# Questions tagged [alternative-proof]

Looking for a proof different from the standard proof(s) of a result

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### Which theorems have Pythagoras' Theorem as a special case?

Loomis famously wrote hundreds of proofs of Pythagoras' Theorem (reference below), but these are all basically proofs "from below". Today on Twitter @panlepan mentioned Carnot's theorem ...

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### Verification of a certain computation of VC dimension

Disclaimer: I'm not very familiar with the concept of VC dimensions and how to manipulate such objects. I'd be grateful if expects on the subject (learning theory, probability), could kindly proof ...

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### Quadrisecants of knots

Recall that a quadrisecant of a knot is a line that passes thru four points on it.
If the points appear on the line in the order $a$, $b$, $c$, $d$ and on the knot in the order $a$, $c$, $b$, $d$, ...

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### Collecting alternative proofs for the oddity of Catalan

Consider the ubiquitous Catalan numbers $C_n=\frac1{n+1}\binom{2n}n$. In this post, I am looking for your help in my attempt to collect alternative proofs of the following fact: $C_n$ is odd if and ...

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### Results with short, advanced proofs or long, elementary proofs

Recently I was preparing an undergrad-level proof of (a form of) the Jordan Curve Theorem, and I had forgotten just how much work is involved in it. The proof stored my head was just using Alexander ...

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### A question on the applicability Chebyshev inequality for sequence of random quantities

Let $(X_n)_n$ and $(Y_n)_n$ be two mutually independent sequences of random tensors (i.e scalars, vectors, matrices, etc.) defined on the same probability space, and let $f$ be a measurable function.
...

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### Which step is wrong in the following simplification of Silver's forcing?

Theorem: If M is a countable transitive model of ZFC, and $\kappa$ is a supercompact cardinal in M, and $2^\kappa=\kappa^+$. Then there exists a forcing extension M[G] such that $\kappa$ becomes a ...

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### An alternate definition of Sobolev space $W^{1,p}(\Omega)$ when $1<p\leq\infty$ and consequences

Suppose that we define the Sobolev space $W^{1,p}(\Omega)$ with $1<p\leq \infty$, where $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^d$ ($d\geq 1$) is an open set (not necessarily bounded), in the following manner.
...

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### Generalizing Bottema's theorem

Can you provide another proof for the claim given below?
Claim. In any triangle $\triangle ABC$ construct triangles $\triangle ACE$ and $\triangle BDC$ on sides $AC$ and $BC$ such that $\frac{AE}{AC}...

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### Proofs of theorems that proved more or deeper results than what was first supposed or stated as the corresponding theorem

Recently, I figured out that a colleague of mine has had published during recent years a proof of a theorem in which he was actually proving a deeper result which we both thought to be still open. ...

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### Slick proof of Stirling's Formula?

In Upper Limit on the Central Binomial Coefficient, Noam Elkies and David Speyer have given a nice proof that the central binomial coefficient $\binom{2n}{n} \sim \frac{4^n}{\sqrt{\pi n}}$. This can ...

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### Alternative proofs sought after for a certain identity

Here is an identity for which I outlined two different arguments. I'm collecting further alternative proofs, so
QUESTION. can you provide another verification for the problem below?
Problem. Prove ...

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### Picture of Lambert's proof that $\pi$ is irrational?

With a suitably generous notion of "picture proof" or "proof without words" or "geometric proof," there do exist such proofs of the irrationality of square roots and even ...

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### Theorems with many proofs

Q. What are the characteristics of theorems that seem to invite (or possess) several or even many distinct proofs?
What I have in mind are examples such as these:
Proofs that there are infinitely ...

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### Katz's proof of Cartier's (descent) theorem

I am trying to understand the proof of Cartier’s theorem on pages 370-371 (pages 17-18 of the PDF file) of Katz’s “Nilpotent connections and the monodromy theorem: applications of a result of ...

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### What are some interesting applications of the Archimedean Property?

So a wile back I managed to prove the The Remainder Theorem starting from the Archimidean property and since then I've thought what could be other results which can be proved using it. But I haven't ...

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### Topological proof that a Vitali set is not Borel

This question is purely out of curiosity, and well outside my field — apologies if there is a trivial answer. Recall that a Vitali set is a subset $V$ of $[0,1]$ such that the restriction to $V$ of ...

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### What's the use of countable ordinals? (prompted by a remark of Tim Gowers)

In a typically lucid and helpful page of notes for students, A beginner’s guide to countable ordinals, Tim Gowers explains how the countable ordinals can be “constructed rigorously in a way that ...

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### Any simplification of this inequality if it is true? :For $t\geq 1.22$: $|\zeta(0.5+it)|\leq 0.5 \frac{|\Gamma(0.5+it)|}{|\Gamma(-0.5+it)|}$

When I tried to give bounds for $\zeta(0.5+it)$ using some transformations over Gamma function using the function $f(x)=\exp(-n x)$ over the range $(0,+\infty)$ , For $ Re(s)=\frac12 $ and $t >0$ ...

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### Including alternative proofs

Suppose I have found two or even more proofs of a theorem and I prepare a paper on it. Is it considered to be a good practice to write down all of them? Or is it considered to be my job as an author ...

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### Understanding a part of Friedberg’s Priority Argument Paper

This is Richard Friedberg’s original 1957 proof of the Friedberg-Muchnik Theorem, the origin of the ground-breaking priority argument. (The result proven is that there are two recursively enumerable ...

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### Euler's rotation theorem revisited - Elementary geometric proofs

This is a very elementary topic but I thought it might be worth giving it a try here, I would be very interested in any comments - I originally posted it to Maths SE.
Euler's Rotation Theorem, proved ...

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### Proof of non-solvability of general equations of one unknown in elementary terms (finite terms)?

This question relates to the solvability of equations of one unknown in elementary terms (finite terms) according to Liouville and Ritt.
Elementary equations and closed-form solutions can be ...

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### Is there a slick proof of the fundamental theorem of dimension theory?

The fundamental theorem of dimension theory in commutative algebra states that given a module $M$ over a noetherian local ring $A$, we have $s(M)=\text{dim}(M)=d(M)$ (where $s(M)$ is the infimum of ...

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### A closed set which is the closure of its interior points

This is a cross-post to MSE to this question
https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/3267497/a-set-which-is-the-closure-of-its-interior-points
There is a related question in MO:
Closure of the ...

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### Severi Formula for Intersection Multiplicities

I say in advance that I am a novice in Intersection Theory, so forgive me if my question is trivial.
Let $X\subseteq\mathbb{P}^N$ be a smooth irreducible projective variety of dimension $n$ and $V, W\...

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### Hard implications that become easy with the right intermediate step

I’m interested in examples of theorems of the form “If $P$ then $Q$“ that were either unsolved or thought to require difficult arguments until someone came up with an $X$ for which “If $P$ then $X$” ...

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### Closed-form expression for certain product

$\mathrm G$ is Catalan's constant.
I recently found the product
$$
\alpha=\prod_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{E_n(\frac12)E_n(\frac7{12})E_n(\frac1{20})E_n(\frac{13}{20})}{E_n(\frac14)E_n(\frac1{12})E_n(\...

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### Deuring's result on elliptic curves. Any proof reference

I have heard of this result from Deuring 1941 paper: Given $\mathbb F_p$ ($p$ prime number) and any number $n$ in the Hasse interval $[p+1-2\sqrt p, p+1+2\sqrt p]$ there is an elliptic curve over $\...

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### Orthogonal Polynomials and Sturm Liouville operators

Classical Orthogonal polynomials (e.g., Hermite, Legendre) are eigenfunctions of Sturm Liouville operators. For example, define $L[u]=u''-xu'$, then the $n$-th order Hermite polynomial satisfies $...

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### Fibers and Push-forward

Let $f\colon X\longrightarrow Y$ be a surjective morphism of projective varieties. Consider a non-singular irreducible projective curve $T$ and surjective morphism $p_Y\colon Y\longrightarrow T$. Then ...

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### Why did Dedekind claim that $\sqrt{2}\cdot\sqrt{3}=\sqrt{6}$ hadn't been proved before?

In a letter to Lipschitz (1876) Dedekind doubts that $\sqrt{2}\cdot\sqrt{3}=\sqrt{6}$ had been proved before:
quoted from Leo Corry, Modern algebra, German original:
Why did Dedekind doubt that $(\...

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### Alternate descriptions of finite fields

The finite field of order $p^n$ is isomorphic to $(\mathbb Z/p \mathbb Z)[X]/(P)$, where $P$ is an irreducible polynomial in $(\mathbb Z/p \mathbb Z)[X]$ of degree $n$. This describes every finite ...

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### A direct proof that every $r$-colored complete graph on $n=(r+1)m-(r-1)$ vertices has a monochromatic matching of size $m$?

Cockayne and Lorimer ("The Ramsey number for stripes" 1975) prove that in every $r$-colored complete graph on $n=\sum_{i=1}^rm_i+m_1-(r-1)$ vertices, where $m_1\geq \dots\geq m_r\geq 1$, has a ...

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### If $M \otimes -$ is continuous, why is $M$ f.g. projective? Alternative proof

Let $R$ be a commutative ring and $M$ be some $R$-module such that $M \otimes -$ is continuous (i.e. preserves all limits). Then one can show that $M$ is f.g. projective.
One way to prove this is to ...

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### What was Smith's proof of Smith's theorem on Hamilton cycles in cubic graphs?

In a short 1946 paper "On Hamiltonian Circuits", Tutte proved the famous result that an edge in a cubic graph lies in an even number of Hamilton circuits.
He attributed the result to his friend CAB ...

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### Simple proof for Riemann/Hurwitz ζ functional equation

For the purpose of formalisation, I am looking for a simple proof of the function equation of the Riemann ζ function or the generalisation thereof, the Hurwitz's formula for the Hurwitz ζ function.
...

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### How can i justify this multinomial coefficient identity? [closed]

$$\sum_{ k\ge 1 } \sum_{ (s_1,...,s_k) } \binom h{ s_1 ,..., s_k }=\binom{m-1}{h-1}$$
where the second summation is taken over all choices of the numbers
$${ s }_{ 1 },...,{ s }_{ k-1 }\ge 0,\quad {s ...

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### Examples of advance via good definitions

In my research I came across a case where I could derive a known theorem with rather straightforward way by choosing "non-standard" definitions using my knowledge from a related field. This particular ...

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### Where to publish a new proof of an old theorem?

A few months ago I came up with a proof for an old theorem. After being excited for a moment, I then tried to find my proof in the literature. Since I did not find it, then I started to wonder if it ...

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### On Selberg's Proof of the Selberg Integral Formula

I'm attempting to read through Mehta's write-up of Selberg's proof of the formula for the Selberg integral formula given below:
$$
\begin{align}
\operatorname{S}_n(\alpha,\ \beta,\ \gamma) & = \...

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### Colimits of algebras of an endofunctor

I try to understand a proof in Adamek-Rosicky's book "Locally presentable and accessible categories", Cambridge University Press 1994. In Corollary 2.75 (p. 121) it is proven that the category $\...

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### Is Cauchy induction used for proofs other than for AM–GM?

The proof by Cauchy induction of the arithmetic/geometric-mean inequality is well known. I am looking for a further theorem whose proof is much neater by this method than otherwise.

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### Is there a proof (maybe formulated by Feferman) which says that a proof about the (in)consistency of ZFC is unachievable? [closed]

Is there a proof (maybe formulated by Feferman) which says that a proof about the (in)consistency of ZFC is unachievable?
A professor said it to me a long time ago, but I don't have any references.
...

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### Link between the hairy ball theorem and the fundamental theorem of algebra

I read in the book "Concepts of modern mathematics" by Ian Stewart that it was possible to proof the fundamental theorem of algebra using the hairy ball theorem (complete reference to the page is in ...

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### Simplicity of alternating group $A_n$

I am teaching an introductory group theory course, and it has come to the inevitable proof that $A_n$ is simple for $n\geq 5$. Now, there seem to be a number of proofs that I can find – one the "...

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### Evaluating an integral using real methods

This is a bit of recreational integration. The following, rather attractive integral is quite straightforward via residues:
$$\int_0^1 x^{-x}(1-x)^{x-1}\sin \pi x\,\mathrm{d}x=\frac{\pi}{e}$$
...

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### Another proof of the comparison principle for PDEs by the theory of viscosity solutions

In my research I study (fully) nonlinear PDEs with fractional derivatives. For an analysis of these, I use the theory of viscosity solutions.
So I am now at the end of my tether becasuse I can not ...

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### Undecidability of the existential theory

Do you know if I can find the proof that the existential theory of $\mathbb{Z}$ with the structure of addition , divisibility and the relation $(\exists s \in \mathbb{Z})m=np^s$ is undecidable, ...

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### Is there a fixed integer $x>1$ satisfing ${\sigma}^{k}(x)\equiv 0\pmod{x}$ for all positive integers $k$?

This question related to this question from SE. I'm interested to know if there exists an integer $x>1$ that satisfies $${\sigma}^{k}(x)\equiv 0\pmod{x}$$
for all positive integers $k$.
Note. $\...