsilon$-cover $P$ of $M$, that is for every ...

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### Lower bound on $\epsilon$-covers of arbitrary manifolds

Let $M \subset \mathbb{R}^d$ be a $k$-dimensional manifold embedded in $\mathbb{R}^d$. Let $\mathcal{N}(\epsilon)$ denote the size of the minimum $\epsilon$-cover $P$ of $M$, that is for every point $...

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### Covering a sphere with ellipsoid-products in high dimension

For $\Sigma\geq 0$ a $k\times k$ matrix and large $n$, fix $E:= \{(x_i)_{i=1}^n: \sum_i x_i^\dagger \Sigma x_i \leq n\}$. Fix $(z_m)_m$ as $M$ points iid uniform on $\mathbb{S}^{nk-1}\subset \mathbb{...

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383 views

### Coverage of balls on random points in Euclidean space

We have n points randomly distributed in a d-dimensional unit hypercube. We randomly sample k of those points and center a ball with radius r on each of those k points. Does there exist an estimate of ...

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### How to pack 27 $a\times b\times c$ blocks into a cube of side $a+b+c$ with some kind of symmetry?

Recently I stumbled on the problem quoted here about a geometric proof of the AM-GM inequality $$(a_1+\cdots+a_n)^n\ge n^n a_1\cdots a_n$$ by packing $n^n$ rectangular $ n$-dimensional boxes of sides $...

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151 views

### Lower bound on misclassification rate of Lipschitz functions in terms of Lipschitz constant

Important note
@MateuszKwaśnicki in the comment section has raised a fundamental issue with the current statement of the problem. I'm trying to bugfix it.
Setup
I wish to show that a Lipschitz ...

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191 views

### VC dimension, fat-shattering dimension, and other complexity measures, of a class BV functions

I wish to show that a function which is "essentially constant" (defined shortly) can't be a good classifier (machine learning). For this i need to estimate the "complexity" of such a class of ...

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432 views

### Which finite sets could be packed into a square?

This question is inspired by an interesting visualization of the finite levels of von Neumann's hierarchy on Adam P. Goucher's blog, Complex Projective 4-Space.
The problem starts with a two-...

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148 views

### Counting triples family with double shared elements

We have a set of elements $S=\{1,2,3, . . . , N\}$ and family $F$ of $N$ triples of elements in $S$ ($N$ is a multiple of 3). Each element of $S$ appears in exactly three triples. The elements in each ...

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### Packing number of Lipschitz functions

For some $L>0$ say ${\cal L}$ is the space of all $L-$Lipschitz functions mapping $(X,\rho) \rightarrow [0,1]$ where $(X,\rho)$ is a metric space.
For any $\alpha >0$ do we know of a ...

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### Packing points in a lattice

Let $L$ be the square or triangular lattice in the plane, with nearest neighbors having distance 1. Has anyone studied the problem of finding the maximum (okay, supremum) density achieved by a subset ...

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### Sphere packings with antipodal (unequal) spheres

Let $\|\cdot\|_2$ denote the Euclidean norm, let $\langle \cdot, \cdot\rangle$ denote the standard dot product, and let $\mathcal{S}^{d-1} = \{\mathbf{x} \in \mathbb{R}^d: \|\mathbf{x}\|_2 = 1\}$ ...

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### Randomly covering a sphere

Let $S$ be the $n$-dimensional unit sphere in the Euclidean space. Further,
let $X_1,\ldots,X_k$ and $Y_1,\ldots,Y_m$ be iid $S$-valued random variables with common (unknown) distribution $\mu$. With $...

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### Density of a saturated random packing of congruent circles

The problem of the expected density of a saturated random packing of unit circles in the plane can be described as follows.
In a circular region $C$ of a large radius pick a point at random and draw ...

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### Is there a mathematical explanation for this cube packing phenomenon?

I saw this unintuitive result on dice packing:
A jumble of thousands of cubic dice, agitated by an oscillating
rotation, can rapidly become completely ordered, a result that is hard
to produce ...

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### Dodecahedral rolling distance

Let a dodecahedron sit on the plane,
with one face's vertices on an origin-centered unit circle.
Fix the orientation so that the edge whose indices are $(1,2)$ is horizontal.
For any $p \in \mathbb{R}...

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### Packing net of simplex

For given $d$, we can define the simplex as follows,
$S=\{(x_1,x_2,\cdots,x_d):x_1\geq x_2\geq \cdots\geq x_d\geq 0,\sum x_i=1\}$.
We can define the distance on $S$ as $L_1$ distance.
An $\epsilon$ ...

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191 views

### Thinnest covering of the plane by regular pentagons

Q. Is it known what is the thinnest covering of the infinite plane by regular pentagons?
By covering I mean every point of the plane is covered.
By thinnest I mean the proportion of the plane covered ...

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160 views

### Equation of state for hard rods

Some context:
For ideal gases, the thermodynamic equation of state is the well-known:
$$
pV = nRT \tag{1}
$$
where $n$ is the amount of substance, $R$ the universal gas constant and $P,V,T$ are ...

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181 views

### Packing number of $\ell_1$ ball in $\ell_{\infty}$ metric

Consider the $d$-dimensional $\ell_1$ ball $\mathbb B_d=\{x\in\mathbb R^d: \|x\|_1\leq 1\}$, where $\|x\|_1=\sum_{i=1}^d{|x_i|}$. I'm interested in the maximum size of the (finite) subset $S\subseteq\...

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### packing with special sets in high dimensional Euclidean space

Let $\lambda$ be Lebesgue measure on $[0,1]$. For $\mathbf{x}=(x_1,x_2,..,x_k)\in[0,1]^k$, define $$A(\mathbf{x}):=\{(y_1,\dots,y_k)\in [0,1]^k: \text{there exist intervals }I_1,\dots,I_k \text{ in }[...

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### Can squares of side 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, … be packed into three quarters of a unit square?

My question is prompted by this illustration from Eugenia Cheng’s book Beyond Infinity, where it appears in reference to the Basel problem.
Is it known whether the infinite set of squares of side $\...

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281 views

### Sequential addition of points on a circle, optimizing asymptotic packing radius

Suppose I have to put $N$ points $x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_N$ on the circle $S^1$ of length 1 so as to achieve the largest minimum separation (packing radius). The optimal solution is the equally spaced ...

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### Packing the box $[0,X^{\delta_1}] \times [0,X^{\delta_2}] \times [0,X^{\delta_3}] \subseteq \mathbb{R}^3$ with cubes

Let $0 < \delta_1 \leq \delta_2 \leq \delta_3 \leq 1$, and consider the box $B := [0,X^{\delta_1}] \times [0,X^{\delta_2}] \times [0,X^{\delta_3}] \subseteq \mathbb{R}^3$. Let $X > 3$ say. Is it ...

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### Packing of anisotropic objects

The most famous version of packing problems deals with perfectly symmetrical shapes such as spheres. But how about anisotropic shapes? More prcisely, if we want to compare spherocylinders (cylinders ...

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### Exact bin packing the harmonic series: references?

Given $n$ and $B_n= \lceil H_n \rceil$, where the latter is the $n$th harmonic number $\sum^n_{i=1} 1/i$, for most $n$ it is easy to pack the first $n$ terms of the harmonic series into $B_n$ many ...

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### Minimum number of rectangles in a polygon

Given a polygon and dimension $d$, find a minimum partition of rectangles that has either of its dimensions equal to $d$.
Example:
Consider the following diagram:
I want to cover maximum shaded ...

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71 views

### lower bound for sum of (squared) distances under a minimum distance restriction

I am trying to solve a packing problem in discrete geometry and it would be useful to know the answer to the following problem.
Let $A_1$, $A_2$,..., $A_n$ be $n$ points in the Euclidean plane $\...

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### Electrons on a pancake ellipsoid

The problems of minimizing the potential energy of electrons
on a sphere, or maximizing the smallest distance between the electrons,
have been well-studied.
E.g., see the
earlier MO question
"...

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256 views

### Integer sets with forbidden differences

Given a finite set $S$ of positive integers, and a positive integer $n$, let $F(n,S)$ be the largest possible cardinality of a subset of {$1,2,\dots,n$} no two of whose elements differ by a number in $...

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### Sub-sector covers for disks and balls

Define an open $k$-sector of a disk as the portion between two radii separated
by an angle of $2\pi/k$, but open along the two radii (and closed along the
circle boundary).
Call a set a sub-$k$-sector ...

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### Optimal stacking of split logs

Consider firewood logs as unit-radius cylinders of the same length.
Each log is split into $k$ pieces by equiangular sectors
meeting in the circle center:
$k=2$ leads to semicircles, $180^\circ$;
$k=3$...

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### The smallest disk containing all cirular arcs

In a comment to my recent question about covering segments by a disk, Gerhard Paseman has suggested a generalisation: replacing the segments of the original $n$-gon by a simple closed (say, convex) ...

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### The smallest disk containing all sides of an $n$-gon

Start with a regular $n$-gon of side 1 and consider its sides as open segments that can be moved around in the plane, allowing only translations. Two segments may not intersect.
What is the radius ...

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### Packing obtuse vectors in $\mathbb{R}^d$

I came across this attractive theorem:
Theorem. In $\mathbb{R}^d$, there can be at most $d+1$ vectors that
form an obtuse angle with one another.
This was proved1 as a corollary of a lemma about ...

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### How to pack 3D boxes into a bigger box?

Given a box of given size $L\times M\times N$ and a list of smaller boxes of given sizes $(l_i,m_i,n_i)$, decide whether the smaller boxes altogether fit into the big box (and produce such a packing ...

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### Equitably distributed curve on a sphere

Let $\gamma=\gamma(L)$ be a
simple (non-self-intersecting) closed curve of length $L$
on the unit-radius sphere $S$.
So if $L=2\pi$, $\gamma$ could be a great circle.
I am seeking the most equitably ...

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### Randomly placing nonoverlapping unit cuboids

Suppose one places unit cuboids of dimension $d$ with min-corners
uniformly distributed to lie in $[0,n]^d$, but with cuboid (strict) overlap forbidden.
At some point, the region is "saturated," ...

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### What measurable quantity can constrain the number of odors human can discriminate?

This is not a very typical MO question, but I hope you bear with me. It concerns a recent disagreement in the biology literature about how many different odors humans can discriminate. The authors of ...

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### Is the kissing number in $n$ dimensions always divisible by $n$? And what is the base of exponential growth of the kissing number?

And why are the kissing numbers for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 dimensions all highly composite numbers?

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### Translative packing constant strictly larger than lattice packing constant

Simply put, my question is this: what is the smallest dimension, if any,
where we can know for sure that a convex body exists whose translative
packing constant is strictly larger than its lattice ...

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### Packing space by cones: Translates best?

Let $C$ be a right circular cone, the convex hull of a unit-radius disk
and a point directly above the disk center at height $h$.
Is the ...

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### Triangle (constrained number, rather than shape) packing?

Are there any interesting results on optimal packings in the plane using a fixed number of triangles (without a fixed size or shape constraint)?
For instance, what's the maximum area packing of the ...

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### Characterizing the norms on $\mathbb{R}^3$ coming from Platonic solids

Recall that any sufficiently nice compact centrally symmetric convex body in $B \subset \mathbb{R}^3$ gives rise to a Banach norm on $\mathbb{R}^3$ which has $B$ as its unit ball.
Is there a nice ...

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### Combination of 2 × 1 × 1 cubes inside a 3 × 3 × n cube [closed]

You have a block with a width of 3, depth of 3 and a height n
Given n, in how many ways can you fill this block with smaller blocks of 2 x 1 x 1?
if n is uneven, one 1x1x1 block will be unused. This ...

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262 views

### Cover of a n-simplex with balls

Consider a n-simplex. For each edge (i,j), consider a n-ball, such that vertices i and j are antipodal on this ball. Is the simplex covered by the union of these balls? Thank you.

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### Rectangology and squareology

I thought that rectangles were simple, and squares even simpler. Until my research has led me to several questions about rectangles and squares, which I can't solve.
I started by posting this ...