Questions tagged [orthogonal-matrices]

An orthogonal matrix is an invertible real matrix whose inverse is equal to its transpose.

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2
votes
1answer
121 views

Subgroups of $\mathrm{SO}(A_0, \mathbb{F}_p)$

Let $n \geq 3$. Let $A_0$ denote the $n \times n$ symmetric matrix with $1$'s on the antidiagonal and $0$'s everywhere else. We can define the associated special orthogonal group $$ \mathrm{SO}(A_0, \...
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0answers
87 views

Maximize the product of Hadamard matrix and a vector

Let $X$ be an $n \times n$ Hadamard matrix (i.e. entries are in $\{-1,1\}$ and rows are orthogonal). For my application, we can assume $n=2^k$. Given a vector $\bf{w} \in R^n$, I want to find the $X^*$...
7
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2answers
187 views

Proving a lemma for a decomposition of orthogonal matrices

Setting Consider two independent orthogonal matrices, which are decomposed into 4 blocks: \begin{align} Q_{1} = \left[\begin{array}{cc} A_{1} & B_{1}\\ C_{1} & D_{1} \end{array}\right] , \,Q_{...
3
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0answers
48 views

Matrix equation and spherical harmonics

I have a set of functions expanded in a finite number of spherical harmonics (up to degree $L$), $$ \eta_k^n(\theta,\phi) = \sum_{l=0}^L \sum_{m=-l}^l d_{kl}^{nm} Y_l^m(\theta,\phi) $$ Similar to the ...
3
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1answer
124 views

The invertible matrices $S$ that satisfy $A=SDS^T$

Any real symmetric matrix $A$ can be written as $A=SDS^T$ for some diagonal matrix $D$ and invertible matrix $S$. Let's fix $D$ to be the (diagonal) inertia matrix of $A$, which has an entry $1, -1, 0$...
3
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1answer
158 views

Is the Cayley distance on permutation (matrices) equivalent to the Riemannian metric on $O(n)$?

Denote by $d_C(\sigma,\mu)$ the minimal number of transpositions needed to go from a permutation $\sigma$ to a permutation $\mu$. E.g. if $d_C(\sigma,\mu)=0$, then $\sigma=\mu$, if $d_C(\sigma,\mu)=1$,...
2
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1answer
124 views

Matrix derivative w.r.t. a general inverse form: $(A^TA)^{-1/2}D(A^TA)^{-1/2}$

I want to find derivative of matrix $(A^TA)^{-1/2}D(A^TA)^{-1/2}$ w.r.t. $A_{ij}$ where D is a diagonal matrix. Alternatively, it is okay too to have $$\frac{\partial}{\partial A_{ij}} a^T(A^TA)^{-1/2}...
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0answers
45 views

Minimize smooth function $(x,y) \to f(x,y)$ subject to $x \perp y$

Let $V$ be a finite-dimensional real vector space (e.g space of $m \times n$ real matrices equiped with Hilbert-Schmidt inner product $(A,B) \to \mathrm{tr}(AB^\top)$, and let $f:V^2 \to \mathbb R$, $(...
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0answers
19 views

Saddle Points and Local Maxima on an Orthogonal Tensor Maximizing function

For orthonormal vectors $v_i$ consider the following orthogonal tensor: $$T = \sum_{i=1}^n v_i \oplus v_i \oplus v_i \oplus v_i $$ and the maximizing function: $$T(x, x, x, x) - ||x||^6 = \sum_{i=1}^n ...
12
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3answers
286 views

Probability of $\ell_1$-norms of vertices of the rotated Hamming cube

Let $O$ be a $d$-dimensional rotation matrix (i.e., it has real entries and $OO^T = O^TO = I$). Let $\mathbf{x}$ be a uniformly random bitstring of length $d$, i.e., $\mathbf{x} \sim U(\{0,1\}^d)$. In ...
2
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1answer
154 views

The only rotation fields satisfying this PDE are constant

$\newcommand{\div}{\operatorname{div}}$$\newcommand{\SO}{\operatorname{SO(2)}}$$\newcommand{\R}{\operatorname{\mathbb{R}}}$$\newcommand{\bdx}{\partial_x}$$\newcommand{\bdy}{\partial_y}$$\newcommand{\...
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0answers
103 views

Principal orbit and the generic stabilizer of SO(2n)xSO(2n)

Let $SO(2n)$ denote the special orthogonal group of $2n\times 2n$ matrices over the complex numbers. Consider the action of $SO(2n)\times SO(2n)$ on the set of $2n\times 2n$ matrices : $ADB^{T}$, ...
2
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1answer
439 views

Number of 5x5 matrix permutations without repetitions in rows or columns

Context In the boardgame Azul, your goal is to complete as much as possible of a $5\times5$ board by placing 25 tiles of 5 different colours (5 tiles of each colour) so that no colour appears twice in ...
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0answers
1k views

Can an orthogonal matrix move monotonically toward a signed permutation matrix?

The question is motivated by this question on Mathematics SE. Let $A \in O(n)$ be an orthogonal matrix that is not a signed permutation matrix, and let $P$ be the nearest signed permutation matrix to $...
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5answers
535 views

Solution for $Xa + X^Tb = c$ where $X^TX = I$? [closed]

There are three known $n\times1$ vectors: $a, b, c$, along with one unknown $n\times n$ matrix: $X$. I am only interested in the $n={2,3}$ cases. $X$ is $2\times 2$ or $3\times 3$ rotation matrix ...
0
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1answer
78 views

Maximize function on rotation matrices [closed]

Let $A$ be a fixed 3-by-3 matrix and $Q$ be a rotation matrix whose yaw, pitch, and roll angles are $\phi\in[0,\pi]$, $\theta\in[0,\pi]$, and $\psi\in[0,\pi/2]$, respectively: \begin{equation} Q= \...
2
votes
1answer
81 views

Characterization of extrinsic distance prevserving embedding (see the definition given!) from low dimensional Euclidean spaces to high dimensions

P.S. I asked the question on MSE more than a week ago, but didn't get any desired answer, so asking here. Let $m < n \in \mathbb{N}$. Let us equip $\mathbb{R}^m, \mathbb{R}^n $ with their ...
3
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1answer
375 views

LU decomposition for orthogonal or unitary matrices?

Is there any references on LU decomposition for orthogonal or unitary matrices? It seems to me that the diagonal entries of $U$ has some nice structure regarding to the Euler angles of the original ...
24
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2answers
754 views

Simple conjecture about rational orthogonal matrices and lattices

The following conjecture grew out of thinking about topological phases of matter. Despite being very elementary to state, it has evaded proof both by me and by everyone I've asked so far. The ...
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0answers
373 views

How to project a matrix to a unitary matrix?

Given a nonzero vector $v \in \mathbb{R}^n$, we all know that it's projection onto the unit $\ell_2$ ball is just $\frac{v}{\|v\|}$. Let $X$ be some nonzero $n \times n$ matrix. What is the projection ...
1
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1answer
242 views

Minimize matrix norm over the unitary matrices

Suppose $C_1$ and $C_2$ are some fixed $n \times n$ matrices. Define the norm $\| M \| = \sum_{i = 1}^n \max_j |M_{ij}|$. What is $\min_U \|C_1 U C_2 \|$? Here $U$ ranges over the $n \times n$ unitary ...
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0answers
29 views

Condition on the point cloud matrix making the points "generic" in the uniform sense

For a matrix $X\in\mathbb{R}^{d\times n}$, what condition can I impose on $X$ to make the collection of its columns generic in the sense that they look like the result of uniformly sampling a convex ...
5
votes
1answer
145 views

How can I solve an orthogonal-constrained Sylvester equation?

I am currently facing a Sylvester equation $AX+XB = C$ where $A$, $B$, $C$ are all symmetric and a special constraint here is that $X$ should be orthogonal. The Sylvester equation itself may not ...
4
votes
1answer
167 views

Parametrizing quotient of matrices by the orthogonal group

I am trying to parametrize the collection of $d\times m$ real matrices quotient $d\times d$ orthogonal matrices. Formally, define $\sim$ on $\mathbb{R}^{d\times m}$ by $X\sim Y$ if there exists an ...
6
votes
1answer
291 views

Can we choose smoothly the singular vectors of a matrix?

$\newcommand{\GLm}{\text{GL}_n^-}$Let $A$ be a real $n \times n$ matrix with non-positive determinant. Suppose that the smallest singular value of $A$ is strictly smaller than all the others (it has ...
3
votes
1answer
250 views

Upper bound on the sectional curvature of the orthogonal group

Consider the orthogonal group $O(n)$ as a Riemannian manifold endowed with the usual (bi-invariant) metric $\langle P, Q \rangle_A = \textrm{Tr}\ P^\top Q$ for tangent vectors $P, Q$, with $$T_A O(n) =...
4
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1answer
160 views

Distribution of Submatrix of Orthogonal Matrix

Let $O$ be a matrix sampled from the Haar measure on $O(n)$. Let $X$ be the upperleft $k\times k$ submatrix of $O$. In a physics research project I am interested in the distribution of $X$, say $\rho(...
3
votes
1answer
347 views

Bounding the Frobenius norm of orthogonalised matrices

Context: I am trying to show the convergence of an optimization method which includes orthogonalization in the update step. Problem: Let's say I have real matrices $A, B \in \mathcal{R}^{n xm}$. If ...
6
votes
3answers
602 views

Real orthogonal and sign [closed]

I came across the following conjecture, reading a recent paper in the Monthly, an orthogonal matrix of order $n\neq 0 \pmod 4$ has a nonnegative (up to a scalar) row vector. It should be straight in ...
2
votes
2answers
305 views

Parametrising a sparse orthogonal matrix

I need to find a way to parametrise a matrix that is both sparse (to some degree) and orthogonal, i.e., I am looking for a parametrisation that describes $A \in \mathbb{R}^{n\times m}$ such that $AA^𝑇...
4
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0answers
440 views

Orthogonal similarity of adjacency matrices of graphs which are cospectral and have a common equitable partition

Let $G$ and $H$ be two undirected graphs of the same order (i.e., they have the same number of vertices). Denote by $A_G$ and $A_H$ the corresponding adjacency matrices. Furthermore, denote by $\bar G$...
3
votes
1answer
259 views

Generalization of Jordan's Lemma $A^2=B^2=I$ can be 2-block diagonalized

One of Jordan's lemma states that if two orthogonal matrices $A,B$ are such that $A^2=B^2=I$, then they can be co-diagonalized by block of size 2. (the proof is easy, consider $x$ an eigenvector of $A+...
11
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1answer
488 views

Is there a "formula" for the point in $\text{SO}(n)$ which is closest to a given matrix?

$\newcommand{\Sig}{\Sigma}$ $\newcommand{\dist}{\operatorname{dist}}$ $\newcommand{\distSO}[1]{\dist(#1,\SO)}$ $\newcommand{\distO}[1]{\text{dist}(#1,\On)}$ $\newcommand{\tildistSO}[1]{\operatorname{...
2
votes
0answers
120 views

Infinitesimal matrix rotation towards orthogonality

TLDR; I am trying to prove the existence of an infinitesimal rotation which always moves a matrix "closer" to being orthogonal. Setting In this setting, we have a matrix $W \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times ...
8
votes
1answer
407 views

A question about special linear group

Is there any way to find all matrices $G \in SL(n,\mathbb Z)$ such that there exists a matrix $A \in GL(n,\mathbb R)$ satisfying $$ AGA^{-1} \in SO(n,\mathbb R)? $$
2
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0answers
79 views

Orthogonal Matrices and Cosets (translates) of Linear Subspaces

Let $M_n(F_2)$ be the vector space of all $n\times n$ matrices over the finite field $F_2$. Let $O(n)\subset M_n(F_2)$ be the set of all orthogonal matrices and $W\subseteq O(n)$ be an affine subspace ...
58
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4answers
4k views

When can one continuously prescribe a unit vector orthogonal to a given orthonormal system?

Let $1 \leq k < n$ be natural numbers. Given orthonormal vectors $u_1,\dots,u_k$ in ${\bf R}^n$, one can always find an additional unit vector $v \in {\bf R}^n$ that is orthogonal to the preceding ...
5
votes
1answer
405 views

Principal curvatures of $\mathbb{R}^{n^2}$-embedded SO(n)

It's well known that the sectional curvatures of a Lie group, endowed with a left-invariant metric have a nice closed-form formula $k(X,Y) = \frac{1}{4} \|[X Y]\|^2$. I'm wondering if the following (...
15
votes
7answers
1k views

Is the linear span of special orthogonal matrices equal to the whole space of $N\times N$ matrices?

(Disclaimer : I know very well that $SO(N)$ has a Lie algebra of dimension $N(N-1)/2$ etc. This absolutely not the point of my question.) To make my problem more understandable, I start with the ...
2
votes
3answers
385 views

Inverse of matrix $D + ADA^T$

Let $D$ be an arbitrary diagonal matrix and let $A$ be an orthogonal matrix ($A'A = AA' = I$). How to compute the following matrix inverse efficiently? $$(D + ADA^T)^{-1}$$ Hints or references are ...
4
votes
2answers
391 views

Optimization problem on trace with both the positive semi definite and non positive semidefinite matrix

Given two $N \times N$ symmetric matrices $A, B$, where $A$ is positive semidefinite while $B$ is not positive semidefinite. I am interested in solving unitary constrained trace maximization problem: ...
2
votes
0answers
76 views

Characterizing a subclass of row-orthogonal matrices

Let $O\in\mathbb{R}^{n\times m}$, $m>n$, be such that $O O^\top =I_n$. (Here $\bullet^\top$ denotes transposition and $I_n$ the $n\times n$ identity matrix.) Consider the following partition of $O$,...
5
votes
1answer
741 views

Positive definite matrices diagonalised by orthogonal matrices that are also involutions

Let $A$ be a positive definite matrix. Then, $A$ is diagonalized by an orthogonal matrix $P$. I want to know when this matrix is also an involution, i.e., $P^2 = I$. If there is any ...
2
votes
1answer
147 views

Finding a similarities and differences of sent of matrices

Suppose we have a set of rank deficient covariance matrices. How can I know the similarities and differences between those set of matrices? Regards,
1
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0answers
195 views

A question about permutation matrices

This question is trying to abstract out in a self-contained way the point that is probably being made in page 6 of this paper, https://arxiv.org/pdf/1604.03544.pdf and why Theorem 4.1 there works. ...
10
votes
2answers
1k views

Is there a standard name for (non-square) matrices with orthonormal columns?

One encounters often in numerics non-square matrices with orthonormal columns, i.e., $U\in\mathbb{R}^{m\times n}$, with $m > n$, such that $U^TU=I$ (but, clearly, $UU^T \neq I$). Is there a name ...
3
votes
1answer
245 views

What's the best orthonormal matrix to align two matrices in the operator norm sense?

Let $A,B \in R^{n\times r}$ with $A^\top B $ invertible. It is known that \begin{equation} UV^\top :=\arg\min_{R \in \mathcal{O}^{r\times r}}\|AR-B\|_\mathrm{F}, \end{equation} where $USV^\top$ is ...
2
votes
1answer
908 views

maximum of orthogonal vectors

$$v_1=(x_1,x_2,x_3\cdot\cdot\cdot,x_n)$$is such a vector. By changing its signs and positions of each component $x_i$, we can get different vectors. When n is odd, it's impossible for any of ...
6
votes
1answer
174 views

What is the term for this type of matrix?

Is there an established term for the following type of square matrices? $\begin{pmatrix} c & c & c & c & \cdots & c & c \\ c & a & b & b & \cdots & b & ...
2
votes
1answer
325 views

What is the term for a matrix whose columns are orthogonal?

What is the term for a matrix whose columns are mutually orthogonal, but not necessarily othonormal? I can't name such a matrix "orthogonal" because that would imply that all columns are unit vectors....