# Questions tagged [alternative-proof]

Looking for a proof different from the standard proof(s) of a result

101
questions

2
votes

1
answer

138
views

### First known proof of the $2 \cdot n-2$ Theorem for the planar generalization of the Nine dots problem

Reading the Wikipedia page about the well-know Nine dots puzzle, I have just seen that the planar generalization of this problem would have been proven in 1956 (see Wikipedia: Nine dots puzzle), while ...

3
votes

1
answer

157
views

### Question regarding proof of Littlewood-Paley

I posted this question on Math.SE where I unfortunately received no answers even after a bounty. As such, I am putting it here, in hopes to receive a response.
For the proof of Theorem 6.1.6 in ...

1
vote

1
answer

207
views

### Proof of the Dunford-Pettis theorem in the context of probability spaces

I'd like to know if there's a proof of the Dunford-Pettis theorem without using relatively advanced theorems of functional analysis such as Eberlein–Smulian Theorem. Since I'm only interested in ...

1
vote

1
answer

222
views

### Conceptual explanation for extra/missing $p$ solutions to $x^2+y^2=a \pmod p$ at $a=0$

Throughout, $p$ will denote a prime integer, and $k$ an arbitrary integer.
I have worked through V. Lebesgue's proof of quadratic reciprocity outlined by Keith Conrad in this MO thread, and I feel ...

3
votes

0
answers

191
views

### Hodge symmetry without $\mathbb{C}$ [duplicate]

If $k$ is a field of characteristic zero and $X$ is a smooth irreducible projective variety over $k$, then $X$ satisfy Hodge symmetry, meaning that
$$\dim H^p(X, \Omega_{X/k}^q) = \dim H^q(X, \Omega_{...

3
votes

3
answers

475
views

### Solving interval problems without outer measure

Is it possible to solve the following two problems on intervals using elementary methods, without using the outer measure ?
Problem 1
If $(I_n)$ is a disjoint sequence of subintervals of interval $I$ ...

-3
votes

1
answer

584
views

### Analysis I, simpler proof of Tao's construction of the integers [closed]

In chapter 4 of Analysis I by Terence Tao, we have the following note about the set theoretic construction of the integers:
In the language of set theory, what we are doing here is starting with the ...

12
votes

0
answers

448
views

### Proofs of Serre's theorem on simply-connected finite CW complexes

A famous result due to Serre states that any simply-connected finite CW complex with non-trivial $\mathbb{Z}_2$ homology has infinitely many non-zero homotopy groups. (In fact, Serre proves more than ...

8
votes

1
answer

665
views

### Measure without measurable sets

This question is a little on the softer and speculative side, so bear with me.
Usually a measurable space is $(\Omega, \Sigma)$, a set $\Omega$ and sigma algebra $\Sigma$ of subsets. A measurable ...

4
votes

1
answer

510
views

### Are the irrotational and solenoidal parts of a smooth vector field linearly independent?

Let $\textbf{F}\in \mathbb{R}^3$ be a smooth vector field for all space. It is well known using Helmholtz decomposition that we can decompose $\textbf{F}$ into two vector fields in $V$: $$\textbf{F} = ...

-1
votes

1
answer

113
views

### Companion matrices must have geometric multiplicity one, linear recurrence sequence view [closed]

I posted this question on math stackexchange weeks ago, and it have not receive an answer yet after a bounty offer...
I've been recently playing around with the linear recurrence sequences. Consider ...

27
votes

1
answer

2k
views

### A simple proof of the fundamental theorem of Galois theory

Update. It's now on the arXiv.
Some time ago I found my "own" proof of the fundamental theorem of Galois theory. You can find a pdf with the proof (link removed, see arXiv). It is quite ...

3
votes

0
answers

103
views

### Examples of "proof by generalising" [duplicate]

In a previous post I asked (Which theorems have Pythagoras' Theorem as a special case?).
Are there any compelling examples where it is significantly "easier"/"simpler" to prove ...

0
votes

1
answer

1k
views

### Alternative proofs of Euclid-Euler theorem

What are some alternative methods of proof for the necessity direction of the above theorem, ie $n$ an even perfect number $\Rightarrow n$ is of form $2^{a-1} (2^a - 1)$ where $2^a - 1$ is a Mersenne ...

9
votes

1
answer

670
views

### Has Goedel's Second Incompleteness Theorem been proven using Lawvere's Fixed Point Theorem?

This question is a request for assistance in surveying the existing literature on applications of Lawvere's Fixed Point Theorem (LFPT).
Yanofsky [0] has demonstrated several applications of LFPT to ...

1
vote

1
answer

244
views

### Why can any open subset $U$ of $\mathbb{Q}^\infty$ be written as disjoint union of basic clopen subsets?

I am reading Engelen´s paper and have trouble with this proof of Lemma 2.1 (a) (link is below).
It is easily seen that any non-empty open subspace $U$ of $\mathbb{Q}^\infty$ can be
written as an ...

34
votes

17
answers

5k
views

### Which theorems have Pythagoras' Theorem as a special case?

Loomis famously wrote hundreds of proofs of Pythagoras' Theorem (reference below), but these are all basically proofs "from below". Today on Twitter @panlepan mentioned Carnot's theorem ...

0
votes

0
answers

89
views

### Verification of a certain computation of VC dimension

Disclaimer: I'm not very familiar with the concept of VC dimensions and how to manipulate such objects. I'd be grateful if expects on the subject (learning theory, probability), could kindly proof ...

9
votes

1
answer

291
views

### Quadrisecants of knots

Recall that a quadrisecant of a knot is a line that passes thru four points on it.
If the points appear on the line in the order $a$, $b$, $c$, $d$ and on the knot in the order $a$, $c$, $b$, $d$, ...

15
votes

4
answers

3k
views

### Collecting alternative proofs for the oddity of Catalan

Consider the ubiquitous Catalan numbers $C_n=\frac1{n+1}\binom{2n}n$. In this post, I am looking for your help in my attempt to collect alternative proofs of the following fact: $C_n$ is odd if and ...

40
votes

11
answers

4k
views

### Results with short, advanced proofs or long, elementary proofs

Recently I was preparing an undergrad-level proof of (a form of) the Jordan Curve Theorem, and I had forgotten just how much work is involved in it. The proof stored my head was just using Alexander ...

2
votes

1
answer

113
views

### A question on the applicability Chebyshev inequality for sequence of random quantities

Let $(X_n)_n$ and $(Y_n)_n$ be two mutually independent sequences of random tensors (i.e scalars, vectors, matrices, etc.) defined on the same probability space, and let $f$ be a measurable function.
...

4
votes

1
answer

321
views

### Which step is wrong in the following simplification of Silver's forcing?

Theorem: If M is a countable transitive model of ZFC, and $\kappa$ is a supercompact cardinal in M, and $2^\kappa=\kappa^+$. Then there exists a forcing extension M[G] such that $\kappa$ becomes a ...

7
votes

1
answer

1k
views

### An alternate definition of Sobolev space $W^{1,p}(\Omega)$ when $1<p\leq\infty$ and consequences

Suppose that we define the Sobolev space $W^{1,p}(\Omega)$ with $1<p\leq \infty$, where $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^d$ ($d\geq 1$) is an open set (not necessarily bounded), in the following manner.
...

1
vote

1
answer

143
views

### Generalizing Bottema's theorem

Can you provide another proof for the claim given below?
Claim. In any triangle $\triangle ABC$ construct triangles $\triangle ACE$ and $\triangle BDC$ on sides $AC$ and $BC$ such that $\frac{AE}{AC}...

55
votes

9
answers

6k
views

### Proofs of theorems that proved more or deeper results than what was first supposed or stated as the corresponding theorem

Recently, I figured out that a colleague of mine has had published during recent years a proof of a theorem in which he was actually proving a deeper result which we both thought to be still open. ...

25
votes

3
answers

2k
views

### Slick proof of Stirling's Formula?

In Upper Limit on the Central Binomial Coefficient, Noam Elkies and David Speyer have given a nice proof that the central binomial coefficient $\binom{2n}{n} \sim \frac{4^n}{\sqrt{\pi n}}$. This can ...

16
votes

6
answers

2k
views

### Alternative proofs sought after for a certain identity

Here is an identity for which I outlined two different arguments. I'm collecting further alternative proofs, so
QUESTION. can you provide another verification for the problem below?
Problem. Prove ...

17
votes

0
answers

713
views

### Picture of Lambert's proof that $\pi$ is irrational?

With a suitably generous notion of "picture proof" or "proof without words" or "geometric proof," there do exist such proofs of the irrationality of square roots and even ...

3
votes

1
answer

400
views

### Theorems with many proofs

Q. What are the characteristics of theorems that seem to invite (or possess) several or even many distinct proofs?
What I have in mind are examples such as these:
Proofs that there are infinitely ...

4
votes

2
answers

802
views

### Katz's proof of Cartier's (descent) theorem

I am trying to understand the proof of Cartier’s theorem on pages 370-371 (pages 17-18 of the PDF file) of Katz’s “Nilpotent connections and the monodromy theorem: applications of a result of ...

1
vote

0
answers

82
views

### What are some interesting applications of the Archimedean Property?

So a wile back I managed to prove the The Remainder Theorem starting from the Archimidean property and since then I've thought what could be other results which can be proved using it. But I haven't ...

17
votes

1
answer

2k
views

### Topological proof that a Vitali set is not Borel

This question is purely out of curiosity, and well outside my field — apologies if there is a trivial answer. Recall that a Vitali set is a subset $V$ of $[0,1]$ such that the restriction to $V$ of ...

24
votes

5
answers

3k
views

### What's the use of countable ordinals? (prompted by a remark of Tim Gowers)

In a typically lucid and helpful page of notes for students, A beginner’s guide to countable ordinals, Tim Gowers explains how the countable ordinals can be “constructed rigorously in a way that ...

-1
votes

1
answer

175
views

### Any simplification of this inequality if it is true? :For $t\geq 1.22$: $|\zeta(0.5+it)|\leq 0.5 \frac{|\Gamma(0.5+it)|}{|\Gamma(-0.5+it)|}$

When I tried to give bounds for $\zeta(0.5+it)$ using some transformations over Gamma function using the function $f(x)=\exp(-n x)$ over the range $(0,+\infty)$ , For $ Re(s)=\frac12 $ and $t >0$ ...

11
votes

1
answer

564
views

### Including alternative proofs

Suppose I have found two or even more proofs of a theorem and I prepare a paper on it. Is it considered to be a good practice to write down all of the proofs? Or is it considered to be my job as an ...

3
votes

0
answers

344
views

### Understanding a part of Friedberg’s Priority Argument Paper

This is Richard Friedberg’s original 1957 proof of the Friedberg-Muchnik Theorem, the origin of the ground-breaking priority argument. (The result proven is that there are two recursively enumerable ...

6
votes

3
answers

2k
views

### Euler's rotation theorem revisited - Elementary geometric proofs

This is a very elementary topic but I thought it might be worth giving it a try here, I would be very interested in any comments - I originally posted it to Maths SE.
Euler's Rotation Theorem, proved ...

2
votes

0
answers

182
views

### Proof of non-solvability of general equations of one unknown in elementary terms (finite terms)?

This question relates to the solvability of equations of one unknown in elementary terms (finite terms) according to Liouville and Ritt.
Elementary equations and closed-form solutions can be ...

13
votes

0
answers

1k
views

### Is there a slick proof of the fundamental theorem of dimension theory?

The fundamental theorem of dimension theory in commutative algebra states that given a module $M$ over a noetherian local ring $A$, we have $s(M)=\text{dim}(M)=d(M)$ (where $s(M)$ is the infimum of ...

4
votes

0
answers

1k
views

### A closed set which is the closure of its interior points

This is a cross-post to MSE to this question
https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/3267497/a-set-which-is-the-closure-of-its-interior-points
There is a related question in MO:
Closure of the ...

6
votes

1
answer

319
views

### Severi Formula for Intersection Multiplicities

I say in advance that I am a novice in Intersection Theory, so forgive me if my question is trivial.
Let $X\subseteq\mathbb{P}^N$ be a smooth irreducible projective variety of dimension $n$ and $V, W\...

4
votes

2
answers

611
views

### Hard implications that become easy with the right intermediate step

I’m interested in examples of theorems of the form “If $P$ then $Q$“ that were either unsolved or thought to require difficult arguments until someone came up with an $X$ for which “If $P$ then $X$” ...

17
votes

5
answers

1k
views

### Closed-form expression for certain product

$\mathrm G$ is Catalan's constant.
I recently found the product
$$
\alpha=\prod_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{E_n(\frac12)E_n(\frac7{12})E_n(\frac1{20})E_n(\frac{13}{20})}{E_n(\frac14)E_n(\frac1{12})E_n(\...

11
votes

2
answers

1k
views

### Deuring's result on elliptic curves. Any proof reference

I have heard of this result from Deuring 1941 paper: Given $\mathbb F_p$ ($p$ prime number) and any number $n$ in the Hasse interval $[p+1-2\sqrt p, p+1+2\sqrt p]$ there is an elliptic curve over $\...

4
votes

2
answers

583
views

### Orthogonal Polynomials and Sturm Liouville operators

Classical Orthogonal polynomials (e.g., Hermite, Legendre) are eigenfunctions of Sturm Liouville operators. For example, define $L[u]=u''-xu'$, then the $n$-th order Hermite polynomial satisfies $...

0
votes

1
answer

408
views

### Fibers and Push-forward

Let $f\colon X\longrightarrow Y$ be a surjective morphism of projective varieties. Consider a non-singular irreducible projective curve $T$ and surjective morphism $p_Y\colon Y\longrightarrow T$. Then ...

29
votes

2
answers

2k
views

### Why did Dedekind claim that $\sqrt{2}\cdot\sqrt{3}=\sqrt{6}$ hadn't been proved before?

In a letter to Lipschitz (1876) Dedekind doubts that $\sqrt{2}\cdot\sqrt{3}=\sqrt{6}$ had been proved before:
quoted from Leo Corry, Modern algebra, German original:
Why did Dedekind doubt that $(\...

3
votes

2
answers

354
views

### Alternate descriptions of finite fields

The finite field of order $p^n$ is isomorphic to $(\mathbb Z/p \mathbb Z)[X]/(P)$, where $P$ is an irreducible polynomial in $(\mathbb Z/p \mathbb Z)[X]$ of degree $n$. This describes every finite ...

3
votes

2
answers

330
views

### A direct proof that every $r$-colored complete graph on $n=(r+1)m-(r-1)$ vertices has a monochromatic matching of size $m$?

Cockayne and Lorimer ("The Ramsey number for stripes" 1975) prove that in every $r$-colored complete graph on $n=\sum_{i=1}^rm_i+m_1-(r-1)$ vertices, where $m_1\geq \dots\geq m_r\geq 1$, has a ...